Skeletal Biomechanics

Bones & Joints of the Shoulder
“The bones of the shoulder consist of the humerus (the upper arm bone), the scapula (the shoulder blade), and the clavicle (the collar bone).

The clavicle is the only bony attachment between the trunk and the upper limb. It forms the front portion of the shoulder girdle and is palpable along its entire length with a gentle S-shaped contour.The clavicle articulates at one end with the sternum (chest bone) and with the acromion of the scapula at the other. This articulation between the acromial end of the clavicle and the acromion of the scapula forms the roof of the shoulder.

The scapula is a large, flat triangular bone with three processes called the acromion, spine and coracoid process . It forms the back portion of the shoulder girdle. The spine (which is located at the back of the scapula) and the acromion can be readily palpated on a patient. ..”

Shoulder Joint – Human Anatomy | Kenhub

Shoulder Joint – Glenohumeral Joint – 3D Anatomy Tutorial

Glenohumeral Joint Abduction, Adduction, and Rotator Cuff

Scapula (“Shoulder Blade”)


Movements of the Scapula

Medical Gross Anatomy Movements of the Upper Limb – University of ..

Muscles That Move the Scapulae
Mollie Martin // Exercise Science // 5/2/2017
“The scapula, commonly referred to as the shoulder blade, is the bone that sits above the rib cage in the upper back. It creates the shoulder joint where it meets with the head of the humerus—the bone of the upper arm.

The scapulae can move in six directions and each movement is produced by specific, primary muscles…”

Shoulder Muscles Anatomy, Diagram & Function | Body Maps

Shoulder Muscles: Anatomy, Support & Movement
Chapter 12 / Lesson 7 Transcript
*re (e.g. rewind), serratus (knife-like)-supports, etc..

Muscles That Move the Scapulae
Mollie Martin by Mollie Martin
on May 02, 2017
“…The scapula, commonly referred to as the shoulder blade, is the bone that sits above the rib cage in the upper back. It creates the shoulder joint where it meets with the head of the humerus—the bone of the upper arm.

The scapulae can move in six directions and each movement is produced by specific, primary muscles….”


*see Fitness: Physiology of Exercise

*see Fitness: Various kinds of Stretches

Shoulder Range of Motion Aka: Shoulder Range of Motion
Shoulder flexibility test
“..purpose: To test the flexibility of the shoulder joint, which is important for injury prevention and in particular is important in swimming, racket sports and throwing sports…”

1. Shoulder Flexion & Extension

ROM Testing for Shoulder Flexion and Extension – YouTube

MMT Shoulder flexion and extension – YouTube

Shoulder Injuries: Pain, Diagnosis & Exercise Rehabilitation By Mark Occhipinti, Ph.D. | Jan 10, 2017 8:00 AM | Rehabilitation,
“..Internal rotation – the arm rotates inward toward the midline of the body.
External rotation – the arm rotates outward, away from the midline of the body…”

Maximum Flexion External Rotation Test (CR) – YouTube

2. Internal & External Rotation of the Humerus at the Shoulder

ROM testing Shoulder Internal & External rotation – YouTube

3. Apley’s Scratch Test

Apley Scratch Test
“..Tests for limitations in motions of the upper extremity. Each motion is performed bilaterally to compare…”

Test shoulder mobility – Apley’s scratch test – YouTub

Movement screen Shoulder Pull stabilization screen – YouTube

How to Do a Shoulder Mobility Screen – YouTube


Scapulothoracic Stabilization Exercises – Watch This First! – YouTube
*”t”, “Y”, & “I”


Shoulder Inferior Capsule Stretch – YouTube

shoulder posterior capsule stretch – YouTube

Anterior Capsule Stretch.wmv – YouTube

Shoulder Exercise – Superior Capsule Stretch

Open vs. Closed Kinetic Chain Exercises for Rehab By Matthew Lane, DC, MS, CSCS, ART
“..A closed kinetic chain exercise can be defined as an exercise performed with the hand (for arm movement) or foot (for leg movement) in a fixed position. The hand/foot remains in constant contact with the surface, usually the ground or the base of a machine. These exercises are typically weight-bearing exercises whereby the patient utilizes their own body-weight and/or external weight.

Closed-chain exercises have been shown to require graded, coordinated and sequential muscle activation to govern joint movements; co-contraction muscle activation to govern stability; and emphasis on proprioceptive feedback to initiate and control the muscle activation sequence. Thus, from a functional prospective, they are more beneficial in the rehabilitative process than open-chain exercises.2 ..”

Muscle Actions and Open and Closed Kinetic Chain Movements …

Shoulder Packing – Scapular Retracting – YouTube

=>Internal & External Humeral Rotation

a. Supine Shoulder External Internal Rotation

b. Dumbbell Internal & External Shoulder Rotations – YouTube

=>Rotator Cuff (see pp. 294 ACE Fitness 5th Edition)

a. Rotator Cuff Exercises Assisted Elevation Supine Position

b. SaeboMAS Exercise – Supine Shoulder Horizontal Abduction and …

c. Get in Shape 3 : Horizontal Abduction Rotator Cuff Exercises – YouTube

Reverse Fly Supine 90 90

=>Prone Arms Lifts

a. Prone arm lifts 1 – YouTube

b. Shoulder prone Y arm lifts: An advanced shoulder … – YouTube

c. Prone W to Overhead Reach with a Lift Off – YouTube

d. 20 Posture Prone Single Arm Extension and Lift – YouTube

=>Closed Kinetic Chain Weight Shifts (see pp. 297)

Closed kinetic chain exercises quadruped – YouTube


Correct Cues for Scapular Motion By Megan Senger
“..However, for those with known shoulder-girdle imbalances, the “right” way to move will depend on the exercise objective and your level of expertise in assessing scapular function. For novices and those with known shoulder dysfunction derived from injury, chronic pain or prior medical treatment(s), you should clarify cues before movement begins, says Irv Rubenstein, Ph.D., an author, exercise physiologist and president of STEPS, Inc., a personal-training center in Nashville, Tenn…”

Common Shoulder Deviations

A Practical Guide to Shoulder Pain:
Learn How to Self-Diagnose and Treat Issues

What is Causing Your Shoulder Pain? Tests You Can Do Yourself.


1. Pinch Nerve

a. Causes
Pinched nerve causes
“.. typically caused when surrounding tissues are putting pressure on the nerve. These tissues could consist of surrounding bone, cartilage, muscle, tendons or any other tissues that are inflamed or that have otherwise invaded the nerve’s space. As a result, the nerve’s signals can be both interrupted and amplified, manifesting as tingling, numbness, muscle spasms or shooting pains that travel from the location of the pinched nerve to other areas of the body…”

b. Treatment

Treating a Pinched Nerve Naturally with Herbs – Herbal First Aid September 13, 2013 Sue Sierralupe Wellness
“..sure you have sufficient amounts of the following:

Vitamin B6
Vitamin B12

Remember the rules about ice and heat – Ice reduces inflammation, Heat loosens muscles. Some people find relief by switching between icing the injury and then applying a heating pad…”
7 Insane (But Effective) Ways to Treat a Pinched Nerve in Your Neck

Most Important Exercises to Help Pinched Nerve & Neck Pain.

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome – Everything You Need To Know … – YouTube

b. Treatment

Quick Relief for Thoracic Outlet Syndrome – YouTube

Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Stretches & Exercises – Ask … – YouTube

Common Causes Of Rotator Cuff Injury – YouTube

a. symptoms

Top 3 Signs Of A Rotator Cuff Tear

b. Treatment

Natural and Home Remedies for Rotator Cuff

Natural Healing for Rotator Cuff Injuries

*use a sling to “release tension” and strain from humerus joint, ginger, hot and ice cold treatment

How To Treat a Rotator Cuff Tear and Speed Recovery – YouTube

(2) Exercises

How to treat a shoulder rotator cuff tear at home | Orlando … – YouTube

How to fix rotator cuff injuries for good

Physical Therapist’s Guide to Acromioclavicular (AC) Joint Injuries
“..Acromioclavicular (AC) joint injury is a term used to describe an injury to the top of the shoulder, where the front of the shoulder blade (acromion) attaches to the collarbone (clavicle). It can be caused by a traumatic event, such as a fall directly on the outside of the shoulder, or by repetitive overuse. AC joint injuries are most common in individuals younger than 35 years of age, with males sustaining 5 times more traumatic AC joint injuries than females. Because younger athletes are most likely to participate in high-risk and collision activities, such as football, biking, snow sports, hockey, and rugby traumatic AC joint injuries occur most often in this population. AC joint injuries can be identified and effectively treated by a physical therapist, often avoiding the need for surgery…”

AC Separation
“.. is a very frequent injury among physically active people. In this injury the clavicle (collar bone) separates from the scapula (shoulder blade). It is commonly caused by a fall directly on the “point” of the shoulder or a direct blow received in a contact sport. Football players and cyclists who fall over the handlebars are often subject to AC separations…”
AC Joint Separation
‘…AC joint taping

An AC joint taping should be applied which fixes and supports the joint into the correct position to assist with healing. The joint may need taping for 2-3 weeks.

First apply two or three strips of 2.5cm zinc oxide tape over the top of the shoulder covering the AC joint. This will provide an anchor for the support strip to attach to. Next pass a support strip of tape from the front of the shoulder, down the side of the arm applying tension to the tape. Pass it under the elbow and back up to the top. This support strip will help pull the AC joint down. Secure the support strip with a piece elastic adhesive bandage getting the patient to tense the bicep muscle when it is applied to allow for muscle expansion. Finally trim the lower part of the support taping away to finish…”

Effective Self-Treatment for AC joint pain-Acromioclavicular … – YouTube

Common shoulder dislocation can heal just as well without surgery Date: October 22, 2015
“..For minor AC joint dislocations, surgeons often suggest patients wear a sling for a few weeks and undergo physiotherapy, rather than undergo surgery using a plate and screws…”

How to Treat a Separated Shoulder – YouTube

Sal: I had a grade 1 “shoulder separation” “closed” fracture diagnosed on November 14th (a week after my injury from “muscle” overuse-happened while doing pull-ups and various other shoulder usage workouts-did my weekly abs and tricep exercise routine)..

I’ve been doing various “natural treatments” and physical therapy. I was able to start benching for the 1st time yesterday (12.6.17). I used to bench 185lbs on my 3rd set (6 repetitions), but I started with only 55lbs and hope to slowly increase it progressively.

Shoulder Separation Exercises

Top Three Exercises for a Dislocated Shoulder – YouTube

Sal: I had a shoulder “dislocation” while doing pull-ups last week (11.9.17). I don’t want to lose the strength of my muscles, so I can do “less” weights and more reps (to a point with no pain).

For example:

Front Dumbell Shoulder Raises: I used to do 3 (sets) x 10 (reps) x of 35 lbs=1,050 total volume, so I can do 3 sets x 70 reps of 5 lbs or more depending on how I feel to equal still 1,050 total volume.

4 Tests to Differentiate Shoulder Impingement and AC Joint Dysfunction


Shoulder Bursitis
Medical Author: William C. Shiel Jr., MD, FACP, FACR
Medical Editor: Melissa Conrad Stöppler, MD
‘..A bursa can become inflamed from injury, infection (rare in the shoulder), or an underlying rheumatic condition. Examples include infection of the bursa in front of the knee from a knee scraping on asphalt (septic prepatellar bursitis), inflammation of the elbow bursa from gout crystals (gouty olecranon bursitis), or injury as subtle as lifting a bag of groceries into the car, which could inflame the shoulder bursa and lead to shoulder bursitis…”,

How to Treat Shoulder Bursitis – YouTube

RE: Shoulder Bursitis – YouTube

6. Impingement Syndrome (7:51)

Shoulder Impingement: Signs and symptoms – YouTube

b. Rehab

Shoulder Impingement: Rehab & Exercises

Shoulder impingement syndrome | All causes and treatment options

“…Shoulder impingement surgery recovery time

The shoulder impingement surgery recovery time usually takes 6 weeks to 3 months. The first days using pain medication is recommended. After about a week most pain will disappear. It’s important to keep moving your fingers, wrist and elbow to prevent them from getting stiff…”

Shoulder Impingement
“..Researchers have concluded that there are essentially 7 stages that need to be covered to effectively rehabilitate these injuries and prevent recurrence.

These are:

Early Injury: Protection, Pain Relief & Anti-inflammatory Treatment
Regain Full Shoulder Range of Motion
Restore Scapular Control and Scapulohumeral Rhythm
Restore Normal Neck-Scapulo-Thoracic-Shoulder Function
Restore Rotator Cuff Strength
Restore High Speed, Power, Proprioception and Agility Exercises
Return to Sport or Work

Shoulder Tendinitis
Shoulder bursitis and tendinitis are common causes of shoulder pain and stiffness.
“..The shoulder joint is kept stable by a group of muscles called the rotator cuff as well as the bicipital tendon (the tendon that keeps the upper arm bone within the shoulder socket). When the rotator cuff tendon or the bicipital tendon becomes inflamed and irritated it is called rotator cuff tendinitis or bicipital tendinitis.

An area called the subacromial bursa lies in the space between the shoulder tendons. The bursa is what protects these tendons. Subacromial bursitis occurs when the bursa becomes inflamed.

Both conditions (shoulder bursitis and tendinitis) can cause pain and stiffness around the shoulder and may exist together…”

An Effective Self Treatment for Shoulder (Tendonitis … – YouTube

Winging Scapula
“..This is known as a scapula ‘ dysrhythmia ‘. This leads to apparent ‘winging’ of the scapula. … It is prone to injury as it is much more vulnerable than many of the other nerves of the brachial plexus.
The test for identifying a long thoracic nerve injury is the ‘serratus wall test’. The patient is asked to face a wall, standing about two feet from the wall and then push against the wall with flat palms at waist level….

Acute Protrusion of the Scapula Laurie Meng, PA-CJack-ky Wang, Wednesday, September 14, 2005
“…The integrity of the supraspinatus and rotator cuff can be assessed with the “empty can” test. The patient stands facing the examiner, who abducts the patient’s arms to 90 degrees in forward flexion and 30 degrees of horizontal abduction with the thumbs pointing downward. In this position, the arms are internally rotated as far as possible. The patient then attempts to elevate the arms against the examiner’s resistance. Difficulty in elevating the arms reveals weakness of the supraspinatus. In this patient, the test results were negative.

Other conditions to consider in the differential diagnosis include biceps tendonitis, suprascapular nerve entrapment, scoliosis, acro-mioclavicular joint disease, glenohumeral instability, rotator cuff tear, trapezius palsy, impingement syndrome, fracture malunion, and scapular osteochondroma…’
*hands facing backwards when hands are on the side is also a sign of “scapular protraction deviation” (also internal (medial) rotation of the humerus)
‘When performing a shoulder screen and observing the client from a posterior view, a trainer notices an outward protrusion of the vertebral borders, but not the inferior angles, of the scapulae. What deviation is most likely being observed?”,
4 Techniques to Fix Scapular Dyskinesis

Best Scapular Dyskinesis / Dyskinesia Exercises

The Painful Shoulder: Part I. Clinical Evaluation


The Top 4 Shoulder Stability Exercises You Aren’t Doing… yet.
November 10, 2015 By
“…Here are four exercises that we use to maximize the efficiency and effectiveness of our shoulder stability and mobility training so we can keep our athletes healthy and devote more time to what really matters: unleashing the beast within them…”

Frontal Plane

Front Raise

Stand up and hold one dumbbell with each hand in front of your thighs, palms facing your body.

Raise the dumbbells forward then up until your arms are close to being parallel to the ground and lower them back down after a short pause.

Keep your arms extended throughout.


Sal: I do 3 sets of 10 repetitions at least once a week as part my 3-cycle upper body workout. I started going shoulder workouts to improve my throwing arm (e.g. baseball/softball). Now, I just do it for looks to even my muscles. What are som of your upper body: shoulder workouts?

Dumbbell Exercises for Shoulders
Dumbbell exercises for shoulders target the inner, outer and rear deltoid muscles as well as the trapezius.
“..Browse through the various dumbbell exercises for shoulders below:..”

The Best Dumbbell Only Shoulder Workout
Your three-move workout to build bigger shoulders and improve muscular imbalances.
by C. J. Murphy, M.F.S.

The Best Dumbbell Only Shoulder WorkoutYour three-move workout to build bigger shoulders and improve muscular C. J. Murphy, M.F.S.\3. SEATED DUMBBELL CLEANSets: 3 Reps: 12–15 Rest: 60 sec.Hold a dumbbell in each hand and sit on the edge of a bench. Keeping your lower back flat, lean forward. Explosively straighten your body and shrug the weights so your arms rise. Allow the momentum to flip your wrists so you catch the weights at shoulder level.

Sets: 3 Reps: 12–15 Rest: 60 sec.
Hold a dumbbell in each hand and sit on the edge of a bench. Keeping your lower back flat, lean forward. Explosively straighten your body and shrug the weights so your arms rise. Allow the momentum to flip your wrists so you catch the weights at shoulder level.

Sal: I do 3 sets of 10 repetitions also at least once a week as part my 3-cycle upper body workout.

#see more on Medical: Parts of the Muscular System, from

Serratus anterior dumbbell punch


Back: Shoulder Shrugs – Trapezius (Exercise / Anatomy)
*adducts scapulae , upper trapezius muscles

Sal-I do 3 sets of 10 reps between my lunges (lower body workout days) as an additional muscle exercise outside my upper body workout days

Glenohumeral “Shoulder” Joint

The Shoulder Joint! Exercises And Stretches Jeremy Likness April 12, 2009 • 6 min read
“..One of the first ways to prevent shoulder joint injuries is to prepare the shoulder joint for stress. This means training the shoulder joint with resistance. While many people incorporate shoulder exercises into their training program, they fail to properly balance the movements or prioritize based on relative strength. As an example, the shoulder joint helps control the descent of a pull-up – the shoulder group as a vertical pushing mechanism is antagonist to the upper back group as a vertical pulling mechanism. Therefore, training between the two should be balanced, so that the volume of pull-up or pull-down movements matches the volume and intensity of shoulder pressing movements within a training cycle. ..”
*see Standing Military Press

-Stretch Band

Shoulder strengthening exercises- physical therapy

Deltoids “Delts”

Shoulder Workouts For Men: The 7 Best Routines For Bigger Delts Bill Geiger July 30, 2016 • 6 min read

Whatever your goal, one of these 7 mass-building shoulder workouts can help you achieve it!

12 Best Shoulder Exercises (THE DELTOID DOZEN!!)


Isolated Anterior Deltoid Exercises : Fit U


The Top 3 Posterior Deltoid Exercises For Thicker Shoulders
“..#1 – Face Pulls – These are an uncommon but hugely effective movement to build rear delts and upper back size and strength. I include these as a staple in my shoulder workouts and would recommend you do the same. To perform them just grab the top of a rope attachment from underneath using a neutral hammer style grip and set the cable at chest height. Then, row the weight toward your face while keeping your shoulders down and back and scapula retracted. I include these as the main lift in my posterior deltoid workout. #2 – Bent Over Rear Delt Raises (Cable) – These can be done using dumbbells or a cable, but the cable variation provides a more consistent resistance curve and is more effective overall. These are one of the very best rear delt exercises because they allow you to directly isolate the posterior delt with minimal involvement of other muscle groups. Just set the cable at the bottom of the machine, grab the handle with a neutral grip, and then allow your shoulder to hang forward slightly. While keeping your back flat, raise the cable out to your side until you feel a strong contraction in the posterior deltoid. #3 – Rear Delt Rows – You can use these as an optional add on for some more volume in your rear deltoid workout. These are similar to a one arm dumbbell row, except that instead of tucking your upper arm at your side, flare it out so that it’s perpendicular to your body. Then row the weight straight up to your chest…”

Fitness: Various Tricep Exercises


Free Weight Exercises for the Rhomboids by KAY TANG Last Updated: Sep 11, 2017
“Located in your upper back and between your shoulder blades, the rhomboids are responsible for shoulder retraction, or the drawing of your shoulder blades together. If the rhomboids are weak or tight due to disuse, your shoulders will drift forward — a common problem for people with sedentary lifestyles. If you incorporate a lot of horizontal pressing movements in your workout, such as bench presses, and focus only on biceps, lats and chest development, you may be neglecting your rhomboids. ..”

Dumbell Bent Over Row : Best Back Exercises ( Lat exercises )
“.. : The dumbbell bent over row works the middle and upper back area. The specific muscles that are being targeted are the latissimus dorsi, the rhomboids and the middle and lower trapezius. To perform the DB Bent over Rows hold a dumbbell in each hand and bend forward from your waist until your back is parallel to the floor. Let your arms hangs straight down with your palms facing backwards. Pull or row the dumbbells up and into your chest area by contracting your back muscles. Return to the start by straightening the arms. Breathe out as you pull the dumbbell up and breathe in as you return to the start…”

Fitness: How to reverse common Abnormal Postures?
Define Your Back: 5 Easy Rhomboid Exercises
“..Your posture says a lot about how you take care of your body. The way you stand or sit shows how well your joints and muscles are working. Poor posture alignment can lead to problems like chronic back, neck, and shoulder pain. It can also cause muscle atrophy and weakness.

The rhomboid muscles, located on your upper back underneath the trapezius muscle, play a big part when it comes to posture. This is especially true if you have overdeveloped chest muscles, or your shoulders pronate forward.

The rhomboids are rhombus-shaped (hence their name) and are used to pull the shoulder blades together. They also rotate the scapula in a downward direction and provide stability for the shoulders.

These five exercises will help strengthen the rhomboid muscles and improve your posture…”

Roator Cuffs

Rotator Cuff Exercises (Why EVERY WEIGHTLIFTER Needs Them!)
Rotator Cuff
“The rotator cuff is a group of four muscles which stabilise movements of the shoulder at the glenohumeral joint.
Read more

You can remember them using the acronym SITS:



Teres minor

*see Top 3 Rotator Cuff Exercise Mistakes (FIX YOUR SHOULDER PAIN!) from

-Resistance Band

Rotator Cuff Workout – Rotator Cuff Exercises for Injury Prevention


The 11 Best Traps Exercises By The Editors of Men’s Health, Photography By Beth Bischoff, Photography By Nicholas Grieves March 25, 2015
Build monster trap muscles with these upper-body movements


Trapezius Exercises By Lee Hayward
“..The trapezius (traps) muscle is made-up of three separate regions. The upper portion of the trapezius is mainly responsible for shrugging your shoulders. The middle and lower regions are used during rowing type movements. Well developed traps help to counterbalance the chest and front (anterior) deltoids. This helps to improve posture and reduce the risk of injury. ..”
*see Fitness: How to reverse common Abnormal Postures?

” Bent Lateral Raises (also known as “Reverse Dumbbell Flyes”)

This exercise works the rear (posterior) deltoids and the middle traps. Secondary stress is applied to the forearms. ..”

Pain: DOMS

*see Fitness: Medical-Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

Home Remedies for Shoulder Pain
“..Here are the top 10 home remedies for shoulder pain….

6. Turmeric

Turmeric is a good remedy to relieve pain in your shoulder. The curcumin in turmeric contains antioxidant as well as anti-inflammatory properties that help reduce pain and swelling…”

Instant Relief from Shoulder Pain With Natural Home … – YouTube

How To Relieve Shoulder Pain | Chiropractor Wadesville near Evansville

Sore Neck

*see Fitness: Various kinds of Stretches

16 Simple Stretches for Tight Shoulders
‘..Whatever the reason, sooner or later it hits you: Your shoulders are scrunched, your neck hurts, and your muscles feel tight.

“The neck and upper back area hold a lot of tension,” says Karena Wu, a physical therapist and owner of ActiveCare Physical Therapy in New York. “The amount of time spent with forward head and shoulder posturing increases the stress on the soft tissue and joints in the area.”..

Scapular Setting..

Shoulder Stretches
1. Chin Retractions…

3. Shoulder Rolls…

5. Cow-Face Pose..

7. Shoulder Rotation (“Goal Post” Arms)

8. Standing Wall Stretch

9. Angular Neck Stretch

11. Low-Back Hand Clasp

12. Arm Circles

13. Reverse Prayer Pose

14. Thread the Needle



Neck Pain Stretches & Exercises – Ask Doctor Jo – YouTube

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