Skeletal Biomechanics

Bones & Joints of the Shoulder
“The bones of the shoulder consist of the humerus (the upper arm bone), the scapula (the shoulder blade), and the clavicle (the collar bone).

The clavicle is the only bony attachment between the trunk and the upper limb. It forms the front portion of the shoulder girdle and is palpable along its entire length with a gentle S-shaped contour.The clavicle articulates at one end with the sternum (chest bone) and with the acromion of the scapula at the other. This articulation between the acromial end of the clavicle and the acromion of the scapula forms the roof of the shoulder.

The scapula is a large, flat triangular bone with three processes called the acromion, spine and coracoid process . It forms the back portion of the shoulder girdle. The spine (which is located at the back of the scapula) and the acromion can be readily palpated on a patient. ..”

Shoulder Joint – Human Anatomy | Kenhub

Shoulder Joint – Glenohumeral Joint – 3D Anatomy Tutorial

Glenohumeral Joint Abduction, Adduction, and Rotator Cuff



Movements of the Scapula

Medical Gross Anatomy Movements of the Upper Limb – University of ..

Muscles That Move the Scapulae
Mollie Martin // Exercise Science // 5/2/2017
“The scapula, commonly referred to as the shoulder blade, is the bone that sits above the rib cage in the upper back. It creates the shoulder joint where it meets with the head of the humerus—the bone of the upper arm.

The scapulae can move in six directions and each movement is produced by specific, primary muscles…”

Shoulder Muscles Anatomy, Diagram & Function | Body Maps

Shoulder Muscles: Anatomy, Support & Movement
Chapter 12 / Lesson 7 Transcript
*re (e.g. rewind), serratus (knife-like)-supports, etc..

Frontal Plane

Front Raise

Stand up and hold one dumbbell with each hand in front of your thighs, palms facing your body.

Raise the dumbbells forward then up until your arms are close to being parallel to the ground and lower them back down after a short pause.

Keep your arms extended throughout.


Sal: I do 3 sets of 10 repetitions at least once a week as part my 3-cycle upper body workout. I started going shoulder workouts to improve my throwing arm (e.g. baseball/softball). Now, I just do it for looks to even my muscles. What are som of your upper body: shoulder workouts?

The Best Dumbbell Only Shoulder Workout
Your three-move workout to build bigger shoulders and improve muscular imbalances.
by C. J. Murphy, M.F.S.

The Best Dumbbell Only Shoulder WorkoutYour three-move workout to build bigger shoulders and improve muscular C. J. Murphy, M.F.S.\3. SEATED DUMBBELL CLEANSets: 3 Reps: 12–15 Rest: 60 sec.Hold a dumbbell in each hand and sit on the edge of a bench. Keeping your lower back flat, lean forward. Explosively straighten your body and shrug the weights so your arms rise. Allow the momentum to flip your wrists so you catch the weights at shoulder level.

Sets: 3 Reps: 12–15 Rest: 60 sec.
Hold a dumbbell in each hand and sit on the edge of a bench. Keeping your lower back flat, lean forward. Explosively straighten your body and shrug the weights so your arms rise. Allow the momentum to flip your wrists so you catch the weights at shoulder level.

Sal: I do 3 sets of 10 repetitions also at least once a week as part my 3-cycle upper body workout.

#see more on Medical: Parts of the Muscular System, from

Serratus anterior dumbbell punch


Back: Shoulder Shrugs – Trapezius (Exercise / Anatomy)
*adducts scapulae , upper trapezius muscles

Sal-I do 3 sets of 10 reps between my lunges (lower body workout days) as an additional muscle exercise outside my upper body workout days

Glenohumeral “Shoulder” Joint

The Shoulder Joint! Exercises And Stretches Jeremy Likness April 12, 2009 • 6 min read
“..One of the first ways to prevent shoulder joint injuries is to prepare the shoulder joint for stress. This means training the shoulder joint with resistance. While many people incorporate shoulder exercises into their training program, they fail to properly balance the movements or prioritize based on relative strength. As an example, the shoulder joint helps control the descent of a pull-up – the shoulder group as a vertical pushing mechanism is antagonist to the upper back group as a vertical pulling mechanism. Therefore, training between the two should be balanced, so that the volume of pull-up or pull-down movements matches the volume and intensity of shoulder pressing movements within a training cycle. ..”
*see Standing Military Press

-Stretch Band

Shoulder strengthening exercises- physical therapy

Deltoids “Delts”

Shoulder Workouts For Men: The 7 Best Routines For Bigger Delts Bill Geiger July 30, 2016 • 6 min read

Whatever your goal, one of these 7 mass-building shoulder workouts can help you achieve it!

12 Best Shoulder Exercises (THE DELTOID DOZEN!!)


Isolated Anterior Deltoid Exercises : Fit U


The Top 3 Posterior Deltoid Exercises For Thicker Shoulders
“..#1 – Face Pulls – These are an uncommon but hugely effective movement to build rear delts and upper back size and strength. I include these as a staple in my shoulder workouts and would recommend you do the same. To perform them just grab the top of a rope attachment from underneath using a neutral hammer style grip and set the cable at chest height. Then, row the weight toward your face while keeping your shoulders down and back and scapula retracted. I include these as the main lift in my posterior deltoid workout. #2 – Bent Over Rear Delt Raises (Cable) – These can be done using dumbbells or a cable, but the cable variation provides a more consistent resistance curve and is more effective overall. These are one of the very best rear delt exercises because they allow you to directly isolate the posterior delt with minimal involvement of other muscle groups. Just set the cable at the bottom of the machine, grab the handle with a neutral grip, and then allow your shoulder to hang forward slightly. While keeping your back flat, raise the cable out to your side until you feel a strong contraction in the posterior deltoid. #3 – Rear Delt Rows – You can use these as an optional add on for some more volume in your rear deltoid workout. These are similar to a one arm dumbbell row, except that instead of tucking your upper arm at your side, flare it out so that it’s perpendicular to your body. Then row the weight straight up to your chest…”

Fitness: Various Tricep Exercises


Free Weight Exercises for the Rhomboids by KAY TANG Last Updated: Sep 11, 2017
“Located in your upper back and between your shoulder blades, the rhomboids are responsible for shoulder retraction, or the drawing of your shoulder blades together. If the rhomboids are weak or tight due to disuse, your shoulders will drift forward — a common problem for people with sedentary lifestyles. If you incorporate a lot of horizontal pressing movements in your workout, such as bench presses, and focus only on biceps, lats and chest development, you may be neglecting your rhomboids. ..”

Dumbell Bent Over Row : Best Back Exercises ( Lat exercises )
“.. : The dumbbell bent over row works the middle and upper back area. The specific muscles that are being targeted are the latissimus dorsi, the rhomboids and the middle and lower trapezius. To perform the DB Bent over Rows hold a dumbbell in each hand and bend forward from your waist until your back is parallel to the floor. Let your arms hangs straight down with your palms facing backwards. Pull or row the dumbbells up and into your chest area by contracting your back muscles. Return to the start by straightening the arms. Breathe out as you pull the dumbbell up and breathe in as you return to the start…”

Fitness: How to reverse common Abnormal Postures?
Define Your Back: 5 Easy Rhomboid Exercises
“..Your posture says a lot about how you take care of your body. The way you stand or sit shows how well your joints and muscles are working. Poor posture alignment can lead to problems like chronic back, neck, and shoulder pain. It can also cause muscle atrophy and weakness.

The rhomboid muscles, located on your upper back underneath the trapezius muscle, play a big part when it comes to posture. This is especially true if you have overdeveloped chest muscles, or your shoulders pronate forward.

The rhomboids are rhombus-shaped (hence their name) and are used to pull the shoulder blades together. They also rotate the scapula in a downward direction and provide stability for the shoulders.

These five exercises will help strengthen the rhomboid muscles and improve your posture…”

Roator Cuffs

Rotator Cuff Exercises (Why EVERY WEIGHTLIFTER Needs Them!)
Rotator Cuff
“The rotator cuff is a group of four muscles which stabilise movements of the shoulder at the glenohumeral joint.
Read more

You can remember them using the acronym SITS:



Teres minor

*see Top 3 Rotator Cuff Exercise Mistakes (FIX YOUR SHOULDER PAIN!) from

-Resistance Band

Rotator Cuff Workout – Rotator Cuff Exercises for Injury Prevention


The 11 Best Traps Exercises By The Editors of Men’s Health, Photography By Beth Bischoff, Photography By Nicholas Grieves March 25, 2015
Build monster trap muscles with these upper-body movements


Trapezius Exercises By Lee Hayward
“..The trapezius (traps) muscle is made-up of three separate regions. The upper portion of the trapezius is mainly responsible for shrugging your shoulders. The middle and lower regions are used during rowing type movements. Well developed traps help to counterbalance the chest and front (anterior) deltoids. This helps to improve posture and reduce the risk of injury. ..”
*see Fitness: How to reverse common Abnormal Postures?

” Bent Lateral Raises (also known as “Reverse Dumbbell Flyes”)

This exercise works the rear (posterior) deltoids and the middle traps. Secondary stress is applied to the forearms. ..”

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