Ever heard of the nursery rhyme…
“…What are little girls made of?
Sugar and spice, and everything nice,..”-from askville.amazon.com
Well, I hope girls are not made of the “processed” sugar if you know what it really is made of…
Types of Sugars
Carbohydrates – naming and classification Created by Ryan Scott Patton. khanacademy.org
*see Fischer projections | Chemical processes | MCAT | Khan Academy from youtube.com
Biochemistry of Carbohydrates
saccharide play merriam-webster.com
“..a monosaccharide sugar or combination of sugars :carbohydrate..”
Types of Sugar ivyroses.com
There are several types of sugar. This page mentions some specific sugars but concentrates on the main categories of sugars (monosaccharides and disaccharides) and the relationship between these and certain larger carbohydrates.
“… What’s the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates?
The term ‘complex carbohydrates’ is commonly used to describe starches or fibre and ‘simple carbohydrates’ is often used to describe sugars. However, these terms are not useful for comparing the health effects of different carbohydrates. It was once thought that simple carbohydrates (sugars) raised blood sugar levels quickly and complex carbohydrates caused a more desirable slower rise. However, research on the glycemic index (GI) reveals that the opposite can be true. For example, table sugar (sucrose) raises blood sugar slower than some starchy foods like mashed potatoes, white bread or corn flakes. In fact, a report by the World Health Organization and Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations advises against using the term “complex carbohydrates”. It’s best to describe carbohydrates according to their common chemical name; e.g., starch, sucrose, glucose, etc…”
Sources and types of carbohydrates and sugars srasanz.org
“..The classification of carbohydrates is most commonly based on chemical structure, with the three most commonly known groups being monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides. ..”
Types of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates – Classification – Chemistry@Elmhurst – Elmhurst College chemistry.elmhurst.edu
*great chart (includes ribose)
“.. Ribose and Deoxyribose are found in the backbone structure of RNA and DNA, respectively…”
Types of Carbohydrates sparknotes.com
“Carbohydrates are among the most abundant compounds on earth. They are normally broken down into five major classifications of carbohydrates:
“The common monosaccharides are glucose, fructose, and galactose. Each simple sugar has a cyclic structure and is composed of carbon,…
…are commonly found in nature as sucrose…,
“..is a disaccharide composed of the monosaccharides D-glucose and D-galactose, joined in a ß-1,4-glycosidic linkage. The chemical name for lactose is 4-0-ß-D-galactopyranosyl-D-glucopyranose. It is essentially unique to milk, although it has been identified in the fruit of certain plants. Of the mammalian species where information is available, only some marsupials have an alternative sugar other than lactose, and those sugars are generally trisaccharides of glucose and galactose. Lactose plays a major role in milk synthesis. It is the major osmole in milk and the process of synthesis of lactose is responsible for drawing water into the milk as it is being formed in the mammary epithelial cells. Because of the close relationship between lactose synthesis and the amount of water drawn into milk, lactose content is the least variable component of milk…”
8 surprising sources of lactose Jackie Middleton besthealthmag.ca
Avoiding lactose may not be as easy as you think
List of Foods to Avoid for Lactose Intolerance healthyeating.sfgate.com
6 Dairy Foods That Don’t Affect Lactose Intolerance By Kasandra Brabaw prevention.com
Which foods contain the most lactose? April 07, 2016 | Green Valley Organics greenvalleylactosefree.com
“.. Some examples of high-lactose foods include ice cream, soft-serve frozen yogurt, ricotta cheese, protein powders, energy bars, puddings/custards and dulce de leche…
There are also a variety of foods with “hidden” sources of lactose: these can include baked goods such as breads, waffles or pancakes as well as salad dressings, potato chips and margarine. Lactose is also sometimes added as a processing aid in the production of processed meats including bacon, hot dogs or deli meats. ..”
Is Milk Bad for You? Diabetes and Milk diabetesselfmanagement.com
“..Milk protein linked to Type 1 diabetes?
There are four different types of casein proteins, called alpha-S1, alpha-S2, beta, and kappa caseins. Other milk proteins are called “whey” proteins.
A variant of beta-casein known as A1 beta-casein has been implicated in causing Type 1 diabetes. In genetically vulnerable children, A1 beta-casein may set off an immune response that later turns against the beta cells in the pancreas.
Children who drink cow milk have been found more likely to develop Type 1 later on. Other scientists say this evidence is weak and the studies were flawed. I think children should be kept off cow’s milk formulas at least until their first birthday…’
… and maltose
[a crystalline dextrorotatory fermentable sugar C12H22O11 formed especially from starch by amylase ]
*two glucose molecultes
“… They are formed by a condensation reaction where one molecule of water condenses or is released during the joining of two monosaccharides. The type of bond that is formed between the two sugars is called a glycosidic bond….
…These large structures (Olig & Poly) are responsible for the storage of glucose and other sugars in plants and animals. …
.. are raffinose and stachyose. Composed of repeating units of galactose, glucose and fructose, these oligosaccharides are of nutritional importance because they are found in beans and legumes. Because of their unique glycosidic bonds, raffinose and stachyose cannot be broken down into their simple sugars. Therefore, they cannot be absorbed by the small intestine and are often metabolized by bacteria in the large intestine to form unwanted gaseous byproducts. ..
In Which Foods Are Polysaccharides Found? by RACHEL NALL Last Updated: Jan 09, 2014 livestrong.com
“..One example of a polysaccharide found in foods is starch. This is the main carbohydrate source for plant seeds and tubers, or vegetables that grow in the ground. Starch food sources often are referred to as “starchy carbohydrates” and include foods like corn, potatoes and rice. Other examples include bread, cereal and pasta. These foods are the most common form of carbohydrates in your diet, comprising an estimated one-third of the foods you eat. The body breaks starches down into glucose, which helps to give you energy…”
Naturally, they allow for the storage of large quantities of glucose. Starch is the major storage form of carbohydrate in plants and has two different types: amylose and amylopectin. Although digestible alpha glycoisidic bonds link both types of starch, each type is unique in their branching of glucose. While amylose is a straight chain polymer, amylopectin is highly branched. These differences account for the fact that amylopectin can form stable starch gels which are able to retain water while amylose is unable to do so. Therefore, amylopectin is often used by manufacturers to produce many different kinds of thick sauces and gravies. Sources of starch include potatoes, beans, bread, pasta, rice and other bread products. ….
Glycogen is stored in the liver and muscle where it is synthesized and degraded depending upon the energy requirements of the body. …
Indigestible forms of polysaccharides are known as dietary fiber and come in many different forms including cellulose..
What is cellulose? Definition, Types, the Use in Foods – Nutrients Review nutrientsreview.com
Cereals: whole grain wheat, barley, oats, cereal bran, bulgur, quinoa, cornmeal, brown rice
Cabbage family of vegetables, for example, arugula, bok choy, Brussel’s sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, collards, kale, kohlrabi, mustard greens, radishes, rutabaga, Swiss chard, turnips, turnip greens and watercress
Fruits: avocado, berries, apples and pears with skins
Legumes: peas, chickpeas, beans, lentils
Potatoes with skins
Seeds: pumpkin, sunflower and
… chia seeds with hulls
, hemicellulose, pectin, gum and mucilage. Cellulose is by far the most abundant biochemical compound on the earth …
..of importance are found in nucleotides such as deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Both RNA and DNA are five sided cyclic sugars; however, RNA has one more hydroxyl group than DNA. Glucose-6-phosphate, an intermediate in the breakdown of glucose for energy, can be used for the synthesis of these compounds. …
Heteropolysaccharides | The Biochemistry Questions Site biochemistryquestions.wordpress.com
“..As discussed in a former post Polysaccharides are carbohydrates formed by more than 9 monosaccharides linked by glycosidic bonds.
When they are formed by the same kind of monosaccharides, they are called homopolysaccharides, like starch, glycogen and cellulose, formed each of them by hundreds of molecules of glucose linked by glycosidic linkages. ..”
Functions of Carbohydrates
page 1 of 3
Carbohydrates have six major functions within the body:
Providing energy and regulation of blood glucose
Sparing the use of proteins for energy
Breakdown of fatty acids and preventing ketosis
Biological recognition processes
Flavor and Sweeteners
Glucose is the only sugar used by the body to provide energy for its tissues. Therefore, all digestible polysaccharides, disaccharides, and monosaccharides must eventually be converted into glucose or a metabolite of glucose by various liver enzymes. Because of its significant importance to proper cellular function, blood glucose levels must be kept relatively constant. …
During periods of food consumption, pancreatic beta cells sense the rise in blood glucose and begin to secrete the hormone insulin. Insulin binds to many cells in the body having appropriate receptors for the peptide hormone and causes a general uptake in cellular glucose. In the liver, insulin causes the uptake of glucose as well as the synthesis of glycogen, a glucose storage polymer. In this way, the liver is able to remove excessive levels of blood glucose through the action of insulin.
*see Medical: Endocrine System goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
In contrast, the hormone glucagons is secreted into the bloodstream by pancreatic alpha cells upon sensing falling levels of blood glucose. Upon binding to targeted cells such as skeletal muscle and brain cells, glucagon acts to decrease the amount of glucose in the bloodstream. This hormone inhibits the uptake of glucose by muscle and other cells and promotes the breakdown of glycogen in the liver in order to release glucose into the blood. Glucagon also promotes gluconeogenesis, a process involving the synthesis of glucose from amino acid precursors. Through the effects of both glucagon and insulin, blood glucose can usually be regulated in concentrations between 70 and 115mg/100 ml of blood.
Other hormones of importance in glucose regulation are epinephrine and cortisol. Both hormones are secreted from the adrenal glands, however, epinephrine mimics the effects of glucagon while cortisol mobilizes glucose during periods of emotional stress or exercise. …
“…it only stores enough for a twenty-four hour period of fasting. After twenty four hours, the tissues in the body that preferentially rely on glucose, particularly the brain and skeletal muscle, must seek an alternative energy source. During fasting periods, when the insulin to glucagons ratio is low, adipose tissue begins to release fatty acids into the bloodstream. Fatty acids are long hydrocarbon chains consisting of single carboxylic acid group and are not very soluble in water. Skeletal muscle begins to use fatty acids for energy during resting conditions; however, the brain cannot afford the same luxury. Fatty acids are too long and bulky to cross the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, proteins from various body tissues are broken down into amino acids and used by the liver to produce glucose for the brain and muscle. This process is known as gluconeogenesis or “the production of new glucose.” If fasting is prolonged for more than a day, the body enters a state called ketosis. Ketosis comes from the root word ketones and indicates a carbon atom with two side groups bonded to an oxygen atom. Ketones are produced when there is no longer enough oxaloacetate in the mitochondria of cells to condense with acetyl CoA formed from fatty acids. Oxaloacetate is a four-carbon compound that begins the first reaction of the Krebs Cycle, a cycle containing a series of reactions that produces high-energy species to eventually be used to produce energy for the cell. Since oxaloacetate is formed from pyruvate (a metabolite of glucose), a certain level of carbohydrate is required in order to burn fats. Otherwise, fatty acids cannot be completely broken down and ketones will be produced. ..”
..To prevent these ketotic symptoms, it is recommended that the average person consume at least 50 to 100g of carbohydrates per day. ..
Flavor and Sweeteners
Receptors located at the tip of the tongue bind to tiny bits of carbohydrates and send what humans perceive as a “sweet” signal to the brain. However, different sugars vary in sweetness. For example, fructose is almost twice as sweet as sucrose and sucrose is approximately 30% sweeter than glucose.
Sweeteners can be classified as either nutritive or alternative. Nutritive sweeteners have all been mentioned before and include sucrose, glucose, fructose, high fructose corn syrup, and lactose. These types of sweeteners not only impart flavor to the food, but can also be metabolized for energy. In contrast, alternative sweeteners provide no food energy and include saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, and acesulfame. Controversy over saccharin and cyclamate as artificial sweeteners still exists but aspartame and acesulfame are used extensively in many foods in the United States. Aspartame and acesulfame are both hundreds of times sweeter than sucrose but only acesulfame is able to be used in baked goods since it is much more stable than aspartame when heated. …”
What Are the Different Types of Sugar? – The Sugar Association .sugar.org
7 types of sugar – which is healthier? foodwatch.com.au
“…Last week on the radio, the announcer asked me if there was a ‘good’ sugar – one that would satisfy her sweet tooth but that was ‘healthier’ than regular white sugar. She figured if there were ‘good’ carbs and ‘bad’ carbs there must be some sugars that would get the nod of approval from nutritionists.
So I thought it might be helpful to list the many different types of sugar and whether they’re any healthier for you or not (spoiler: there’s not much between them). Here’s my run-down of the 7 key types of sugar:..”
The 56 Most Common Names for Sugar (Some are Tricky) healthline.com
Sugar Facts and Myths: Why Sugar is Bad for You
Expose on why refined sugar is bad for you. Fred Rohe covers the facts and myths associated with the use of sugar in our diets.
By Fred Rohe
September/October 1971 motherearthnews.com
“…No Organic Merchant sells white sugar or any products containing white sugar because it is a foodless food. It is 99.96% sucrose and when taken into the human body in this form is potentially dangerous. It is touted as an energy food, but such sugar myths are propaganda and is misleading for there is ample evidence that white sugar robs the body of B vitamins, disrupts calcium metabolism and has a deleterious effect on the nervous system. This is why processed sugar is bad for you…”
10 Disturbing Reasons Why Sugar is Bad For You
By Kris Gunnars | 761,104
“…It can have harmful effects on metabolism and contribute to all sorts of diseases.
Here are 10 disturbing reasons why you should avoid added sugar like the plague.
1. Added Sugar Contains No Essential Nutrients and is Bad For Your Teeth
2. Added Sugar is High in Fructose, Which Can Overload Your Liver…..
4. Sugar Can Cause Insulin Resistance, a Stepping Stone Towards Metabolic Syndrome and Diabetes…
6. Sugar Can Give You Cancer….
8. Because it Causes Massive Dopamine Release in The Brain, Sugar is Highly Addictive…
10. It Ain’t The Fat… It’s SUGAR That Raises Your Cholesterol and Gives You Heart Disease…
Why Sugar is Worse than Darth Vader
By Steve on June 17, 2013 nerdfitness.com
“Highly addictive, horribly debilitating, unfortunately pervasive, and freaking delicious.
If I had to point to ONE culprit to our country’s expanding waistlines and rapidly deteriorating health, it would be sugar. The amount of havoc sugar and sugar substitutes have wreaked on our nation is horribly depressing. Fear not, as I’ve come up with the perfect solution!
Eat less sugar if you want to live longer.
Just kidding, there’s so much more to this story than that….”
Sugar: Startling Facts About How It’s Made
Author: Gloria Tsang, RD
Written By Gloria Tsang, RD on Jan 03, 2013 vancouver.healthcastle.com
I recommend honey to “sweeten” that “sweet tooth” if you have that craving..
Top 10…alternatives to sugar Mark Briggs theecologist.org
Want to give up sugar while still indulging your sweet tooth? Mark Briggs rounds up 10 natural alternatives
“…So how can you avoid sugar and its synthetic substitutes without giving up sweet stuff all together? Try some of these natural alternatives on for size…
Brown Rice Syrup
Barley Malt Syrup
“Published on Dec 23, 2014
Today I’m going to share my top five sugar replacements. Many people are over-consuming high fructose corn syrup and processed sugars so I’m going to go over my top five sweeteners that you can easily replace them with. Although these sweeteners may benefit your health and are better than processed sugar, I would recommend consuming these them in moderation.
1. Pure raw honey is great because it contains amino acids, electrolytes, antioxidants, and antimicrobial compounds, which can support your overall health. Honey also helps reduce allergy symptoms, is used as a natural medicine to help heal a wound, and is my most used natural sweetener.
2. Stevia. If you have blood sugar issues, are overweight, or have diabetes, then stevia may be the best sweetener for you. Stevia is a no calorie, all natural sweetener that comes from a leaf of a flowering plant. Make sure you get the green leaf stevia by sweet leaf brand.
3. Dates are great because they are high in fiber, potassium, minerals, and vitamins. The fiber in dates actually slows down sugar absorption in your body.
4. Coconut sugar. Organic, unrefined, coconut palm sugar is great for baking because it has the equal comparison of 1 cup to 1 cup of regular sugar in a lot of recipes. It’s full of potassium, electrolytes, nutrients, and has a lower glycemic index.
5. 100% organic, Grade B, maple syrup is another great sweetener to use in recipes.
The majority of regular sugar used is from GMO beets and corn, which is highly toxic to the body. Instead, try incorporating these five natural sugar substitutes to satisfy your sweet tooth while you’re taking your health to the next level.”
Any other “healthier” alternatives to “sweeten” your tooth?
*see Health: Nutrition-Foods to Know About goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
Disclaimer: No part of this site is intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any illness. Nothing on this site is to be construed as medical advice; the authors are not doctors. Please discuss your personal health, including any options or ideas you may read on the internet (on this site or others) with your personal, qualified health practitioner before making changes to your diet or adjusting/discontinuing any medication. We are not responsible for any adverse outcomes associated with using or misconstruing advice or information on this site. THANK YOU for stopping at our site! May you find what your looking for and “God speed” to good health and prosperity!”