Physiology

*see Fitness: Physiology of Exercise goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

Cardio-Respiratory
*see Medical: How the Lungs (respiratory system) Function? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

Physiological Adaptations to Training

“In this video we examined the physiological adaptations to training on the body’s cardiovascular system. By comparing the heart rates of two individuals, one a trained athlete and the other an untrained individual, we examined how increasing exercise intensity lead to an increase in oxygen demand to the working muscle and tissues which can be met by either increasing heart rate or stroke volume to ultimately increase cardiac output. Heart rate can only increase to a certain max, so how is the trained individual able to keep exercising at higher intensity while the untrained individual is not? To answer this we used an example using water guns to represent a beating heart. The trained individual was represented by a larger water gun, thus being able to pump out more “blood” per beat and the untrained individual was represented by a smaller water gun and had to fire faster in order to provide the same output. This is a metaphor to the cardiovascular adaptations to training. With training the hearts stroke volume increases and thus allows an individual to train at higher intensity when the heart rate has already reached its max. There are many other physiological adaptations to training consistently, this being one of the most important. If an individual can train their heart to perform more efficiently there is less strain placed on their heart, which can potentially help reduce risk of future cardiovascular disease and increase overall health.”

*see Health & Fitness: Trying to lose weight? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

Assessments

*see Fitness: Physiology of Exercise goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

What is the Difference Between VT1, VT2 and VO2 max? Nicole Thompson by Nicole Thompson
on March 14, 2017 .acefitness.org

3-zone Cardiorespiratory Training using the ACE IFT Model – YouTube

Exercise Physiologist Demonstrating VO2 Max Testing
https://youtu.be/A2z0l9B6aGE
“VO2 max (also Maximal Oxygen Consumption, maximal Oxygen Uptake, Peak Oxygen Uptake or Aerobic Capacity) is the maximum capacity of an individual’s body to transport and use oxygen during incremental exercise, which reflects the physical fitness of the individual. Maximal Oxygen Uptake (VO2 Max) is widely accepted as the single best measure of cardiovascular fitness and maximal aerobic power.”

Lactate Threshold
*see Health: Alternatives to “processed” sugar for your “sweet tooth”? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

What Is Lactate and How Does it Affect Your Performance? stack.com
“.. During demanding workouts (e.g., weight training and sprints), athletes are forced to deal with this limiting factor. But athletes are used to toughening up and dealing with pain. The moment when you begin to feel the burning sensation is called the lactate threshold. At that point, you’re still able to function but your energy is limited. After further effort, you reach a point where you can no longer push forward. This point is called the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), and it occurs when blood lactate concentrations are upwards of 90 percent.”..

25 Min Physiology: What Lactate is & What it ACTUALLY does …
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=imEsdKxtVyU
*high intensity exercise builds lactate, which fuels your brain (improves mind and memory)!

The Performance Benefits of Lactate Threshold Testing and Training By Lindsay Hyman, CTS Pro Coach trainright.com
“..Your body has to clear the lactate from the blood and working muscles and process it back to useable fuels, and lactate threshold is the point at which production outstrips the clearing process and higher levels of blood lactate start to accumulate in the muscles. Lactate threshold can be determined through lactate threshold testing, verified within your training program, and used to make you stronger and faster…

Provided you’re training and striving to improve, regular lactate testing provides you and your coach with concrete evidence of improvement, or lack thereof, throughout the season(s). A history of lactate tests should show changes in fitness, characterized by: increased power and/or pace at threshold, improved recovery heart rate, a higher lactate threshold heart rate, and a higher pace or power-to-weight ratio….

Train Smarter and Race Faster with Lactate Threshold Testing thebodymechanic.com.au
What is lactate and lactate threshold?
“..

Lactate is a fuel source produced when your body breaks down glucose for energy. When training at an easy aerobic intensity, lactate is converted back into energy and it’s concentration in your blood is kept constant. This process is called lactate clearance and this ability differs for everyone.

When pushing a higher intensity, the energy required goes up and more lactate gets produced to cope with the demand. Since your body effectively clears lactate at a fixed rate, the blood lactate concentration will keep rising till it eventually goes out of control. This tipping point is referred to as the lactate threshold.

To better explain this process, try pouring water down a funnel at a steady rate. Then gradually increasing the amount being poured. The funnel can only handle a fixed volume of water passing through and will overflow once maxed out…”

Venous Return, cardiac output, during exercise

YMCA Sub Max Cycle Ergometer Test exrx.net

YMCA Cycle Ergometer Test – YouTube

YMCA Submaximal Cycle Test – YouTube

Graded Exercise Test (GXT) kmhlabs.com
“..

The Graded Exercise Test is a general screening tool used to evaluate the heart’s response to exercise.

The heart normally contracts regularly due to an orderly spread of electrical activity from an area of specialized heart cells called “pacemaker cells” to the rest of the heart. An electrocardiogram (ECG) represents a surface mapping of the electrical activity of the heart…”

Rockport Fitness Walking Test Calculator-Find Your Fitness Level with a 1-Mile Walk By Wendy Bumgardn Updated May 21, 2017 verywell.com
“..What Do the Results Mean?

The results you get from the test will estimate your VO2Max in ml/kg/min.

The results are then graded based you on your age as Excellent, Very Good, Good, Average, Fair, Poor, or Very Poor.

It can be a valuable piece of knowledge to do a fitness test now and then to perform it again in a couple of months after you have started a fitness program. You can use it to see how you are improving in your fitness efforts.

You may see your fitness level decrease if you have been inactive for several weeks, such as over the winter or following an injury or illness that made you stop training…”

Calculations:

Using METs in Program Design by Jessica Smith, ME on Feb 01, 2006 ideafit.com
Master the basics of metabolic equivalents and learn to apply them to exercise programs in practical ways.
1 MET = 3.5 mL/kg/min

Energy Expenditure of Activities topendsports.com
“..One of the easiest methods for recording of the intensity of a physical activity is the Metabolic Equivalent Task (MET) method. The energy cost of many activities has been determined, usually by monitoring the oxygen consumption during the activity, to determine an average oxygen uptake per unit of time. This value is then compared to the resting oxygen uptake. ..”

Rockport Fitness Walking Test by wellness4one – YouTube

PRT 1.5 Mile (2.4 km) Run Test topendsports.com
*see Navy Physical Readiness Test (PRT) Overview military.com

Exercise testing 1.5 mile run graphs – YouTube

The 3-Minute Step Test-A DIY Fitness Assessment By Jason Anderson, Certified Personal Trainer sparkpeople.com
“..The 3-Minute Step Test measures your aerobic (cardiovascular) fitness level based on how quickly your heart rate returns to normal after exercise.

Equipment needed: Stopwatch or clock with a second hand; a friend to help you keep count; a 12-inch bench, box, or step; a metronome (if you don’t have one, use the free online version at http://www.MetronomeOnline.com)..”

YMCA Step Test – YouTube
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VfKN-nx__JY
*see YMCA Fitness Assessment exrx.net

-Overweight People

Cardiovascular Endurance Step Ups – YouTube

Energy Enhancers (ATP)

Ribose for Health and Performance By Richard A. Passwater, Ph.D. –
August 1, 2009 wholefoodsmagazine.com
‘..D-Ribose is a vital nutrient for producing energy in the body. Importantly, D-Ribose does not produce energy by an unhealthy stimulating action, but by the natural process of making the body’s all-important energy storage compound, adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

D-Ribose is a vital nutrient for producing energy in the body. Importantly, D-Ribose does not produce energy by an unhealthy stimulating action, but by the natural process of making the body’s all-important energy storage compound, adenosine triphosphate (ATP)…”

RIBOSE Produces ATP = Energy

Does Ribose Really Energize? drweil.com
“..Ribose is a naturally occurring sugar made in the body from glucose and is an essential component of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), the compound that stores and delivers energy in all cells. Ribose also occurs in RNA (ribonucleic acid), one of the main information-carriers of living organisms. Because ATP is rapidly used by muscles in high-intensity workouts and because RNA is important in protein synthesis, ribose supplements and energy drinks containing ribose are being promoted for energy enhancement and better exercise performance. The supplements are said to speed muscle tissue recovery after exercise, and limit post-exercise fatigue…”

The Miracle Sugar of Life for Fibromyalgia, Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Heart Pathologies- Dr. Mandell

Increase Strength and Stamina with D-Ribose: Thomas DeLauer

=>Supplements

2017’s 10 Best D-Ribose Supplements esupplements.com

=>Food Sources

What Are Food Sources of D-Ribose? by MICHELLE FISK Last Updated: Jun 15, 2015 livestrong.com
“…Eggs and Dairy Products

Milk and eggs are excellent sources of riboflavin. One cup of skim milk contains 0.45 milligram of riboflavin, and one large, hard-boiled eggs holds 0.26 milligram of this nutrient. An ounce of cheddar cheese has 0.11 milligram of this vitamin. Eggs and dairy products also boast calcium, potassium, vitamin D and protein. These nutrients contribute to healthy bone mass and low blood pressure. Opt for low-fat or fat-free milk and cheese. Other options are high in fat and cholesterol, which can raise your bad cholesterol and contribute to heart disease….”

*see Medical: Parts of the Muscular System goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

Training Tips

ACE IFT Model for Cardiorespiratory Training: Phases 1–4 acefitness.org

“…The ACE IFT Model has four cardiorespiratory training phases:

• Phase 1: Aerobic-base training

…This is a common starting point for many clients, especially those that are sedentary or have special needs. ..

• Phase 2: Aerobic-efficiency training

…A submaximal talk test should be conducted at the beginning of phase 2 to determine the client’s HR at VT1…

• Phase 3: Anaerobic-endurance training

..At the beginning of phase 3, the submaximal talk test and the VT2 threshold test should be given to determine the client’s HR at VT1 and VT2…

• Phase 4: Anaerobic-power training..

.. specific goals related to high-speed performance during endurance events to develop anaerobic-power. Athletes that might perform phase 4 training include soccer athletes, cross-country runners and cross-country skiers…

3-zone Cardiorespiratory Training using the ACE IFT Model – YouTube
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e8vRWNb0suE&index
“..This video reviews the first and second ventilatory thresholds (VT1 and VT2) and the 3-zone training model built around these key metabolic markers that is the basis for cardiorespiratory exercise intensity in ACE Integrated Fitness Training Model. Through actual demonstrations, this video illustrates exercise efforts in each zone and the application of the talk test to VT1 and the ability to speak more than one or two words to VT2.”>>

Pre-Workout Tips

7 Foods You Should Never Eat Before A Workout by Rubby WilliamDecember 12, 2016 5:25 AM mindbodygreen.com
“…4. Dairy

Dairy is delicious, but it can make you sleepy and sluggish. Therefore, you should avoid eating or drinking dairy two hours before a workout because it will make you feel acidic, lethargic, and you may even face extreme burping.
5. Protein bars


6. Fatty foods

When it comes to pre-workout foods that you should avoid, some of them are obvious: Think cheesecake, hamburgers, and so on. But you also may want to avoid healthy fats such as avocados and nuts, as they contain high fibers and up your chance for gassiness.
7. Fruit juice..

Almost all juices contain a high amount of natural sugars but less or zero fiber to help absorb energy. There’s no doubt that orange juice contains vitamin C along and other essential nutrients, but it allows you to use up energy from the juice instantly and suffer a drop in blood sugar level after the gym session.

Try eating an apple before starting your workout. It’s a much better choice; trust me.

..”

*fibers

Low Fiber Foods Before a Marathon
healthyeating.sfgate.com
“…As fiber is indigestible, eating high-fiber foods before a race can cause a feeling of fullness and discomfort, keeping you from performing your best…

Fiber is an essential part of your diet, although it is indigestible. As it passes through your gastrointestinal tract, fiber absorbs waste from your body, carrying it out as solid waste. Fiber can be either soluble or insoluble. Insoluble fiber adds bulk to your stool and slows digestion. Soluble fiber absorbs water, forming a gel, that speeds digestion and the passage of stool. Though important for overall health, both soluble and insoluble fiber produce undesirable effects during a marathon….”

-Should Eat


Pre-Workout Nutrition: What to Eat Before a Workout
healthline.com
“…Good nutrition can help your body perform better and recover faster after each workout.

Optimal nutrient intake prior to exercise will not only help you maximize your performance but also minimize muscle damage (1).

This is a detailed guide to pre-workout nutrition. It contains everything you need to know.
..

Carbs Your muscles use the glucose from carbs for fuel.

For short- and high-intensity exercise, your muscle and liver stores of glycogen are your muscles’ main source of energy (3).

But for longer exercises, the degree to which carbs are used depends on several factors. These include the intensity, type of training and your overall diet (3).

Your muscles’ glycogen stores are limited. As these stores become depleted, your output and intensity diminish (4, 5, 6).

Studies have consistently shown the ability of carbs to increase glycogen stores and utilization while boosting carb oxidation during exercise (6, 7, 8).

Carb loading, which involves consum…

If Your Workout Starts in 1 Hour or Less

Greek yogurt and fruit
Nutrition bar with protein and wholesome ingredients
A piece of fruit such as banana, orange or apple

Keep in mind that you don’t need to eat many pre-workout meals at different times. Just choose one of these.

For best results, experiment with different timings and compositions of your pre-workout meal…”
*see Health: Nutrition-Macronutrients goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com/

Medical Cautions

Too Much Cardio Can Cause a 7-Fold Surge of Heart Problems June 01, 2012 • 503,630 views fitness.mercola.com
‘..
Story at-a-glance

Long cardio workout sessions can cause more harm than good, leading to the release of the stress hormone cortisol, which when produced excessively may contribute to a catabolic state, in which your tissues break down, as well as chronic disease
Too much cardio, such as marathon running, raises cardiac risk by seven-fold, and can lead to heart muscle scarring, and increased blood levels of cardiac enzymes, which are markers for heart injury
To get the most benefits of exercise you need to push your body hard enough for a challenge while allowing adequate time for recovery and repair to take place; one of the best ways to do this is to follow a fitness regimen that includes short bursts of high-intensity activities, which can be done using an elliptical machine, recumbent bike or even free weights
When you work out, it is wise to push as hard as you possibly can a few times a week, but you need to wisely gauge your body’s tolerance to this stress, and give your body time to recuperate using rest and proper nutrition

..”

STOP w/these symptoms:
perfusion,lightheadedness, cyanosis,etc…
leg cramping or claudication,

Different Types

What Is The Best Workout To Improve Aerobic/Anaerobic Endurance? bodybuilding.com
“.. What’s The Difference Between Aerobic And Anaerobic?
Aerobic means “involving or improving oxygen consumption by the body”. Aerobic exercise, therefore, enhances respiratory and circulatory efficiency by improving oxygen consumption. Aerobic movements require oxygen to generate force, and enlist slow-twitch muscles for activity over sustained periods of time (minutes to hours). Examples of aerobic exercise include cardio, jogging, cycling and running marathons. ..

Aerobic Endurance

The best way to increase aerobic endurance (in my opinion) is through cardiovascular exercises. These include skipping, jogging, walking, swimming, etc. I will include methods to increase aerobic endurance for the following 3 stages:..

Exercise Recap

Combining all those different workouts and techniques will yield the best anaerobic and aerobic endurance. Pay attention to the following factors:

The jogging interval training involves the Glycogen-Lactic Acid System and the Aerobic System. It develops the slow-twitch muscle fibers well and it produces an increase in endurance speed while jogging.

The weightlifting focuses on heavy compound movements such as deadlift, bench press, squat, military presses in a 6-12 range so the fast-twitch fibers are well activated. We focus on power ATP surge here so that both A and B type fast twitch fibers take part in the activity. We do drop sets to increase Lactic Acid resistance….

Ambulatory Exercises

Biking

Photo & Video Sharing by SmugMug

“I’ve been biking more than usual lately with this national biking competition, which we record our miles online. Prior to this competition, I’ve been biking as much as I can-back and forth to work, doing errands around my small town community, etc…

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Dancing

The 25 Minute Cardio Dance Workout Celebs Use to Stay … – YouTube

Cardio Dance Workout To Scorch Calories | Class FitSugar – YouTube

Zumba Fitness – 50 Minutes Zumba Dance Aerobic … – YouTube

Jump Rope

#jumprope #jumpropeworkout Great alternative #cardioworkout 😊

A post shared by Healthfitnessguru (@healthfitnesslifeguy) on Dec 14, 2016 at 9:56am PST

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Outdoors

-Hiking up a Hill

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Racquetball

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Running
*see Fitness: “Safety” & Best Tips (Properly) When Running, Jogging, and/or Walking Outdoors goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

Photo & Video Sharing by SmugMug

“I try to run in a regular basis. As a former long distance runner (high school track my senior year), my coach would advise us to run as possible on “soft” ground (e.g. avoid hard pavement). Lately, I’ve been running around my former college “rubber” outdoor track.

Soccer

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Stair Climbers

When I go on trips, I try to find creative ways to do my cardio workout. One time, I did stair climbers in the “no-traffic” stairway of a hotel I was staying at for a conference in downtown Atlanta.

👍🏼#stairclimbers #cardio #legexercise #lowerbodyworkout

A post shared by Healthfitnessguru (@healthfitnesslifeguy) on Jan 17, 2017 at 3:55pm PST

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Fitness: Cardio- Stair Climb ~Step by Step w/HealthFitnessLifeGuy

Switch Up a Stair Workout With These 5 Exercises | Fitness How To

Swimming
*see Health: Be more safe in Swimming Pools? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

Both Machines and Non-Machines

What Is The Best Circuit Training Workout? Workout Of The Week October 25, 2017 • 16 min read .bodybuilding.com
“..What Is Circuit Training?

Basically circuit training is done by performing one exercise after another (in a circuit, obviously). For example you might perform a set of squats followed by a set of upright rows followed by curls etc. Often people only consider weightlifting type exercises as part of circuit training, but other anaerobic/aerobic work can be included.

Exercises are often performed with little or no rest between them; however this should vary on the type of circuit you are completing…”

BeFit GO: 30 Min Circuit Training Workout for the Gym – YouTube

10 Minute Total Body Cardio Circuit Workout Video. – YouTube

Circuit Training – Exercises Ideas – YouTube

Aerobic Exercise Machines

Top 5 Cardio Machines At Your Gym – YouTube

10 Best And Worst Cardio Machines l Top 10 Training List – YouTube

Which is the Best Cardio Machine for Weight Loss – YouTube

Lifestyle Workouts

-House Chores

How household chores keep you in shape by PETA BEE, Daily Mail dailymail.co.uk
“..but new research claims that dusting, vacuuming and mopping with gusto are as good for you as any session at the gym.

Read more: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-93697/How-household-chores-shape.html#ixzz4z1eqX1Ur
Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook
..”

How to Lose Weight While Cleaning Your House — Aerobic … – YouTube

Post Workout

-Stretches
*see Fitness: Various kinds of Stretches goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

-Nutrition

Do I Need to Eat After Cardio Workouts? Lizzie Fuhr for POPSUGAR Fitness | Jun 22, 2015 Topics: Cardio, postworkout snacks, fitness tips shape.com
“… When you’re training for a race and logging a lot of miles, do your best to eat 200 to 300 calories within 30 minutes of your workout. If you’re into kicking your butt with HIIT, intense sprints at the track, or kickboxing, nutritionists agree: you need to refuel and recover with a combination of protein and carbs. Clinical and holistic dietitian Esther Blum recommends a protein smoothie that includes a highly absorbable carb like banana or mango because it “shuts down your cortisol levels and stress hormones and raises your growth hormone levels to help you build muscle mass.”..
To help combat post-workout hunger after moderate workouts, women’s strength-training expert and author of Lift to Get Lean Holly Perkins recommends making sure you have a nutritious meal two to three hours prior to your workout, or enjoy a light pre-workout snack 30 to 60 minutes beforehand. When you fuel your body appropriately, you’ll be less tempted to grab the first thing staring you in the face when you walk out of the studio door!

You Might Also Like..”
*see Health: Nutrition-Macronutrients goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

=>Electrolytes

4 Ways to Get Electrolytes After a Workout By Sarah Stanley active.com
“..After a long workout, you might be tempted to reach for a sports drink to replace the electrolytes you just sweated out. If you do, you’ll likely be doing more harm than good.

These types of drinks contain massive amounts of sugar, which slows down the rate at which water enters the blood. They also are typically loaded with artificial ingredients, which isn’t doing your body any favors.

The best way to replace electrolytes is through real food. Instead of reaching for a sports drink, try one of these four electrolyte options that are good for your health and the earth..

Chia Seeds

Kale

Coconut Water

Vegetables

Foods Rich with Electrolytes Naturally | Top 10 Electrolyte Replenishes Foods

“1. Bananas
One of the best foods is Banana Containing Electrolytes,
Which is Greatest for Before and After Workout Foods.
Banana with Magnesium is an Electrolyte to Help
• Control Blood Pressure Levels,
• Treats Diabetes, Osteoporosis,
• Depression, Headache & Migraines.
• Lowers Risk from Grow Cancer & Asthma
• Treat Diarrhea

2. Brown Rice
The Manganese in Brown Rice Helps Body to Process
Carbohydrates & Proteins to Convert into Energy
• Also Contain Great Magnesium&
• Very Filling Food yet Low in Calories

Arria Belli https://www.flickr.com/photos/arriabe…
Rob & Dani https://www.flickr.com/photos/rob-qld…
3. Yogurt
An Excellent Source of Calcium
• Contains Probiotics “Good” Bacteria for your Guts
Treating Gastrointestinal Problems
• Electrolytes Found with Potassium & Magnesium,
Maintain Healthy Blood Pressure Levels

4. Eggs
Egg is of the Most Versatile Foods with Electrolytes
Because of its Healthy Nutrients. One Egg Gives More
than 100 Milligrams of Choline to
• Constructed Cell Membranes & Signal in Brain,
• Reduce “Bad” Cholesterol to lower heart disease,
• Feeling Fuller After Ate Eggs.

5. Spinach
Low Calories & Rich Healthy Nutrients, Greatly effective
To Energize Electrolyte in Body.
• Iron Helps Utilize Energy Effectively

6. Peanuts
Peanuts one of Best Foods Containing Electrolytes,
with Rich in biotin, copper, manganese, phosphorus,
Varieties of Vitamins.
– Rich in Mono-Unsaturated Fats
– Reduce Risk of Gallstones
7. Salmon
Rich Nutrients & Electrolytes like Phosphorus, Magnesium,
Calcium & High-Quality Protein. A lot Experts Recommend
to Eating Salmon & Other Fish.

8. Kale
Kale is Most Healthy like Spinach and it contains of
potassium, phosphorus, calcium &huge nutrients
vitamins such as vitamins A, C, and K
• Best Electrolyte Sources in Kale Hardly to be
Found in Other Foods.

9. Raisins
Unlike Fruit Grapes At Which they Came, Raisins has
Concentrated Source of Electrolytes, Vitamins, Energy,
& Minerals Makes it Perfect for Workout Consuming.

10. Potatoes
Potatoes Contain Many Vital Nutrients
– Potassium,
– Calcium,
– Magnesium,
– Phosphorus
– Rich vitamin C, B-6.
If You Need to Add Electrolytes to a Meal, Potatoes are
Easiest & Most Versatile Choicest to Boost Electrolytes
..”

20 Electrolyte-Replenishing SnacksAugust 3, 2011 by Anna Monette Roberts popsugar.com
“..After an intense workout, be sure to mix up and munch on the following snacks that are rich in the top four essential electrolytes: sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride…”

*see Medical: Endocrine System goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

What other cardio workouts you like doing for fun?

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“Disclaimer: No part of this site is intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any illness. Nothing on this site is to be construed as medical advice; the authors are not doctors. Please discuss your personal health, including any options or ideas you may read on the internet (on this site or others) with your personal, qualified health practitioner before making changes to your diet or adjusting/discontinuing any medication. We are not responsible for any adverse outcomes associated with using or misconstruing advice or information on this site. THANK YOU for stopping at our site! May you find what your looking for and “God speed” to good health and prosperity!”

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