What are the health effects of exposure to petroleum products? ag.ny.gov
“…Health effects from exposure to petroleum products vary depending on the concentration of the substance and the length of time that one is exposed. Breathing petroleum vapors can cause nervous system effects (such as headache, nausea, and dizziness) and respiratory irritation. Very high exposure can cause coma and death. Liquid petroleum products which come in contact with the skin can cause irritation and some can be absorbed through the skin. Chronic exposure to petroleum products may affect the nervous system, blood and kidneys. Gasoline contains small amounts of benzene, a known human carcinogen. Animals exposed to high levels of some petroleum products have developed liver and kidney tumors. Whether specific petroleum products can cause cancer in humans is not known; however, there is evidence that occupationally exposed people in the petroleum refining industry have an increased risk of skin cancer and leukemia.6 …..
In situations where the indoor air environment has become contaminated to the extent that strong odors are present or air monitoring indicates serious contamination, homeowners, businesses, and tenants may be advised to relocate until the cleanup is completed. Generally, a DEC inspector or a county health department assessor determine whether relocation is recommended. People, including residential tenants who may not be legally responsible for the spill, can request relocation financial assistance from the Fund to cover reasonable expenses for lodging and meals. The county health department should be contacted for relocation assistance. Concerns about possible exposure via soil or water contamination should also be directed to the county health department (See attached list of county health department contacts)….”
Oil Spill Effect on Humans from environmentalpollutioncenters.org
“..Direct exposure to oil spill – a variety of health effects may develop when the oil spill occurs close to where people live or work and may come in contact with humans through breathing gaseous oil compounds and/or oil compounds adsorbed on particulate matter (dispersed through air). Another exposure pathway may relate to activities in contaminated ground (e.g., soil) or through skin adsorption when touching spilled material.
Indirect exposure through consumption of contaminated food or water – especially relevant in the case of consumption of fish that was in contact or in an oil spill polluted environment. This is because some oil components have ability to “bioaccumulate” in living organisms. This means that if a fish lives in a polluted environment, it will keep adsorbing in its body some oil components (without excretion) which may reach concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than those of the surrounding waters. Through consumption of such polluted fish meat, humans may become seriously exposed to higher concentrations of oil components than in the surrounding environment or as compared to ingestion of the polluted water or bathing in the polluted water…”
Growth of Tar Sands Across the Midwest nwf.org
“…If Enbridge is successful, not only would it cause pain at the pump for Midwestern drivers, but it would lay the groundwork for an explosion of new tar sands development in Canada, boosting carbon emissions and pushing our planet toward the brink of climate catastrophe. This increase in crude also exposes the already threatened Great Lakes to larger and more toxic pipeline spills. Plans are also being drawn up transport millions of gallons of tar sands oil via tanker and rail, an even riskier option than pipelines…
Not Just a Climate Threat
In the summer of 2010 Enbridge was responsible for the largest and costliest inland oil spill in U.S. history, when a pipeline rupture sending over a million gallons of tar sands into the Kalamazoo River system poisoning people and wildlife for miles around. This disaster underscored the weakness of our state and federal safety regulations, but also showed how unprepared the industry is to respond to a toxic spill: almost three years later the river remains polluted despite Enbridge spending nearly $1 billion on the cleanup. .."
http://www.ecowatch.com/5-years-since-massive-tar-sands-oil-spill-kalamazoo-river-still-not-cl-1882075674.html”>5 Years Since Massive Tar Sands Oil Spill, Kalamazoo River Still Not Clean Energy| Jul. 25, 2015 08:23AM EST ecowatch.com
“…Five years ago today, in the middle of the night, an oil pipeline operated by Enbridge ruptured outside of Marshall, Michigan. It took more than 17 hours before the Canadian company finally cut off the flow, but by then, more than a million gallons of tar sands crude had oozed into Talmadge Creek. The oil quickly flowed into the Kalamazoo River, forcing dozens of families to evacuate their homes. Oil spills of that magnitude are always disastrous, but the Kalamazoo event was historically damaging. ..”
=> BP Oil Spill in Gulf of Mexico
Crude Oil Transportation: A Timeline of Failure riverkeeper.org