“…Macronutrients are the structural and energy-giving caloric components of our foods that most of us are familiar with. They include carbohydrates, fats and proteins.
Micronutrients are the vitamins, minerals, trace elements, phytochemicals, and antioxidants that are essential for good health….”
Macronutrients | Learn About Carbohydrates, Proteins & Fats innerbody.com
“..Carbohydrates, fats and proteins are macronutrients. We require them in relatively large amounts for normal function and good health. These are also energy-yielding nutrients, meaning these nutrients provide calories…”
*see Health: Alternatives to “processed” sugar for your “sweet tooth”? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
“..What are Carbohydrates?
The basic structure of carbohydrates is a sugar molecule, and they are classified by how many sugar molecules they contain.
Simple carbs: Simple carbohydrates, usually referred to as sugars, are naturally present in fruit, milk and other unprocessed foods. Plant carbohydrates can be refined into table sugar and syrups, which are then added to foods such as sodas, desserts, sweetened yogurts and more. ..
Complex carbs: Complex carbohydrates are any that contain more than two sugar molecules. Short chains are called oligosaccharides. Chains of more than ten monosaccharides linked together are called polysaccharides. They may be hundreds and even thousands of glucose molecules long. The way glucose molecules link together makes them digestible (starch) or non-digestible (fiber). Polysaccharides include the following.
Starch is a series of long chains of bound glucose molecules. It’s the storage form of glucose for grains, tubers and legumes and is used during the plant’s growth and reproduction.
Fiber is also long chains of glucose molecules, but they are bound in a way we cannot digest.
Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in humans and other animals. It’s not a dietary source of carbohydrate because it is quickly broken down after an animal is slaughtered…”
Added Sugars: …Nearly 60% of added sugars come from soda, energy drinks, sports drinks, fruit drinks and grain-based desserts like cakes, cookies and brownies. The problem with added sugars is that they do not come packaged with an abundance of nutrients like a piece of fruit and a glass of milk do. For this reason, many people call them empty calories.
…All of these factors complicate the usefulness of the GI. Additionally, many high-calorie, low-nutrient foods such as some candy bars and ice creams have desirable GI scores, while more nutritious foods like dates and baked potatoes have high scores. It’s important to recognize that the healthfulness of a food depends largely on its nutrient density, not its type of carbohydrate or its GI score.
Proponents of low-carbohydrate diets are incensed by the RDA and AMDR for carbohydrates. “Nutrition experts are trying to kill us,” they argue and claim that carbohydrates have made us overweight. However, research supports that diets of a wide range of macronutrient proportions facilitate a healthy weight, allow weight loss and prevent weight regain. The critical factor is reducing the calorie content of the diet long-term.
Fiber Needs: If we shunned all carbohydrates or if we severely restricted them, we would not be able to meet our fiber needs or get ample phytochemicals, naturally occurring compounds that protect the plant from infection and us from chronic disease. The hues, aromas and flavors of the plant suggest that it contains phytochemicals. Scientists have learned of thousands of them with names like lycopene, lutein and indole-3-carbinol. Among other things, phytochemicals appear to stimulate the immune system, slow the rate at which cancer cells grow, and prevent damage to DNA.
High Carbs Or Low Carbs? Why Not Both? Myron Mielke January 19, 2015 • 6 min read .bodybuilding.com
Depending on your plan, carbs might be restricted to 50 grams or less per day. Of course to make it more confusing, carbs are subcategorized into specific types of carbs. You have sugars and starches and they’re the net carbs. There are also fibers and a newly-concocted chemical called sugar alcohol. That’s the ingredient glycerin, which is in your low-carb, high-protein bars that keeps the bar moist instead of being a sawdust consistency. ..”
Low vs. High Carbohydrate Diet: Which is Better?
Fitday Editor fitday.com
“…Low Carbohydrate Diet
Low carb diets is that they are very low in calories, which is the basis behind weight loss with this program. Two very popular diets on the market today, the Atkins and the Zone diet, both use low calorie and low carb foods. This can be a good thing, as long as you keep your calorie intake to a minimum of 1300 per day for women and 1700 per day for men. You should also take a fiber supplement.
Another good thing about low carbohydrate diets is that they stick with small quantities of low glycemic carbs in combination with fat and protein…
The main danger with high-carb diets is not paying close attention to the kinds of carbohydrates you are consuming, which can easily result in weight gain. Carbohydrates are easily overeaten and lack essential, healthy fats, so seeing a good nutritionist for proper meals and menus prior to starting a diet is essential…”
44 Healthy Low-Carb Foods That Taste Incredible .healthline.com
“..This is a list of 44 low-carb foods. Most of them are healthy, nutritious and incredibly delicious.
Total Carbs vs Net Carbs
Under each food, I have listed the carb content for a standard serving, as well as the number of carbs in a 100 gram portion.
However, keep in mind that some of these foods are high in fiber, so sometimes the digestible (“net”) carb content is even lower.
1. Eggs (Almost Zero)
Eggs are among the healthiest and most nutritious foods on the planet.
They are loaded with all sorts of nutrients, including important brain nutrients and compounds that can improve eye health (11, 12).
Carbs: almost zero.
12 High-Carb Foods That Are Actually Super Healthy healthline.com
Quinoa is a nutritious seed that has become incredibly popular in the natural health community.
It is classified as a pseudocereal, a seed that is prepared and eaten like a grain.
Cooked quinoa is 21.3% carbs, making it a high-carb food. However, it is also a good source of protein and fiber…”
The Nutrition of Whole Wheat Pasta
Emily DeLacey fitday.com
“..Choose products high in fiber and protein, because sometimes the product may be brown because of food additives like molasses, not necessarily indicating that it is a whole grain.
In a 1 cup/140-calorie serving of cooked whole wheat pasta, there are 174 calories, 7 grams of protein and 6 grams of fiber, which is about 25% of your daily fiber needs! It is a low-fat food and contains high levels of manganese and selenium, which are minerals important in maintaining bone health and immune function.
Whole Wheat Pasta and Fiber
One of the top reasons why whole wheat pasta is good for your is the fiber content. The USDA states, “Dietary fiber from whole grains or other foods may help reduce blood cholesterol levels and may lower risk of heart disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Fiber is important for proper bowel function. It helps reduce constipation and diverticulosis. Fiber-containing foods such as whole grains help provide a feeling of fullness with fewer calories.”..”
*see Health: Benefits of “Fasting”? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
*see Health: When is “too much” Protein in your diet “too much”? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
…The truth is, most Americans eat much more protein than their bodies require. And even if you choose to eat no meat at all, you can still meet your protein needs…
..Though protein provides your body with 4 kcals per gram, giving you energy is not its primary role. Rather, it’s got way too many other things going on. In fact, your body contains thousands of different proteins, each with a unique function. Their building blocks are nitrogen-containing molecules called amino acids. If your cells have all 20 amino acids available in ample amounts, you can make an infinite number of proteins. Nine of those 20 amino acids are essential, meaning you must get them in the diet…
Proteins in the Diet
…Proteins in the body are constantly broken down and re-synthesized. Our bodies reuse most of the released amino acids, but a small portion is lost and must be replaced in the diet. The requirement for protein reflects this lost amount of amino acids plus any increased needs from growth or illness. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein for adults is 0.8 g/kg of body weight. Because of their rapid growth, infants have the highest RDA for protein at 1.5 g/kg of body weight. The RDA gradually decreases until adulthood. It increases again during pregnancy and lactation to a level of 1.1 g/kg. The RDA for an adult weighing 140 pounds (63.6 kg) is a mere 51 grams of protein, an amount many of us consume before mid-afternoon…
Top Ten Muscle Building Foods mensfitness.com
Health & Fitness: How to get more “energy” for the Elderly? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
One population that needs special attention is the elderly. Though the RDA for older adults remains the same as for younger adults, some research suggests their needs may be 1.2 grams/kg body weight in order to prevent the common muscle loss and osteoporosis that come along with aging. Though this doesn’t require the elderly to eat large servings of food, they frequently have poor appetites and dental problems that make chewing difficult. Helping them meet their nutritional needs may take a little creativity and perseverance….
A complete protein includes all of the essential amino acids. Complete proteins include all animal proteins and soy. Incomplete proteins lack one or more essential amino acids. Beans, nuts, grains and vegetables are incomplete proteins. Previously, registered dietitians and physicians advised vegetarians to combine foods that contained incomplete proteins at the same meal to give the body all the necessary amino acids it needed at one time. Today we know this is unnecessary. Your body combines complementary or incomplete proteins that are eaten in the same day.…
Complete vs. Incomplete Proteins March 30, 2017 by Zac Price idealshape.com
“..Some proteins are complete, meaning that your body can readily use them for protein synthesis, whereas others are incomplete and by themselves cannot be fully utilized in protein synthesis.
In basic terms, complete proteins sustain lean muscle by themselves and incomplete proteins do not.
So, what makes a complete protein “complete” and an incomplete protein “incomplete”?
It’s All About Amino Acids..”
What Are Complete Proteins, Incomplete Proteins, Essential Amino Acids, Non Essential Amino Acids
List of Amino Acids Needed by Your Body nutritional-supplements-health-guide.com
“..Amino acids are classified into two general types: essential and non-essential amino acids. Essential amino acids are those that can not be synthesized by the body on its own and thus need to be acquired through your diet. Non-essential amino acids are those that your body can produce, specifically by the liver, without any outside help…”
Amino Acids – What are Amino Acids – What Do Amino Acids Do
How To Choose A Protein Bar – Alyssia’s Protein Bar Review – Which Protein Bar is Best?
Quest Nutrition QuestBar Protein Bar Chocolate Chip Cookie Dough Description vitacost.com
“..The ONLY protein bar with a PERFECT nutritional profile.
Quest is the first bar you can eat guilt FREE
To bring you a bar this healthy and this tasty, we had to create a whole new process for making bars. Quest is so revolutionary, in fact, that we’ve filed a patent. That’s why you won’t see anything else like it on the market. Quest is the first truly low carb bar that doesn’t contain glycerin, simple carbs, uses no sugar, and no sugar alcohols. Quest bars are the only bars that you can eat without feeling guilty…”
*see Snacks: Protein Bars’ Nutrition Info foodsofallkinds.wordpress.com
“..Dietary fat has critical roles in the body. Each gram of fat, whether it’s from a spoon of peanut butter or a stick of butter, provides 9 kcals. This caloric density is a lifesaver when food is scarce and is important for anyone unable to consume large amounts of food. The elderly, the sick and others with very poor appetites benefit from high-fat foods. Because their tiny tummies can’t hold big volumes, small children too need fat to provide enough calories for growth…
Our bodies are amazing machines capable of producing most of the needed fatty acids. There are two fatty acids that it cannot make at all, however. They are called LA (linoleic acid) and ALA (alpha linolenic acid). This makes LA and ALA “essential”, meaning they must be obtained through the diet. In the body, fatty acids are important constituents of cell membranes, and they are converted to chemical regulators that affect inflammation, blood clotting, blood vessel dilation and more. Clinical deficiencies are rare. A deficiency of LA is usually seen in people with severe malabsorption problems. Its symptoms are poor growth in children, decreased immune function, and a dry, scaly rash. In the few cases of ALA deficiency that doctors and researchers are aware of, the symptoms were visual problems and nerve abnormalities…..
List of Foods With Essential Fatty Acids by SANDI BUSCH Last Updated: Dec 18, 2013 livestrong.com
Essential Fatty Acids
The omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids help prevent cardiovascular disease by lowering cholesterol. They’re essential for the proper functioning of your brain, nerves and cells throughout body. They also help regulate the inflammatory response. Two of the essential fatty acids must come from your diet; your body uses them to make three more. The essential omega-3 is alpha-linolenic acid, or ALA. You also need to consume the omega-6 called linoleic acid, or LA. Women need 1.1 grams of omega-3 and 12 grams of omega-6 daily. Men should get 1.6 grams of omega-3 and 17 grams of omega-6 daily.
Two of the omega-3 fatty acids — eicosapentaenoic acid, or EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA — come from oily fish. Even though they can be synthesized from ALA, your body may not produce an adequate amount, according to the Linus Pauling Institute. The best sources include…
… salmon, sardines, mackerel, tuna and freshwater trout. The American Heart Association recommends eating oily fish twice weekly. If you don’t consume enough fish, you can take fish oil supplements. A recommendation for fish oil has not been established, but patients with coronary heart disease are advised to take 1 gram of combined EPA and DHA daily….
15 Omega-3 Foods Your Body Needs Now draxe.com
“..There are actually three different types of “omega-3s”: ALA (alpha-linolenic acid), DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid). The preferred sources are DHA and EPA, the kinds found in seafood sources like salmon and sardines. ALA, on the other hand, is found in some plant foods, including certain nuts and seeds, as well as high-quality cuts of meat like grass-fed beef…
Historically, we’ve seen that populations that consume the most omega-3 foods, like people in Okinawa, Japan, live longer and healthier lives than people who eat a standard diet low in omega-3s. The typical Okinawa diet — which consists of plenty of fish, sea vegetables and other fresh produce — is actually believed to have about eight times the amount of omega-3s that you’d find in the standard American diet, which is likely one reason why this population is considered one of the healthiest in human history…
*see Longevity: How to “slow” the aging process? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
“..What Are the Best Omega-3 Foods?
Here’s a list of the top 15 omega-3 foods (percentages based on 4,000 milligrams per day of total omega-3s): (7)
Mackerel: 6,982 milligrams in 1 cup cooked (174 precent DV)
Salmon Fish Oil: 4,767 milligrams in 1 tablespoon (119 percent DV)
Cod Liver Oil: 2.664 milligrams in 1 tablespoon (66 percent DV)
Walnuts: 2,664 milligrams in 1/4 cup (66 percent DV)
Chia Seeds: 2,457 milligrams in 1 tablespoon (61 percent DV)
Herring: 1,885 milligrams in 3 ounces (47 percent DV)
Salmon (wild-caught): 1,716 milligrams in 3 ounces (42 percent DV)
Flaxseeds (ground): 1,597 milligrams in 1 tablespoon (39 percent DV)
Tuna: 1,414 milligrams in 3 ounces (35 percent DV)
White Fish: 1,363 milligrams in 3 ounces (34 percent DV)
Sardines: 1,363 milligrams in 1 can/3.75 ounces (34 percent DV)
Hemp Seeds: 1,000 milligrams in 1 tablespoon (25 percent DV)
Anchovies: 951 milligrams in 1 can/2 ounces (23 percent DV)
Natto: 428 milligrams in 1/4 cup (10 percent DV)
Egg Yolks: 240 milligrams in 1/2 cup (6 percent DV)
Omega 3-6-9 Fatty Acids: What’s The Difference? By Jonathan Serfaty / 11.27.13 / Medically Reviewed .builtlean.com
‘..The Basics of Fatty Acids
Fatty acids (FA) have several roles in the body. In addition to being the primary component of stored fat, they also serve as important building blocks of cell membranes and regulate inflammatory processes.2
There are two main types of fatty acids: saturated and unsaturated. Saturated fats, which are solid at room temperature, you’ll find in animals and tropical plants. Unsaturated fats, which are usually liquid at room temperature, you’ll find in vegetables, seeds, and fatty fish.
Unsaturated fats are classified as either polyunsaturated fats (PUFA), which mainly include omega-3 omega-6 fatty acids, or monounsaturated fats (MUFA), which include omega-9 fatty acids…”
‘…Many experts consider trans fats even worse than saturated fats because, like saturated fats, they contribute to insulin resistance and raise LDL cholesterol, but there’s more bad news. They also lower HDL cholesterol (the good cholesterol). The American Heart Association recommends that we keep our trans fatty acid intake to less than 1% of total calories (less than 2 grams if consuming 1600 calories daily). Achieving this might be trickier than you realize because many foods touting No Trans Fats on their labels actually contain traces of these artery-scarring fats. That’s because the law allows manufacturers’ to claim zero trans fats as long as a single serving contains no more than 0.49 grams. If you eat a few servings of foods with smidgens of trans fat like margarine crackers and baked goods, you can easily exceed the recommended limit…
Unsaturated Fats. As discussed, unsaturated fatty acids improve blood cholesterol levels and insulin sensitivity when they replace saturated and trans fats. There are two classes of unsaturated fatty acids: monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats.
Monounsaturated fat souces include avocados, nuts, seeds and olives. Peanut, canola and olive oils are additional sources.
There are several types of polyunsaturated fats, and they each have different roles in the body.
Omega-3 fatty acids have been in the spotlight recently because of their role in heart disease prevention. ALA is an omega-3 fatty acid, and you can find it in walnuts, ground flaxseed, tofu and soybeans, as well as common cooking oils like canola, soybean and walnut oils. Remember that your body is unable to create ALA, so it’s essential to get it in the diet. From ALA, your body makes two other critically important omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA), but the conversion is very inefficient. It’s better to get EPA and DHA from fish. Not only are EPA and DHA important to the heart, but they also promote visual acuity and brain development in the fetus, infant and child; they seem to slow the rate of cognitive decline in the elderly; and they may decrease the symptoms associated with arthritis, ulcerative colitis and other inflammatory diseases. You will find them in bluefish, herring, lake trout, mackerel, salmon, sardines, and tuna.
Omega-6 fatty acids are a second type of polyunsaturated fats. LA is an omega-6 fatty acid and has to be acquired through the diet. Sources of omega-6 fatty acids are sunflower seeds, Brazil nuts, pecans and pine nuts. Some cooking oils are good sources too, such as corn, sunflower, safflower and sesame oils.
Good Fats vs. Bad Fats | HealthiNation
*see Health: Nutrition-Foods to Know About /goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
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Try Our Recipe Nutrition Calculator verywellfit.com
How to Calculate Recipe Macros in My Fitness Pal – YouTube
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