Medical: Endocrine System

Endocrine System: Discover the Anatomy and … – Human Anatomy


The endocrine system includes all of the glands of the body and the hormones produced by those glands. The glands are controlled directly by stimulation from the nervous system as well as by chemical receptors in the blood and hormones produced by other glands. By regulating the functions of organs in the body, these glands help to maintain the body’s homeostasis. Cellular metabolism, reproduction, sexual development, sugar and mineral homeostasis, heart rate, and digestion are among…..”

Anatomy and Physiology of Endocrine System

Endocrine system

Anatomy of the Endocrine System
“The major glands of the endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal body, and the reproductive organs (ovaries and testes). The pancreas is also a part of this system; it has a role in hormone production as well as in digestion….


*see Fitness: Physiology of Exercise


This Is What Really Happens In Your Body When You Exercise
There’s so much happening.

May 10, 2016
“..The human body is an incredible system capable of regulating itself and keeping all of its cells and tissues healthy and in balance. But exercising regularly is critical to maintaining that balance for overall health.

Many people only associate exercise with calories, muscles, and fat, but there is so much more going on in the body. In fact, there are hundreds of hormones, enzymes, proteins, and chemical reactions happening while the body is physically active.

Accounting for every single process that happens during exercise would fill several textbooks, but here’s a brief overview of how the body responds to exercise:..

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) – This is a hormone that interacts with the central nervous system. By tripling BDNF production with exercise, it is possible to improve mood, boost cognitive function, and improve memory. BDNF also contributes to repair of neurons and other housekeeping measures in the brain, which helps prevent neurodegenerative disease…”

Anabolism vs. Catabolism
‘..Metabolism is a biochemical process that allows an organism to live, grow, reproduce, heal, and adapt to its environment. Anabolism and catabolism are two metabolic processes, or phases. Anabolism refers to the process which builds molecules the body needs; it usually requires energy for completion. Catabolism refers to the process that breaks down complex molecules into smaller molecules; it usually releases energy for the organism to use. ..”

Anabolic vs. Catabolic

1. Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH) “vasopressin”
Hormonal Responses to Acute Exercise
‘…Posterior Pituitary Hormones

The posterior pituitary lobe stores and secretes ADH and oxytocin, which are transported from the hypothalamus. Little information is available about the effects of exercise on oxytocin. However evidence supports the idea that exercise is a potent stimulus for ADH secretion.

During periods of heavy sweating and intense exercise, ADH works to minimise the extent of water loss from the kidneys, thereby decreasing the risk of severe dehydration. This response helps the body conserve fluids, especially during exercise in the heat, when a person is most at risk for dehydration. By increasing the water permeability of the kidneys’ collecting ducts, ADH facilitates the conservation of water, allowing less water to be excreted in the urine.

With intense muscular work and heavy perspiration, the electrolytes become more concentrated in the blood plasma, which increases the plasma osmolality (the ionic concentration of dissolved substances, such as electrolytes, in the plasma). Additionally, sweating causes water to be drawn out of the blood, resulting in a lower plasma volume. The hypothalamus can sense increased plasma osmolality and lowered plasma volume, and responds by stimulating the posterior pituitary lobe to secrete ADH (see figure 10.6). In contrast, ADH secretion is minimised when fluid intake increases and the blood volume expands, resulting in more dilute urine.


Antidiuretic hormone’s influence on the conservation of body water during exercise.’

2. Growth Hormone

BEST EXERCISE | Increase Growth Hormone & Testosterone WHILE Naturally Anti-Aging

*avoid long-term “chronic” workouts (e.g. long distance), but do “short-term” acute “outburst” exercises (high intense intervals)

Exercise Intensity on Growth Hormone | Anabolic Hormones and Muscle Growth With Mike Zourdos

How to BUILD MUSCLE all day long (most screw this up!)
*produced during sleep every 1 1/2 hours

Medical Definition of Triglycerides
‘…The major form of fat stored by the body. A triglyceride consists of three molecules of fatty acid combined with a molecule of the alcohol glycerol. Triglycerides serve as the backbone of many types of lipids (fats). Triglycerides come from the food we eat as well as from being produced by the body.

Triglyceride levels are influenced by recent fat and alcohol intake, and should be measured after fasting for at least 12 hours. A period of abstinence from alcohol is advised before testing for triglycerides. ..”

3. Sex Hormones

a. Testosterone
Health & Fitness: Benefits and Ways to Raise your Testostrone?

How to Increase your Human Growth (HGH) or Testosterone Naturally with Sprint 8 – Part 1

EXSC 281 part 3 Hormone response to exercise

Exercise and Hormones


What is difference between Enzyme & Hormone

Comparison between quick acting hormones and lag period hormones Saturday, January 26, 2013

8 Hormones Involved in Exercise
Pete McCall // Fitness // 8/10/2015
“…There are three major classifications of hormones: steroid (1), peptide (2) and amines (modified amino acid hormones) (3). Each class of hormones has a unique chemical structure that determines how it interacts with specific receptors. Steroid hormones interact with receptors in the nucleus of a cell, peptide hormones are comprised of amino acids and work with specific receptors sites on the cell membrane, and amines contain nitrogen and influence the sympathetic nervous system.

Hormones can either be anabolic (one), which means they help build new tissue, or catabolic (two) because they play a role in breaking tissue down. The term “anabolic steroids” is often mentioned as a method of cheating used by athletes who want to improve performance; however, anabolic steroids are actually natural chemicals produced by the body that are responsible for promoting tissue growth.

Listed below are some important hormones involved in exercise along with the physiological functions they control.

Insulin (2 FAST)

A peptide hormone produced by the pancreas, insulin regulates carbohydrate and fat metabolism. When blood sugar is elevated, insulin is released to promote the storage and absorption of glycogen and glucose. Insulin helps reduce levels of glucose in the blood by promoting its absorption from the bloodstream to skeletal muscles or fat tissues. It is important to know that insulin can cause fat to be stored in adipose tissue instead of being used to fuel muscle activity. When exercise starts, the sympathetic nervous system suppresses the release of insulin; consequently, it is important to avoid foods with high levels of sugar (including sports drinks) before exercise because it can elevate insulin levels and promote glycogen storage instead of allowing it to be used to fuel physical activity. Wait until the body has started sweating before using any sports drinks or energy gels.

Glucagon (FAST)

Released in response to low levels of blood sugar, glucagon is produced by the pancreas to stimulate the release of free fatty acids (FFAs) from adipose tissue and increase blood glucose levels, both of which are important for fueling exercise activity. As glycogen levels are depleted during exercise, glucagon releases additional glycogen stored in the liver.

Cortisol (1 & two SLOW)

Cortisol is a catabolic steroid hormone produced by the adrenal gland in response to stress, low blood sugar and exercise. It supports energy metabolism during long periods of exercise by facilitating the breakdown of triglyceride and protein to create the glucose necessary to help fuel exercise. Cortisol is released when the body experiences too much physical stress or is not sufficiently recovered from a previous workout. While cortisol helps promote fat metabolism, exercising for too long can elevate levels of cortisol to catabolize muscle protein for fuel instead of conserving it to be used to repair damaged tissues.

Epinephrine and Noepinephrine (3 FAST)

These amine hormones play an important role in helping the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) produce energy and in regulating the body’s function during cardiorespiratory exercise. Classified as catecholamines, epinephrine and norepinephrine are separate but related hormones. Epinephrine, often referred to as adrenaline because it is produced by the adrenal gland, elevates cardiac output, increases blood sugar (to help fuel exercise), promotes the breakdown of glycogen for energy and supports fat metabolism. Norepinephrine performs a number of the same functions as epinephrine, while also constricting blood vessels in parts of the body not involved in exercise.

What is Epinephrine (Adrenaline)?
“…Despite initiating several different responses, epinephrine’s effects have a collective purpose – to provide energy so that the major muscles of the body can respond to the perceived threat. (4)..”
*see Fitness: Various Cardio Workouts


Testosterone (1)

Testosterone is a steroid hormone produced by the Leydig cells of the testes in males and the ovaries of females, with small amounts produced by the adrenal glands of both genders. Testosterone is responsible for muscle protein resynthesis and the repair of muscle proteins damaged by exercise, and plays a significant role in helping grow skeletal muscle. Testosterone works with specific receptor sights and is produced in response to exercise that damages muscle proteins.

Human Growth Hormone (one & 2 SLOW)

Human growth hormone (HGH) is an anabolic peptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that stimulates cellular growth. Like all hormones, HGH works with specific receptor sites and can produce a number of responses, including increasing muscle protein synthesis responsible for muscle growth, increasing bone mineralization, supporting immune system function and promoting lipolysis, or fat metabolism. The body produces HGH during the REM cycles of sleep and is stimulated by high-intensity exercise such as heavy strength training, explosive power training or cardiorespiratory exercise at or above the onset of blood lactate (OBLA, the second ventilatory threshold).

Insulin-like Growth Factor (2 )

Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) has a similar molecular structure to insulin and is stimulated by the same mechanisms that produce HGH. IGF is a peptide hormone produced in the liver and supports the function of HGH to repair protein damaged during exercise, which makes it an important hormone for promoting muscle growth.
*see Fitness: Lower Body Workout


Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotransmitter that helps stimulate the production of new cells in the brain. The production of BDNF is closely related to the production of HGH and IGF—the same exercises that elevate levels of those hormones also increase amounts of BDNF. High-intensity exercise can stimulate anabolic hormones for muscle growth while elevating levels of BDNF, which can help improve cognitive function. ..”

Hormones Vs Enzymes – Difference Between Hormones … – YouTube

“How to Balance Your Hormones with Exercise” Teleconference With Scott Sonnon

How Carbohydrates, Fats, Proteins, & Hormones
Michelle Knepper, CPT
Work to Cause Weight-Loss or Weight-Gain
“…The brain requires a constant steady stream of glucose for fuel. If it does not get an adequate supply of carbs, your body uses its available glucose and glycogen stores. Then it turns to fat and muscle mass to supply energy, producing an abnormal metabolic response called ketosis. Ketosis alters the enzymes in fat cells. Ketosis causes muscle mass to be sacrificed and broken back down into amino acids to be converted directly into glucose for the brain. The loss of muscle mass means the loss of fat burning sites. Thus less fat will be burned. It is easy to understand then why 98% of all low-carb and high-pro diets fail. The followers of those methods usually gain back any weight they may have lost and usually more than they lost to begin with.

Glucagon is considered the fat-burning hormone. It is stimulated by the pancreas in response to intake of protein. It’s main job is to maintain stable blood sugar levels in your body. It does this by activating and releasing stored body fat so it can be burned for energy.


A moderate amount of carbs, pro, fat helps keep blood sugar balanced. Fat slows down the absorption and digestion of the carbs, providing a steady, ongoing supply of glucose which keeps the fat storage hormone insulin low. Protein in a meal stimulates the release of the fat-burning hormone, glucagon, thereby maximizing your ability to burn stored body fat for energy…”

*see Health & Fitness: Trying to lose weight?

Hormone Balance and Food Combining: How Proteins, Carbs and Fats Affect the Body’s Behavior
“..Carbs are going to spike our insulin, no matter what; however, we can curb that spike to some degree if we eat some protein and fat along with the carbs. We are in no way recommending a high carb, high processed food diet. It’s important to take it one step further when eating fruits and veggies. It is best when we eat a balanced diet by consuming protein, fat and healthful carbs together at every meal. This is the basis for The Zone Diet prescribed by Dr. Barry Sears. Where we at Bonfire Health differs from Dr. Sears is when it comes to quality of food. He goes into this somewhat, but we want you to focus on eating natural foods (from the earth, not processed), as well as balancing the macronutrient content (protein, carbs and fats).

By eating healthful carbohydrates (fruits and veggies), you will dramatically decrease the insulin released, which will decrease your body’s message to grow and store fat. By going a step further, eating a small portion of lean protein (grass-fed beef, turkey, chicken, etc.) and fats (avocados, nuts, seeds) along with those carbs, you will in fact be balancing your hormones, which will keep you healthy or move you toward health!..”

*see Health: Nutrition-Macronutrients


*see Medical: What to do with Throat Problem(s)?

Thyroid Gland, How it Functions, Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism and Hypothyroidism Written by Bridget Brady MD, FACS
“..How the Thyroid Gland Works
The thyroid is part of the endocrine system, which is made up of glands that produce, store, and release hormones into the bloodstream so the hormones can reach the body’s cells. The thyroid gland uses iodine from the foods you eat to make two main hormones:

Triiodothyronine (T3)
Thyroxine (T4)

11 Natural Cures For Thyroid Problems – YouTube

Five steps to boosting your thyroid function almost immediately Tuesday, September 11, 2012 by: PF Louis
“..Find a physician or holistic practitioner who’ll agree to order or run all three blood tests: Free T3, free T4, and a TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone) test. It may be necessary to add a thyroid antibody test also…

Five ways to boost thyroid function
(1) Drop soy products from your diet. Dr. Mark Hyman also suggests gluten may have an adverse effect on your thyroid production as well. So dropping wheat products could be positive as well. (

(2) Try easing out of stress as a foundation. Stress produces cortisol, and cortisol inhibits getting T3 into your cells. Since all these tests are blood level tests, even if your T3 blood count test is okay, your cells could be lacking. This is a tricky area that few MDs know about.

(3) If you haven’t already done so recently, detox heavy metals. (

(4) Iodine is the major supplement for boosting your thyroid function. Some practitioners recommend nascent iodine while others say tried and tested Lugol’s brand works fine. Antioxidants such as vitamins C and E, selenium and zinc, omega-3, and vitamin D3 should be supplemented with your choice of iodine as well.

(5) Natural hormone balancing may be needed to recover completely from hypothyroidism. Avoid the synthetic remedies most MDs prescribe and request something natural, such as a desiccated liver product. The most well known is Armour, but there are others. These are natural products that supply the complete thyroid hormone.

Health Benefits

*see Health: Nutrition-Foods to Know About

Effects of Exercise on Endocrine System by MIGUEL CAVAZOS Last Updated: Sep 11, 2017
“..Your endocrine system consists of glands that release hormones that control physiological functions in your body. Exercise boosts the number of hormones circulating in your body and strengthens receptor sites on target organ cells. Your endocrine response to exercise can improve organ function, physical appearance and your state of mind. Vigorous exercise, in particular, might improve endocrine function…”

Exercise 1 Endocrine System Fall 2014

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“Disclaimer: No part of this site is intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any illness. Nothing on this site is to be construed as medical advice; the authors are not doctors. Please discuss your personal health, including any options or ideas you may read on the internet (on this site or others) with your personal, qualified health practitioner before making changes to your diet or adjusting/discontinuing any medication. We are not responsible for any adverse outcomes associated with using or misconstruing advice or information on this site. THANK YOU for stopping at our site! May you find what your looking for and “God speed” to good health and prosperity!”


Medical: Human Anatomy Overall

Latin and Greek in Anatomy and Physiology
Anatomy and Physiology Workbook For Dummies, 2nd Edition

By Janet Rae-Dupree, Pat DuPree

Latin and Greek roots

cut(an)– skin cutaneous..

thorac– chest thoracic
vasc– vessel vascular..

Latin and Greek prefixes and suffixes

a(n)– without, not anaerobic
aut(o)– self autonomic…

peri– around pericardium…

“..2.10: Learn Medical Terminology and Human Anatomy

In our previous courses, you may have noticed a number of complex anatomy and physiology terms getting tossed around. Our complete medical terminology list will help you learn some of the most common anatomical and surgical terms by looking at prefixes, suffixes, and roots.

Let’s start off with the basics.

Many times you’ll encounter a medical term that contains a prefix that describes a number. Here are a few of the most common…”

Medical Terminology

Medical Terms

Medical Terminology – The Basics – Lesson 2

Anatomical Positions

Anatomical Terminology: Relative Position,

Anatomical Terminology: Relative Position Video

Anatomical Terms – Drawn & Defined (Updated)

anatomical position and directional terms

Good News Medical

Medical: Parts of the Muscular System

Muscular System – Muscles of the Human Body – Human Anatomy


The muscular system is responsible for the movement of the human body. Attached to the bones of the skeletal system are about 700 named muscles that make up roughly half of a person’s body weight. Each of these muscles is a discrete organ constructed of skeletal muscle tissue, blood vessels, tendons, and nerves. Muscle tissue is also found inside of the heart, digestive organs, and blood vessels. In these organs, muscles serve to move substances throughout the body……

Muscle Types
There are three types of muscle tissue: Visceral, cardiac, and skeletal…

Anatomy and Physiology of Muscular System

Part 7 – Muscles of the human body

Anatomy Ch 9 – Muscular System

“Published on May 21, 2013

Muscular System – Thompson
This video was put on as a test for one of my classes that I don’t teach anymore. I have no plans of redoing it or doing any more chapters for those who keep asking. There are 2 or 3 mistakes. Rectus abdominus originates on the pubis and inserts at the costal angle. Orbicularis oris is around the mouth and orbicularis oculi is around the eye. Brachioradialis originates on the distal humerus and inserts on the ulnar tuberosity (really fascia between ulna and radius). I’ve heard both protagonist and agonist for the opposite of the antagonist. I assume they are both correct.”

Muscle Fiber Types
*see Fitness: Kinesiology-Kinematic Exercise Types

Fast-Twitch, Slow-Twitch: What’s the difference and does it matter?
Stacey Penney, MS, NASM-CPT, CES, PES, FNS Stacey Penney, MS, NASM-CPT, CES, PES, FNS ·
“..As most of us may recall from our physiology studies, there are two main types of human skeletal muscle fiber types, type I and type II, or slow-twitch and fast-twitch, respectively. Fast-twitch are further classified into type IIa and type IIx. They differ in both their biochemical and contractile properties…”

The 3 Muscle Fiber Types | Differences Between Type 1, Type 2A, & Type 2B


Plasticity of skeletal muscle mitochondria: structure and function
“ skeletal muscle tissue can undergo rapid and characteristic changes as a consequence of manipulations of muscle use and environmental conditions. Endurance exercise training leads to increases of mitochondrial volume of up to 50% in training interventions of a few weeks in previously untrained subjects…”
Function of Mitochondria
“..main function of mitochondria is the production of energy during the production of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) via the TCA Cycle (which is also as the Krebs Cycle and the Citric Acid Cycle). That process is an important metabolic pathway (see also what is metabolism). It is described in detail on the pages about the TCA Cycle – which is often included in introductory biology courses e.g. A-Level Biology, but not necessarily in first-level anatomy & physiology e.g. ITEC A&P…”
Muscle Myoglobin
“..a red pigment found exclusively in striated muscle cells. In particular, slow-twitch, aerobically respiring skeletal fibers and cardiac muscle cells are rich in myoglobin. Myoglobin is similar to hemoglobin, but it has one heme rather than four; therefore, it can combine with only one molecule of oxygen.

Myoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than does hemoglobin, and its dissociation curve is therefore to the left of the oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve (fig. 16.37). The shape of the myoglobin curve is also different from the oxyhemoglobin..”

Muscle Fibers Explained – Muscle Contraction and Muscle Fiber Anatomy

Henneman’s Size Principle
“…states that under load, motor units are recruited from smallest to largest. In practice, this means that slow-twitch, low-force, fatigue-resistant muscle fibers are activated before fast-twitch, high-force, less fatigue-resistant muscle fibers…”


Training To Maximize Your Muscle Fiber Types!
“..Knowing your personal muscle fiber make-up can be an invaluable aid when it comes to properly targeting your training program. If you’re working your muscles in the wrong way, you’ll be cheating yourself out of hard-earned results. …

How To Find Your Muscle Fiber Type

To find the predominant fiber type in a particular muscle in your body, we need to test the repetition limits of a muscle compared to its maximum strength. Keep in mind, these limits can be altered by your training and are, therefore, just rough estimates.

First, determine your one rep max (known as the 1 RM) for an isolation exercise for that muscle group, e.g. the dumbell curl. Find the weight you can only do one rep with. You want to use an isolation exercise because any exercise that uses any other muscle groups will skew the results. ..”

*Calculate available

Calculate Your One-Rep Max (1RM)

Difference Between Isolation & Compound Exercises
by JOLIE JOHNSON Last Updated: Aug 16, 2015
“Compound movements occur at more than one joint and work more than one muscle group. Isolation exercises occur at only one joint and target only one muscle group. For example, the squat exercise involves movement at your knee joint and hip joint. This compound leg exercise works your hamstrings, quadriceps, glutes and lower back. The leg extension exercise occurs only at the knee joint and works only your quadriceps muscles…”


Medical: How the Lungs (respiratory system) Function?

=>Fitness (endurance)
*see Fitness: Various Cardio Workouts

Grow New Mitochondria with PQQ (BioPQQ). Scientists Discover the “Other CoQ10”.

11 Proven Health Benefits of PQQ

Sources of PQQ

“..PQQ naturally occurs in almost all foods, ranging from 0.19-61ng/g (R, R2), but is especially concentrated in the following foods:

Fermented Soybeans products (e.g. Nattō) (R)
Green Soybeans (R)
Spinach (R)

Field Mustard (5.54 +/-1.50ng/g fresh weight) (R)
Tofu (R)
Green Tea (R)
Green peppers (R)
Parsley (R)
Kiwi fruits (R)

The PQQ content of even the most PQQ-rich foods is much lower than the amount you can get from a supplement (5-20mg). I recommend a high-quality PQQ supplement to get a therapeutic dose…

Compounds reported to stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis are linked to many health benefits such increased longevity, improved energy utilization, and protection from free radicals….”

Muscle Sections

Shoulder girdle muscles,
“..Shoulder girdle consists of the clavicle (collar bone) and the scapula (shoulder blade) which generally move together as a unit. Only the clavicle connects directly to the rest of the skeleton at the sternum bone. It is really only the scapula which moves from action of the muscles. The muscles of the shoulder girdle are serratus anterior, pectoralis minor, levator scapulae, rhomboids and trapezius…”

Shoulder (Pectoral) Girdle – Muscles and Movements – Human Anatomy | Kenhub

Shoulder Anatomy Animated Tutorial

Scapula and Clavicle – Shoulder Girdle – Anatomy Tutorial


Standing Dumbbell Upright Row
How to Do Shoulder Shrugs Properly by PATRICK DALE Last Updated: Aug 14, 2017

*all three muscles (trapezius, scapulae, and rhomboid)
Cable Crossover
*pectoralis minor (chest anterior side muscles)

*see Fitness: Upper Body Workouts-Shoulders

Build Bigger Pecs with the Pullover
*see Fitness: Various Chest Muscle Exercises

Muscles of the upper arm and shoulder blade – Human Anatomy | Kenhub

-Shoulder Joint

Anatomy and Function of the Shoulder Joint

Anatomy: The Shoulder Joint

Back Muscles Anatomy – Trapezius, Latissimus, Rhomboid Anatomy

=>Rotator Cuff Muscles

Rotator Cuff
“..These muscles all originate from the scapula and insert in the humerus. The subscapularis muscle, for example, is very important for the internal rotation of the humerus. It arises from the subscapular fossa and inserts on the lesser tubercle of the humerus. The teres minor muscle originates from the lateral scapula border and inserts on the greater tubercle of the humerus. The supraspinatus muscle has its origin in the supraspinatous fossa and inserts on the greater tubercle of the humerus – similar to the teres minor muscle. The fourth muscle of the rotator cuff is the infraspinatus muscle. It originates in the infraspinatous fossa of the shoulder blade and inserts on the greater tubercle as well…”

The Rotator Cuff – S.I.T.S Muscles By Laura Inverarity, DO Updated April 30, 2017
“..The Four Rotator Cuff Muscles:

The four muscles that form the rotator cuff are the supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis.

Often the mnemonic S.I.T.S is used to help remember the muscles that make up the rotator cuff.

Supraspinatus: The supraspinatus muscle originates above the spine of the scapula and inserts on the greater tuberosity of the humerus. The supraspinatus abducts, or elevates, the shoulder joint out to the side. It also works with the other rotator cuff muscles to stabilize the head of the humerus in the glenohumeral joint, or shoulder joint.
Infraspinatus: The infraspinatus muscle originates below the spine of the scapula, in the infraspinatus fossa, and it inserts on the posterior aspect of the greater tuberosity of the humerus. The infraspinatus externally rotates the shoulder joint. It also works with the other rotator cuff muscles to stabilize the head of the humerus in the glenohumeral joint, or shoulder joint.
Teres Minor: The teres minor muscle originates on the lateral scapula border and inserts on the inferior aspect of the greater tuberosity of the humerus. The teres minor muscle externally rotates the shoulder joint. It also works with the other rotator cuff muscles to stabilize the head of the humerus in the glenohumeral joint, or shoulder joint.

Subscapularis: The subscapularis muscle originates on the anterior surface of the scapula, sitting directly over the ribs, and inserts on the lesser tuberosity of the humerus. The subscapularis muscle works to depress the head of the humerus allowing it to move freely in the glenohumeral joint during elevation of the arm. It also works with the other rotator cuff muscles to stabilize the head of the humerus in the glenohumeral joint, or shoulder joint…”

Rotator cuff muscles – 3D anatomy tutorial
Movements: Tennis Serve and Throwing a baseball


-DOMS Treatment:
11 Natural Treatments for Rotator Cuff Pain + Best Rotator Cuff Exercises
“..6. Anti-inflammatory foods & natural painkillers

While drugs like ibuprofen can reduce pain and swelling, they’re also dangerous. So when possible opt for non-synthetic methods such as avoiding highly inflammatory foods. Consider anti-inflammatory foods that will help you heal much faster while providing other useful benefits to your health. There are some great natural painkillers for shoulder pain and tendonitis in the rotator cuff that can be very useful as well…”

Anatomy Ch 9 – Muscular System

Mark Jolley
Published on May 21, 2013
Muscular System – Thompson
This video was put on as a test for one of my classes that I don’t teach anymore. I have no plans of redoing it or doing any more chapters for those who keep asking. There are 2 or 3 mistakes. Rectus abdominus originates on the pubis and inserts at the costal angle. Orbicularis oris is around the mouth and orbicularis oculi is around the eye. Brachioradialis originates on the distal humerus and inserts on the ulnar tuberosity (really fascia between ulna and radius). I’ve heard both protagonist and agonist for the opposite of the antagonist. I assume they are both correct.
*latin roots

Anterior Muscles of the Human Body
Chart of Major Anterior Muscles
Superficial Muscles Anterior view – Purpose Games


*three sample exercises for biceps brachii, brachialis, and brachioradicalis:
Upright Barbell Row
Fitness: Upper Body Workouts-Arms, Biceps, etc…

-Elbow Portion

Muscles of the Elbow | Interactive Anatomy Guide


The elbow is a synovial hinge joint located between the upper arm and forearm. It is formed by the meeting of three bones: the humerus in the upper arm and the ulna and radius in the lower arm. Like all other hinge joints, the elbow permits movement in one plane, namely the flexion and extension of the forearm relative to the upper arm. However, the elbow also allows the wrist to rotate by pivoting the radius around the ulna. The muscles of the elbow cooperate to perform the many movements at the elbow joint, giving both great strength and flexibility to the arm……

The flexor group – including the brachialis, biceps brachii, and the brachioradialis – bend the arm by decreasing the angle between the forearm and upper arm. The brachialis is the primary flexor of the elbow and is found mainly in the upper arm between the humerus and the ulna…”

Humerus that act on the forearm are primarily involved in flexion and extension
“Key Movements

Extension (forearm away from upper arm)

Produced by the triceps brachii and anconeus of the forearm.

Flexion (forearm towards upper arm)

Produced by the brachialis, biceps brachii, and brachioradialis of the forearm.

Pronation (rotation of the forearm so the palm faces downwards)

Produced by the pronator quadratus and pronator teres of the forearm.

Supination (rotation of the forearm so the palm faces upwards)

Produced by the supinator of the forearm and biceps brachii.

-Wrist Portion

Muscles of the Elbow | Interactive Anatomy

The elbow is a synovial hinge joint located between the upper arm and forearm. It is formed by the meeting of three bones: the humerus in the upper arm and the ulna and radius in the lower arm. Like all other hinge joints, the elbow permits movement in one plane, namely the flexion and extension of the forearm relative to the upper arm. However, the elbow also allows the wrist to rotate by pivoting the radius around the ulna. The muscles of the elbow cooperate to perform the many movements at the elbow joint, giving both great strength and flexibility to the arm……

These muscles can be broadly grouped into the flexor and extensor groups of the forearm.

The flexor group – including the brachialis, biceps brachii, and the brachioradialis – bend the arm by decreasing the angle between the forearm and upper arm. The brachialis is the primary flexor of the elbow and is found mainly in the upper arm between the humerus and the ulna. Superficial to the brachialis is the long biceps brachii muscle that runs anterior to the humerus from the scapula to the radius. The biceps mostly functions as a flexor at the elbow, but it is also able to supinate the forearm and turn the palm of the hand anteriorly. Although it is found mostly in the forearm, the brachioradialis is the third flexor muscle of the elbow, running from the distal end of the humerus to the distal end of the radius.

Two muscles – the triceps brachii and anconeus – act as the extensors of the forearm. The triceps brachii is a long muscle that runs posterior to the humerus from the scapula to the olecranon of the ulna. The anconeus is a much smaller muscle that begins at the distal end of the humerus near the elbow and ends at the olecranon. Working together, these two muscles increase the angle between the humerus and the ulna and radius, straightening the arm until the olecranon locks into the olecranon fossa of the humerus at full extension.

The rotation of the forearm is accomplished by two muscles that cross the elbow: the pronator teres and the supinator. The pronator teres crosses the elbow at an oblique angle from the medial epicondyle of the humerus to its insertion on the radius. When contracted, the pronator teres rotates the radius and forearm medially so that the palm faces the body’s posterior. Its antagonist, the supinator, crosses the elbow obliquely at a right angle to the pronator teres and connects the lateral epicondyle of the humerus to the radius. Contraction of the supinator rotates the radius and forearm laterally so that the palm faces the body’s anterior.

Nine more muscles of the forearm cross the elbow to move the wrist and fingers of the hand. The flexor group – including the flexor carpi radialis, flexor carpi ulnaris, palmaris longus, and flexor digitorum superficialis – have their origins on the medial epicondyle of the humerus and run along the anterior forearm to the palm of the hand and fingers. These muscles contract to flex the fingers as in making a fist and flex the wrist to move the hand closer to the anterior forearm. The extensor group – including the extensor carpi radialis longus, extensor carpi radialis brevis, and extensor digitorum – have their origins on the lateral epicondyle of the humerus and run through the posterior forearm to the back of the hand and fingers. …”

muscles that act at the elbow.mp4

Anatomy Of The Elbow, Animation – Everything You Need To Know …
Video for major muscles that act at the elbow

Elbow Muscles – Origins, Insertions & Actions – Black Background


Seated Dumbbell Palms-Up Wrist Curl
The 16 Best Exercises for Your Grip If you can’t grip it, you can’t lift it. Here’s how to take your grip from wimpy to bone-crushing
By Kelsey Cannon June 16, 2015

=> Common Injuries

Patient education: Elbow tendinopathy (tennis and golf elbow) (Beyond the Basics)

“..s the most common condition affecting the elbow.

●It is called “tennis elbow” or lateral epicondylitis when there is an injury to the outer elbow tendon

●It is called “golfer’s elbow” or medial epicondylitis when there is an injury to the inner elbow tendon

However, elbow tendinopathy can be caused by sports other than golf and tennis, as well as work-related activities that involve heavy use of the wrist and forearm muscles…”

Golfers Elbow Exercise – Reverse Tyler Twist – Medial Epicondylitis …

*wrist extensor

Golfer’s Elbow Treatment Program – YouTube

Effective Self-Treatment for Golfer’s Elbow (Inner Elbow Pain) – YouTube

Tennis Elbow Exercise – Tyler Twist – Lateral Epicondylitis – YouTube
*wrist flexor

The Truth About Tennis Elbow (WHAT REALLY CAUSES IT!) – YouTube

Tennis Elbow – Prevention and Home Exercises! – YouTube

Tennis Elbow Treatment, Prevention & Rehabilitation … – YouTube


Muscles of the Torso

MUSCULAR SYSTEM ANATOMY:Muscles of the anterior abdominal wall torso model description

Posterior Torso Muscles


Fitness: Morning Routine-Different types of Sit-Ups-Crunches

-Back Spine

Erector Spinae
“…actually consists of three columns of muscles, the Iliocostalis, Longissimus, and Spinalis, each running parallel on either outer side of the Vertebra and extending from the lower back of the skull all the way down to the Pelvis. The Erector Spinae provides resistance that assists in the control action of bending forward at the waist as well as acting as powerful extensors to promote the return of the back to the erect position. During full flexion (i.e., when touching fingertips to floor), the Erector Spinae Muscles are relaxed and strain is borne entirely by ligaments of back, however on the reversal of the movement, the Erector Spinae in conjunction with the Hamstring muscles and Gluteus Maximus muscles (buttocks) is primarily responsible for the extension of the back (straighten the spine) as well as more specific movements such as the extension of the neck and sidewards movement of the head…”

Multifidus – Smallest Yet Most Powerful Muscle
“ one of the smallest yet most “powerful” muscle that gives support to the spine. Most people have the misconception that small is insignificant but it is not the case when it comes to this particular ..”

Bird Dog Exercise: Can You Do All Four Variations?
By Marc Perry / 2.27.12 / Medically Reviewed
“…The Bird Dog exercise is a classic core exercise that emphasizes lower back strength and balance. If you’ve never done it before, the first few reps make seem awkward and difficult to balance, but once you get the form down, you’ll want to make it a staple in your exercise program.

Below are 4 variations of the bird dog exercise that are in order of difficulty from easiest to hardest…”

Function and Anatomy of Erector Spinae Muscles

Intrinsic back muscles – 3D anatomy tutorial
*ILikeStanding (Ilio Long Spin)


How To Deadlift: A Beginner’s Guide Todd Bumgardner, CSCS September 01, 2017 • 7 min read
“…So, why deadlift? Quite simply, the deadlift is one of the most effective exercises for developing the pure strength that’s a precursor to bodily size and athleticism. Since it’s a full-body exercise that recruits a lot of muscle mass, the deadlift also builds total-body muscle.1 It’s also one of the few exercises that directly targets the hamstrings, a group of muscles often neglected in the weight room.2

The deadlift also improves posture. We live most of our lives in front of our bodies, ignoring our rears. In turn, we develop bodily frames without balance, leading to a host of postural issues—hunched shoulders and weak backs, for example. Deadlifting reintroduces us to our body’s backside. Posterior training balances the body, giving us cause to stand taller and with greater strength.

In short, deadlifting will support your aesthetic goals, help you build better posture, correct various strength imbalances, help you build total strength, and turn you into a total gym badass. After all, there’s nothing quite like ripping heavy weight from the ground…”
Prone (Lying Face-Down) Back Extensions
Meet The Squats: 7 Squat Variations You Should Be Doing Christopher Smith, CSCS March 31, 2016 • 7 min read

*see Medical: How to “get rid” of back pain?


*see more Fitness: Lower Body Workout

Muscles of the lower extremities

Muscles of the Lower Limb

Muscles and Nerves of Lower Limb

*see Fitness: Various Exercises for the Hip

Hip Joint – Anatomy Pictures and Information – Human Anatomy › Skeletal System › Bones of the Leg and Foot
“…is one of the most important joints in the human body. It allows us to walk, run, and jump. It bears our body’s weight and the force of the strong muscles of the hip and leg. Yet the hip joint is also one of our most flexible joints and allows a greater range of motion than all other joints in the body except for the shoulder.

The hip joint is a ball-and-socket synovial joint formed between the os coxa (hip bone) and the femur. A round, cup-shaped structure on the os coax, known as the acetabulum, forms the socket for the hip joint. The rounded head of the femur…..”
Hip and thigh (Anatomy) – Study Guide | Kenhub
Muscles of the Hip?
The hip joint is one of the most flexible joints in the entire human body. The many muscles of the hip provide movement, strength, and stability to the hip joint and the bones of the hip and thigh. These muscles can be grouped based upon their location and function. The four groups are the anterior group, the posterior group, adductor group, and finally the abductor group…”

Muscles of the Hip and Thigh – Human Anatomy | Kenhub

Kinesiology of the Hip:
By Brent Brookbush MS, PES, CES, CSCS, ACSM H/FS


a. Biomechanics

What Are the 3 Main Hip Flexor Muscles?
by STEPHANIE CHANDLER Last Updated: Sep 11, 2017

Hip Flexor animation and tightness
What Are the 3 Main Hip Flexor Muscles?
by STEPHANIE CHANDLER Last Updated: Sep 11, 2017
‘…Iliopsoas..Sartorius…Rectus Femoris..”

b. Fitness/Exercises

8 Hip Flexor Stretches and Exercises for Healthy Hips
“..The hip flexors are the group of muscles that allow you to lift your knees toward your chest and bend forward from the hips. What is collectively referred to as the hip flexors is actually a group of muscles that includes the iliopsoas, the thigh muscles (rectus femoris, Sartorius and tensor fasciae latae), and the inner thigh muscles (adductor longus and brevis, pectineus and gracilis).

Tight hip flexors are a common problem among those of us who spend a lot of the day sitting at a desk. When you spend a lot of time in a seated position, the hip flexors remain in a shortened position. Over time, the shortened muscles become “tight,” which leads to its own set of problems…”

Problems: Sitting too much will increase lower back pain due to constant stretch of back muscles (e.g. Simple Test To See If You Have Tight Hip Flexors from

11 Exercises to Boost Hip Strength By Dan Kehlenbach

c. Hip Flexor Strains

Understanding Hip Flexor Strain Medically reviewed by William Morrison, MD on July 5, 2017 — Written by Rachel Nall, RN, BSN, CCRN
“…Hip flexor strain occurs when you use your hip flexor muscles and tendons too much. As a result, the muscles and tendons become inflamed, sore, and painful. Some people are more likely than others to experience hip flexor strain…

Thomas Test – Hip flexor muscle length.avi

Thomas Test Iliopsoas Tightness – YouTube

Iliopsoas From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“.. refers to the joined psoas and the iliacus muscles. The two muscles are separate in the abdomen, but usually merge in the thigh. As such, they are usually given the common name iliopsoas. The iliopsoas muscle joins to the femur at the lesser trochanter, and acts as the strongest flexor of the hip…”

The Thomas test video from Structure and Function of the Hip and Pelvis CEC course
*rectus fermosis (quads) & IT-band

Kneeling Hip Flexor Quad Triplanar Dynamic Stretch – YouTube


It’s important to rest the affected muscles if you have hip flexor strain. One thing you can do is change up your normal activities to avoid overstretching the muscle. For example, you could try swimming instead of riding a bicycle.
Home remedies

Most instances of hip flexor strain can be treated at home without the need for prescription medications or more invasive treatments. Here are some home remedies that can help relieve the pain of hip flexor strain:

1. Apply a cloth-covered ice pack to the affected area for 10- to 15-minute time increments…”


#3 Most Common Cause of Hip Pain – Rectus Femoris Origin Strain …

Hip Pain, Strain Of The Rectus Femoris , anatomy – YouTube

=>Illiac Crest (bone)

Hip Pointer:Causes, Signs, Symptoms & Treatment Explained – YouTube

2. Extension

a. Bio Mechanics

Muscles Used in Hip Extension by AUBREY BAILEY Last Updated: Jun 16, 2015
“…Gluteus Maximus…Hamstrings..”

How Do You Ease Pain In Gluteal Muscle? – YouTube

“..Gluteal tendinopathy usually causes lateral hip pain, muscular stiffness, and a spasm or tightness of this …..”



(a) Fitness

The 17 Best Glutes Exercises
Target your body’s largest and most powerful muscle group with these expert-approved moves

Exercise n. 6- Hip extension backward leg lifts – YouTube=

Also: Indoor cycling, power walking in steep inclines, running, stair climbing, etc..

(b.) Muscle strains

Gluteus Minimus Strain: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Recovery

Weak Glutes | Back Pain (HOW TO FIX IT!)
Published on Mar 9, 2017
Put the science back in strength –

(2) =>Hamstrings
*see Biceps femoris muscle From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
“ a muscle of the thigh located to the posterior, or back. As its name implies, it has two parts, one of which (the long head) forms part of the hamstrings muscle group…” &Hamstring
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
.”..In human anatomy, a hamstring is one of the three posterior thigh muscles in between the hip and the knee (from medial to lateral: semimembranosus, semitendinosus and biceps femoris).[3]..

(a). Fitness’s 10 Highest-Rated Hamstring Exercises Matt Biss March 01, 2016 • 3 min read
“…Most people think hamstrings only serve one function: knee flexion. In reality, the hamstrings are not one single muscle, but a group of muscles with multiple functions. The hammies’ most important function is hip extension, which is vital for explosiveness, sprinting, jumping, and even low-back health…”

At Home Hamstring Workout Video – Hamstring Exercises with No Equipment

Hamstrings Workout At Home | 5 Killer Exercises For Bigger And Stronger Hamstrings

Supine Ball Leg Curl for Strong Hamstrings, from

(b). Muscle Strains

Hamstring Injury: Hamstring Strain Symptoms, Causes, and Treatments
“..During a hamstring strain, one or more of these muscles gets overloaded. The muscles might even start to tear. You’re likely to get a hamstring strain during activities that involve a lot of running and jumping or sudden stopping and starting.

Getting a hamstring strain is also more likely if:

You don’t warm up before exercising.
The muscles in the front of your thigh (the quadriceps) are tight as they pull your pelvis forward and tighten the hamstrings.
Weak glutes. Glutes and hamstrings work together. If the glutes are weak, hamstrings can be over loaded and become strained.



What’s the Treatment for a Hamstring Strain?

Luckily, minor to moderate hamstring strains usually heal on their own. You just need to give them some time. To speed the healing, you can:

Rest the leg. Avoid putting weight on the leg as best you can. If the pain is severe, you may need crutches until it goes away. Ask your doctor or physical therapist if they’re needed.
Ice your leg to reduce pain and swelling. Do it for 20-30 minutes every three to four hours for two to three days, or until the pain is gone.
Compress your leg. Use an elastic bandage around the leg to keep down swelling.
Elevate your leg on a pillow when you’re sitting or lying down….”

Best Tight Hamstring Treatment for Injury or Strain – Stretch – YouTube


Hamstring Injury – Your ASS is to BLAME! (literally) – YouTube

3. Abduction

a. Bio Mechanics

4. Hip Rotation

a. Bio Mechanics

Hip External Rotators

06 Hip external rotation – YouTube

b. Exercises-stretching

External Hip Rotator Stretches
by JOSHUA MCCARRON Last Updated: Sep 11, 2017
Hip External Rotation Exercise
*helps with knee stress from collapse legs
Hip External Rotator Strengthening Exercise from

5. Hip Adduction

a. Bio Mechanics

Anatomy of the Hip Adductors – Human Anatomy | Kenhub – YouTube

b. Stretches

PNF Stretching for the Adductors Muscles – Kinetic Health

=>Lower Half

*see Fitness: Lower Body Workout

Trochanteric Bursitis

Hip Bursitis 3D Video: Watch How it is Caused, Know Its … – YouTube

5 Top Exercises for Trochanteric Bursitis of the Hip – YouTube

Quadriceps femoris muscle From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Not to be confused with quadratus femoris.
“..(Latin for “four-headed muscle of the femur”), also called simply the quadriceps, quadriceps extensor, or quads, is a large muscle group that includes the four prevailing muscles on the front of the thigh…

Quadriceps femoris, with different muscles in different colors.
rectus femoris – blue
vastus lateralis – yellow
vastus intermedius – green
vastus medialis – red…”

Kneeling Hip Flexor Quad Triplanar Dynamic Stretch – YouTube

How to Stretch and Release the Iliopsoas – YouTube

Best psoas muscle trigger point stretch – iliopsoas muscle release – hip …

*see Medical: Knee Dislocation-Causes, treatment, healing, etc…?

2. Common Injuries

(upper hip -> thigh-> upper knee)

-Iliotibial Band Syndrome

Iliotibial tract From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedi
“..The iliotibial tract or iliotibial band ((also known as Maissiat’s band or IT Band) is a longitudinal fibrous reinforcement of the fascia lata. The action of the ITB and its associated muscles is to extend, abduct, and laterally rotate the hip. In addition, the ITB contributes to lateral knee stabilization…”

Iliotibial Band Syndrome Of The Knee – Everything You Need To Know …

“..Dr. Ebraheim’s animated educational video describes iliotibial band syndrome of the knee. Inflammation and thickening of the iliotibial band result from excessive friction as the iliotibial band slides over the lateral femoral condyle. The iliotibial band is a thick band of fascia that extends along the lateral thigh from the iliac crest to the knee. It inserts into the Gerdy’s tubercle of the tibia. The iliotibial band is a continuation of the tensor fascia lata muscle. The tensor fascia lata muscle arises from the outer surface of the anterior iliac crest, between the tubercle of the iliac spine and inserts into the iliotibial tract. The gluteus maximus also inserts into the iliotibial band. Function of the iliotibial band The IT band extends, abducts and laterally rotates the hip. The IT band also contributes to lateral knee stabilization. The IT band is repeatedly shifted forward and backward across the lateral femoral condyle. Impingement usually occurs around 30 degrees of knee flexion. There may be swelling, tenderness and crepitus over the lateral femoral condyle. The condition of ITBS around the knee most commonly occurs in runners, cyclists and other athletes undergoing exercise with repetitive knee flexion and extension. The IT band inserts into Gerdy’s tubercle. The pain is proximal to the Gerdy’s tubercle. The pain may be reproduced by doing single leg squat. Predisposing factors..”

Top 3 Treatments For Iliotibial Band (ITB) Syndrome – YouTube

What Are The Causes Of Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome or … – YouTube

Knee anatomy and patellofemoral pain – YouTube

“..The Bio Skin Q Lok Dynamic Patella Traction Brace corrects patella tracking problems and treats anterior knee pain. Left untreated, a maltracking patella can lead to long-term effects such as chondromalacia. The QLok will reduce patellofemoral pain my increasing surface contact area in the patellofemoral joint…”

-infrapatellar tendinitis ( “jumper’s knee”)

Patellar tendinitis: Signs, symptoms and remedies for this … – YouTube

The Patella Tendonitis Cure – YouTube

Foot and Ankle

Foot Muscles Anatomy part 1/2

Muscles of the ankle/foot

Plantar flexion and dorsal flexion

Muscles That Move the Foot and Toes

Anatomy Of The Foot & Ankle – Everything You Need To Know – Dr. Nabil Ebraheim

*see What’s Your Achilles Heel?
Jacob in the Bible
Who did Jacob wrestle with and how did Jacob become Israel?

Megan Sauter • 08/15/2016


-Calf Exercises

What Is The Best Calf Building Workout?
Top 5 Calf Exercises Without Weights : Exercises to Build & Tone Muscle
*others: hill running, jumping rope, cycling,stair climbing, bent-knee toe raises with resistance, etc..
Fitness: Various Feet Exercises

=>Muscle Strains

Causes and Symptoms of Torn Calf Muscle – YouTube

Calf Muscle – Guide on, Causes, Prevention & Rehabilitation

Calf Muscle Strain – YouTube
Published on Jun 25, 2009
Healing and treating a calf strain can take time and patience. Learn how to treat sports injuries in this video on health and rehab. ..”

“20 minutes of ice” then wait another 2 hours before repeating

-Other Common Injuries

=>Shin Splints
*see Medical: What are parts of the Skeletal System?

What are Shin Splints? and How to Cure them – YouTube

How to Cure Shin Splints in About 5 Minutes – YouTube

Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome / MTSS / Shin Splints – YouTube

Kinesio Tape Anterior Shin Splints – YouTube

=> Ankle Sprains

Ankle Sprains (Types and Symptoms) – YouTube

=> Achilles Tendonitis

Achilles Tendonitis / Tendinopathy – Explained in 90 Seconds – YouTube

How to Heal Achilles Tendon Injuries – YouTube

=> Plantar Fasciitis

Plantar Fasciitis: FIx it Forever – YouTube

Plantar Fasciitis: The 2 Minute Fix – YouTube

*see Fitness: Various kinds of Stretches

Medical Conditions

Common Muscular Diseases by HANNAH RICE MYERS Last Updated: Aug 14, 2017
“..The human body consists of approximately 640 muscles that are named, in addition to an innumerable amount of smaller muscles that are not. All of these muscles combined play an intricate role in the way your body moves and works, each with a different job. As with any part of your body, muscles can become weak or injured due to a variety of disorders or diseases…

Sprains and Strains

While similar in how the injury is obtained, the difference between sprains and strains is the area of the body affected. A sprain is a stretched or torn ligament, while a strain is is a stretched or torn muscle or tendon.

Ligaments are the tissues responsible for connecting the bones at the joint, such as an ankle or wrist. Common causes of sprains include …

Tendons connect the muscle to the bone and are affected during a strain. …. The most common symptoms include muscle spasms, difficulty moving the injured area, pain and swelling.

In both cases, treatment typically includes rest, ice, bandaging the area so it remains immobilized and pain medications that reduce swelling, such as ibuprofen. Physical therapy may later be necessary.


Myositis is an inflammation of muscle fibers — a group of muscle diseases in which inflammation and degenerative changes occur. …

The most common diseases associated with myositis are dermatomyositis and polymyositis. While polymyositis results in muscle weakness in the muscles that are closest to the trunk of your body, dermatomyositis causes both muscle weakness and a skin rash. In both instances, the doctor typically treats with prednisone, a steroid.

Muscle Cramps

Muscle cramps are sudden and involuntary and can happen in one or more of your muscles at once. …

Muscular Dystrophy

Muscular dystrophy is not one muscular disease but a group of 30 genetic diseases that affect the muscles, causing weakness and complete loss and degeneration of the muscle. ..


*see Deep Thought: Why doesn’t God “heal” everybody?


Jesus Heals Woman with Muscular Dystrophy – Popular Christian Videos

Angie Healed of Muscular Dystrophy in Wisconsin – YouTube

Lifetime of Muscular Dystrophy & spinal prolapses healed – John …

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Good News Medical

“Disclaimer: No part of this site is intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any illness. Nothing on this site is to be construed as medical advice; the authors are not doctors. Please discuss your personal health, including any options or ideas you may read on the internet (on this site or others) with your personal, qualified health practitioner before making changes to your diet or adjusting/discontinuing any medication. We are not responsible for any adverse outcomes associated with using or misconstruing advice or information on this site. THANK YOU for stopping at our site! May you find what your looking for and “God speed” to good health and prosperity!”



Medical: What causes flatulence” (“gas”)?

Flatulence: Causes, symptoms, and remedies Last updated Wed 24 May 2017 By Christian Nordqvist
R eviewed by University of Illinois-Chicago, School of Medicine
“…gas, mainly in the form of hydrogen, methane, and carbon dioxide, is released.

As the gas builds up, the body may need to eliminate it, either through the mouth, by belching, or by passing wind through the anal passage.

Flatulence often occurs without the person being aware of it. There is no smell, and the amount is tiny. When there is a smell, there are usually small amounts of sulfur gases. If food has not been properly digested, it starts to decompose, or rot, releasing sulfur.


Five reasons why you might be farting so much – and what makes them so smelly ByZahra Mulroy, 10:38, 29 APR 2016 Updated13:43, 20 FEB 2017

We fart on average fourteen times a day, but there are a few reasons why the ‘quality’ and quantity can change for the worst

Here Is What Your Farts Reveal About Your Health

“…Regular farting is a sign that you’re consuming enough fiber, and have a healthy collection of bacteria in your intestines.
Cracking the Code of Breaking Wind

If you’re wondering how on earth the smell (or frequency) of farts could possibly give you clues to your health, you’re not alone. We’ve cracked the code of “cutting the cheese” so that these inevitable puffs of air and gases can help you learn more about your body and its health.
Stinky Farts

About one percent of th..”

Passing gas 101: What your flatulence patterns mean for your health By Loren Grush Published April 01, 2014 · Fox News
“…Some people may lack certain enzymes in their small intestines,” Sam said. “A common problem is lactose intolerance, where individuals lack the lactase enzyme, which breaks down lactose” – a sugar found in milk and most dairy products. “This causes diarrhea and bloating, because that [sugar] stays in the small bowel and causes more gas production.”

While excessive flatulence can reveal a lack of compounds in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, it can also indicate an overabundance of GI components. ..”

WHAT are your farts telling you? Nutritionist Kim D’Eon decodes main causes of your gas.

“Published on Sep 23, 2015

In this video, holistic nutritionist Kim D’Eon reviews the top 7 reasons you might have excessive gas aka: a farting problem.

In no particular order, your gas might be telling you:
1. You have a carb intolerance
2. You have a dairy intolerance
3. You’re easting too much meat
4. You’re combining the wrongs foods
5. You’re constipated
6. You have a yeast overgrowth
7. You might have an infection


8 Gas-Reducing Ideas To Stop Flatulence The Editors of Prevention
“…Avoid Gas-Promoting Foods

The primary cause of flatulence is the digestive system’s inability to absorb certain carbohydrates, says Samuel Klein, MD. Though you probably know that beans are surefire flatus producers, many people don’t realize that cabbage, broccoli, brussels sprouts, onions, cauliflower, whole wheat flour, radishes, bananas, apricots, pretzels, and many more foods can also be highly flatugenic.


Flatulence (Gas) Excessive Causes, Remedies and Relief

“…•Natural and home remedies for excessive gas or flatulence include dietary changes since chronic flatulence is often caused by certain foods that can be eliminated from the diet.
•Medical treatment for excessive flatulence or may include antibiotic treatment, increased dietary fiber intake, and including probiotics in the diet (recommended by some, but not all health-care professionals). More serious causes of excessive flatulence (for example, irritable bowel syndrome [IBS] and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth [SIBO]) may require additional medication and testing.

How to stop smelly farts of flatuence ?

Natural Remedy for Gas…
“…A Natural Remedy for Gas That Works Every Time…

So enough of the jokes. If you’re here looking for a natural remedy for gas then you obviously need it taken care of sooner rather than later. Fortunately, flatulence and bloating are easy to fix with home remedies, as you’re about to discover…

Natural Remedy for Gas #12:

Probiotics: Taking a good quality probiotic supplement everyday is the standard “must do” for digestive health. New research has found that probiotics not only help prevent a whole range of diseases, they also help to keep your bowel in tip-top working order. This is extremely important as a correct working bowel gets rid of waste quickly and stops the build up of foul smelling gas and stools. For pregnant and breastfeeding women, probiotics are especially important for a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby!

Any other suggestions, feedback, personal stories, etc..?

Good News Medical


Medical: What are some important parts of the Nervous System?

Nervous System,


The nervous system consists of the brain, spinal cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that connect these organs with the rest of the body. Together, these organs are responsible for the control of the body and communication among its parts. The brain and spinal cord form the control center known as the central nervous system (CNS), where information is evaluated and decisions made. The sensory nerves and sense organs of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) monitor…

Nervous Tissue
The majority of the nervous system is tissue made up of two classes of cells: neurons and neuroglia….

There are 3 basic classes of neurons: afferent neurons, efferent neurons, and interneurons.

Neuroglia. Neuroglia, also known as glial cells, act as the “helper” cells of the nervous system. E..

The brain and spinal cord together form the central nervous system (CNS), where information is processed and responses originate. The brain, the seat of higher mental functions such…

Nerves are bundles of axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) that act as information highways to carry signals between the brain and spinal cord and the rest of the body.

Each axon is wrapped in a connective tissue sheath called the endoneurium. Individual axons of the nerve are bundled into groups of axons called fascicles, wrapped in a sheath of connective tissue called the perineurium. Finally, many fascicles are wrapped together in another layer of connective tissue called the epineurium to form a whole nerve. The wrapping of nerves with connective tissue helps to protect the axons and to increase the speed of their communication within the body.

Afferent, Efferent, and Mixed Nerves. Some of the nerves in the body are specialized for carrying information in only one direction, similar to a one-way street. Nerves that carry information from sensory receptors to the central nervous system only are called afferent nerves. Other neurons, known as efferent nerves, carry signals only from the central nervous system to effectors such as muscles and glands. Finally, some nerves are mixed nerves that contain both afferent and efferent axons. Mixed nerves function like 2-way streets where afferent axons act as lanes heading toward the central nervous system and efferent axons act as lanes heading away from the central nervous system.

Peripheral Nervous System

Somatic Nervous System
The somatic nervous system (SNS) is a division of the PNS that includes all of the voluntary efferent neurons. The SNS is the only consciously controlled part of the PNS and is responsible for stimulating skeletal muscles in the body.

Autonomic Nervous System
The autonomic nervous system (ANS) is a division of the PNS that includes all of the involuntary efferent neurons. The ANS controls subconscious effectors such as visceral muscle tissue, cardiac muscle tissue, and glandular tissue.

There are 2 divisions of the autonomic nervous system in the body: the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions.

Sympathetic. The sympathetic division forms the body’s “fight or flight” response to stress, danger, excitement, exercise, emotions, and embarrassment….

Parasympathetic. The parasympathetic division forms the body’s “rest and digest” response when the body is relaxed, resting, or feeding. …

Enteric Nervous System

mostly works independently of the CNS and continues to function without any outside input. For this reason, the ENS is often called the “brain of the gut” or the body’s “second brain.” The ENS is an immense system—almost as many neurons exist in the ENS as in the spinal cord….

Anatomy and Physiology of Nervous System Part Brain – YouTube

Anatomy and Physiology of Nervous System Part I Neurons

“function of nervous system parts of the nervous system structure of brain nerve cell function anatomy physiology human cell structure parts of nervous system human brain facts the human anatomy human tissue brain system diseases of nervous system neurons in the brain anatomy human human body cells physiology and anatomy neurons function function of neuron nerve cell structure neurons in brain about human body human tissues function of neurons human blood cells neuron structure and function human brain function what is a nerve cell nervous cell what are the parts of the nervous system function of nerve cell nerve cells function human anatomy physiology the human brain facts human anatomy parts the brain anatomy tissues of the human body nervous diseases part of the nervous system nerves function types of human cells..”
Calcium signal communication in the central nervous system.
“…The communication of calcium signals between cells is known to be operative between neurons where these signals integrate intimately with electrical and chemical signal communication at synapses. Recently, it has become clear that glial cells also exchange calcium signals between each other in cultures and in brain slices. This communication pathway has received utmost attention since it is known that astro..”
10 Ways to Increase the Dopamine In Your Brain
“…More specifically, exercise increases multiple neurotransmitters – serotonin and endorphins, besides dopamine, receive a boost. Here’s something else cool: the exercise needn’t not be arduous. Simply taking a stroll or climbing some stairs will achieve a good dopamine jolt…”
*increase will help decrease Parkinson symptoms
Anatomy and Physiology of Nervous System Part Spinal Cord Nerves

Afferent (sensory “going in”) & Efferent (motor-“going out”)

12.1 Basic Structure and Function of the Nervous System

Diagram of the Human Nervous System (Infographic) By Ross Toro, Infographics Artist | March 18, 2013 01:16pm ET

Infographic: Drawing explains the parts of the human nervous system.

Role of Proprioceptors

“..are constantly determining the body’s position and the way it is moving through space. Changes in tension, sensations of stretch, and muscles responses provide information to the brain that determines whether the body is walking, sitting, standing, running, or dancing. Action potentials reach the cerebellum and transmit into this information. This information is then used to fine tune the body’s responses, such as initiate muscle contractions to enhance speed…”

Sensory Nerves and Receptors of Muscles and Tendons
Chapter 9 / Lesson 10 Transcript

Muscle Activation and Inhibition: GTOs, spindles and reciprocal inhibition
“Published on Jan 24, 2013
Methods of activation and inhibition of muscles using the GTOs and spindle receptors. Also, therapeutic use of reciprocal inhibition is presented to improve stretch therapies”

Proprioception and kinesthesia | Processing the Environment | MCAT | Khan Academy

2.4 EN: Proprioceptors

Muscle spindles: basic mechanism of these stretch sensors

“Published on Nov 7, 2011
Explaining muscle spindles reflex arc and its response to rapid strecth as a injury prevention mechanism”

What is Proprioception and Why is it Important? | Portland Chiropractor

“Published on Feb 16, 2015
Proprioception is defined as our body’s ability to know where it is in space. Training our proprioceptive pathways is a vital part of the rehab process and often left out of more traditional rehab plans.”

Good News Medical

Common Medical Conditions

*see Medical: How to apply First Aid?

Neurological Disorders

Common Neurological Disorders

Common Neurological Disorders – YouTube


Medical: How to get rid of that “dizziness”?

Health: How to deal with those headaches-migraines?

*see Medical: Epileptic or Epilepsy-Causes, Prevention, and Treatment?

Understanding Epilepsy (Epilepsy #1) – YouTube

What to Do for Someone Having a Seizure | Epilepsy – YouTube

First Aid in Seizures – YouTube

*see Health: How to “deal” with concussions?

How to Recognize & Treat a Concussion | First Aid Training – YouTube

Health: How to treat Neurological Disorders-Ataxia, Cerebral Palsy, etc…?

Medical: Cerebral Palsy types-Spastic Diplegia, etc…

Cancer type: How to fight a Brain Tumor ?


Neurological Diseases – YouTube

Health: How to reverse memory loss?

*see Medical: What to do with a severe nerve damage?


Peripheral Neuropathy Relief in the Feet & Legs – Ask … – YouTube

Diabetic Foot Strengthening Exercises – YouTube
*see Health: How to “fight” Diabetes?

Best Exercises for your Feet. Foot Strength and Stretch … – YouTube

*see Fitness: Various Feet Exercises


Fitness: Medical-Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

Muscle stretch reflex

*see Fitness: Various kinds of Stretches

Reciprocal and Autogenic Inhibition

Muscle Activation and Inhibition: GTOs, spindles and reciprocal inhibition


Pectoralis minor
“.. is a thin, flat muscle found immediately underneath the pectoralis major. This is the smaller of the two pectoral muscles, or muscles of the chest…”
doorway stretch
Contract (opposite muscle)->
rhomboid major muscle
“… is located in the back region and helps keep the scapula, or shoulder blade, attached to the ribcage. It also rotates the scapula and retracts it towards the spinal column. ..”

Good News Fitness


Medical: What are parts of the Skeletal System?

ACE Chapter 1 Skeletal System Flashcards | Quizlet

Skeletal System Structures and Functions – YouTube
Video for skeletal system function and structure▶ 8:42


1. Axial Skeleton
2. Appendicular Skeleton

How to Learn the Human Bones | Tips to Memorize the Skeletal Bones

Bones Song

Bone Names Have Meaning – Part 1 – Get Started

Major Bones of the Body


Medical Definition of Lateral
“…1. In anatomy, the side of the body or a body part that is farther from the middle or center of the body. Typically, lateral refers to the outer side of the body part, but it is also used to refer to the side of a body part. For example, when referring to the knee, lateral refers to the side of the knee farthest from the opposite knee. The opposite of lateral is medial.
2. In radiology, slang for a lateral X-ray…”

Medical Definition of Scapula
“…Scapula: The shoulder blade (or “wingbone”), the familiar flat triangular bone at the back of the shoulder.

The word “scapula” (with the accent on the first syllable) is Latin. The Romans always employed the plural “scapulae”, the shoulder blades. Because the shoulder blade resembles the blade of a trowel (a small shovel), the word “scapula” is thought to have come from the Greek “skaptein” meaning “to dig.”

The term “subscapular” means under (sub) the scapula. The subscapularis muscle originates beneath the scapula. This muscle moves the arm by turning it inward (internal rotation). The subscapularis muscle tendon is part of the rotator cuff…’


Fundamental Movements (From Anatomical Position)


Types of Joints

Types of Joints
(between bones in the human body)

Different types of joints enable the bones forming the joints to move relative to each other in different ways and to different extents, i.e. from freely moveable to hardly any movement at all.

The types of joints in the human body can be classified according to either

the structure of the joint (how the bones are attached together) or
the function of the joint (described in terms of the extent of possible movement of the bones forming the joint).

There is, of cours….”

1. Structural Classes of Joint

a. fibrous
b. cartilaginous

c. Synovial

Joint Movements

This page lists with short definitions the types of movements at synovial joints.

Joint movements of this type are also known as anatomical movements. For more detailed information about a specific movement click the the name of the joint movement in the tables below (pink links in bold).
Angular Movements

Angular movements invo…”
9.5 Types of Body Movements
“…Overall, each type of synovial joint is necessary to provide the body with its great flexibility and mobility. There are many types of movement that can occur at synovial joints (Table 1). Movement types are generally paired, with one being the opposite of the other. Body movements are always described in relation to the anatomical position of the body: upright stance, with upper limbs to the side of body and palms facing forward. Refer to Figure 1 as you go through this section…”

(1) Planes of Movement
“Sagittal Plane

The Sagittal plane passes through the body front to back, so dividing it into left and right. Movements in this plane are the up and down movements of flexion and extension
Frontal Plane

The frontal plane divides the body into front and back. Movements in this plane are sideways movements, called abduction and adduction
Transverse Plane

This plane divides the body into top and bottom. Movements in this plane are rotational in nature, such as internal and external rotation, pronation and supination
Anatomical Position..”

(2) 4 General Groups of movements that occur in the synovial joints throughout thebody: gliding, angular, circumduction, and rotation
(3) 4 Angualar Movements for Synovial Joints: flexion, extensin, abduction, and adduction

Anatomical Terms of

Describing Skeletal Muscles: A Review of Muscle Attachments And Actions
Flexion and extension. Flexion and extension are usually movements forward and backward from the body, such as nodding the head…

Abduction and adduction.

Abduction and adduction are usually side-to-side movements, such as moving the arm laterally when doing jumping jacks.

Pronation and supination.

Describing the rotation of the forearm back and forth requires special terms. Spread your fingers out and look at the palms of your hands and the fingers and then rotate your palms to look at your nails. Now look at your palms again. That’s forearm supination and pronation….

Elevation and depression.

Elevation and depression are up-and-down movements, such as chewing or shrugging your shoulders. When you move the mandible down to open the mouth, that’s mandible depression. Move the mandible back up, that’s mandible elevation…

Protraction and retraction.

By moving your jaw back and forth in a jutting motion, you are protracting and retracting your mandible.
Inversion and eversion.

You invert your foot when you turn it inward to see what is stuck under your shoe. You evert your foot to put the sole of your shoe back on the floor.

…Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion.

You dorsiflex your feet to walk on your heels, and plantar flex them to tiptoe….

Fundamental Movements

Fundamental Movements (From Anatomical Position) at American …

Good News Medical


The Wolff’s Law On Bone Transformation And Remodeling, Part I
“..Bone is anisotropic (it has different strength and stiffness depending on the direction of the load). Bone will grow, build, adapt, transform, and remodel due to enormous stress or force. The larger the forces the shin bone sustains, the greater the osteoblast response.

For example, by sitting with 30 lb ankle weight on each leg, the ankle weight and the earth’s gravitational pull will cause your shin bone to remodel. Thus, by eating nutritional foods and taking supplements daily, your shin bone mass density begins to thicken and lengthen due to the downward force exerted by the weights & gravity…’

  • Wolff’s Law – Definition in Physical Therapy
    This is How Your Bones Heal
    By Brett Sears, PT | Reviewed by a board-certified physician
    Updated June 27, 2017

    Wolff’s Law states that bone grows and remodels in response to the forces that are placed upon it. After injury to bone, placing specific stress in specific directions to the bone can help it remodel and become normal healthy bone again. Your physical therapist should understand Wolff’s law to help guide your rehabilitation after a fracture or broken bone.
    How Does Wolff’s Law Apply to Physical Therapy

    Wolff’s Law applies to physical therapy in the treatment of osteoporosis and after a fracture.

    If you have osteoporosis, your bones may be brittle and weak. This can lead to pathologic fracture, most commonly in the spine or hip. Weight-bearing and strength exercises are usually recommended as a non-medicinal treatment for osteoporosis.

    If you have suffered a fracture, bone healing occurs while you have been immobilized with a cast or splint. After immobilization, gentle range of motion and stress can help improve the overall strength of your bone. This can help ensure that your bone is able to tolerate the loads and stresses that you may encounter during normal functional activities…

    Your PT can help guide you by prescribing the right exercises for you to do that will add a gradual and progressive stress to your injured bone.

    For example, after an ankle fracture, your doctor may order that you remain non-weight bearing for a few weeks immediately after the injury. During this time, there may be some benefit of early mobilization for your ankle. Your physical therapist can prescribe safe exercises that you can do that will place gentle stress through your bone while helping you maintain mobility….”

    Exercises to build Bone and Muscle Strength

    Bone Remodeling (Wolff’s Law), Muscle & Nerve Conditioning, Training for Stronger Harder Strikes

    How to Grow Your Bones

    Exercise for Your Bone Health
    “..The Best Bone Building Exercise

    The best exercise for your bones is the weight-bearing kind, which forces you to work against gravity. Some examples of weight-bearing exercises include weight training, walking, hiking, jogging, climbing stairs, tennis, and dancing. Examples of exercises that are not weight-bearing include swimming and bicycling. Although these activities help build and maintain strong muscles and have excellent cardiovascular benefits, they are not the best way to exercise your bones…”

    Common Injuries

    Itis Schmitis – Tendinitis, bursitis, periostitis, fasciitis and other painful …
    “… Periostitis

    Periostitis is an inflammation of the sufface of the bone. It is most commonly felt along the inside of the leg along the shin bone and is one diagnosis of the condition called shinsplints. The pain is sometimes accompanied by swelling, redness and nodules. If you feel tenderness when touching a specific point on your shin or when tapping along the length of the bone, you may have a stress fracture instead…


    Fasciitis is an inflammation of the muscle fasciae, sheets of fibrous tissue that enclose muscle and muscle groups. One of the most common types is plantar fasciitis, an inflammation of the fascia on the bottom of the foot. It can cause a knifelike pain in the bottom of the foot at every step…

    How Are Tendonitis and Bursitis Different? By Jonathan Cluett, MD, a board-certified physician Updated October 30, 2017
    Two Individual Conditions With Shared Characteristics
    “..Comparing Tendinitis and Bursitis

    Broadly speaking, tendinitis and bursitis are differentiated by the types of tissue affected:

    Tendinitis refers to inflammation of the tendon, the rope-like, fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone. When a muscle flexes or relaxes, the tendon acts like a winch and causes the bone to move. Tendons can be small, like those found in the hands and feet, or large, like the Achilles tendon.

    Bursitis is the inflammation of the fluid-filled sac, called the bursa, which acts as a cushion between bones and the tendons or muscles surrounding the bone. The bursa greatly reduces the friction as these structures regularly rub against each other. The major bursae are located adjacent to the tendons of the large joints, such as those in the shoulders, elbows, hips, and knees…”

    Ligament Sprains

    Ligaments – What Are Ligaments – Functions Of Ligaments – YouTube

    -Lower Body


    Knee Ligament Sprain – YouTube

    ACL injury compilation – YouTube

    ACL Tear (Sports Injury) – YouTube

    ACL Surgery – 3D Reconstruction – YouTube
    *see What is an ACL, PCL, and their functions? | Sports Knee Therapy
    Knee Injury
    -> Muscle Tendon Injuries, MCL and LCL Injuries, ACL Injuries, and Meniscus Tears
    “..The stability of the knee joint is maintained by four ligaments, thick bands of tissue that stabilize the joint. The medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) are on the sides of the knee and prevent the joint from sliding sideways. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior ..”

    =>Foot Area

    ~Ankle Sprains

    Three Types of Ankle Sprains: Degrees of Severity Can Vary By BetterBraces Editor
    “..There are two different types of an ankle sprain.

    The inversion ankle sprain is the most common type of sprain and occurs when the foot falls inward and stretches the outer ligaments too far. Pain occurs on the outside of the ankle and not on the inside of the ankle.
    The eversion ankle sprain occurs when the foot is twisted outwards and the inner ligament is stretched too far. Pain will occur on the inside, and not the outside, of the ankle.

    5 Home Remedies for a Sprained Ankle
    By Game Ready | Dec 07, 2016 |

    “… Apply a static or elastic compression bandage to limit swelling

    Elevation – Reduce the flow of blood and other fluids by elevating the ankle above the heart

    It might seem simple, but RICE therapy is truly effective. Start it as soon as possible after the ankle sprain occurs in order to control the body’s natural inflammatory response….

    Ankle Sprain – Treatment Overview
    “… Ice. For the first 48 to 72 hours or until swelling goes down, apply an ice pack for 10 to 20 minutes every 1 to 2 hours during the day. After 48 hours, you can continue with ice or try contrast baths. There is not good scientific evidence that ice or contrast baths help, but they are often used…

    Different Types Of Ankle Sprain Physiotherapy Treatment at … – YouTube

    ~ Achilles Tendonitis

    Top 3 Exercises for Achilles Tendonitis-Selected by … – YouTube

    Achilles Tendon/Heel Pain: How to treat (PhysicalTherapy) – YouTube

    ~ Plantar Fasciitis
    *see Calcaneus (Heel Bone) Fractures

    The bones of the feet are commonly divided into three parts: the hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot. Seven bones — called tarsals — make up the hindfoot and midfoot. The calcaneus (heel bone) is the largest of the tarsal bones in the foot. It lies at the back of the foot (hindfoot) below the three bones that make up the ankle joint. These three bones are the:

    Tibia — shinbone
    Fibula—smaller bone in the lower leg
    Talus—small foot bone that works as a hinge between the tibia and the fibula

    Together, the calcaneus and the talus form the subtalar joint. The subtalar joint allows side-to-side movement of the hindfoot and is especially important for balance on uneven surfaces…”

    Plantar Fasciitis Diagnosis & Treatment – YouTube

    The Instant Cure for Plantar Fasciitis! – YouTube

    Cartilage Damage

    Cartilage Damage: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatments Last updated Thu 9 June 2016 By Christian Nordqvist Reviewed by William Morrison, MD

    Cartilage is a connective tissue found in many parts of the body. Although it is a tough and flexible material, it is relatively easy to damage.

    This fine, rubbery tissue acts as a cushion between the bones of joints. People with cartilage damage commonly experience joint pain, stiffness, and inflammation (swelling). ..”

    The Good Doctor – How to Avoid Cartilage Damage – YouTube

    *see Health: How to deal with arthritis as one ages?

    Bone Fractures
    *see Medical: How to apply First Aid?

    Different types of Fractures – A Simple Classification of Fractures
    By Dr Arun Pal Singh
    “..For this discussion we would stick to the basic and general classification of the fractures of long bones. We have already discussed closed and open fractures. That is one type of classification according to absence or presence of wounds that communicate with fracture.

    Fractures are also classified according to the pattern in which bone breaks. Let us take them one by one..”

    What Is The Difference Between An Open Fracture And A Closed …

    Fractures, Types And Mechanisms – Everything You Need … – YouTube
    “..Educational video describing fracture types and the mechanisms of injury. There are many types of fractures, however, the main types are described as either displaced, non-displaced, open and closed. Displaced and non-displaced fractures refer to the way the bone breaks. A very small crack in the bone is often referred to as a “hairline” fracture. This is an incomplete fracture usually resulting from a minor injury that does not go all the way through the bone. A greenstick fracture is an incomplete fracture in which the bone is bent. This fracture type is most often found in children. A transverse fracture is a simple fracture that is complete. It occurs due to the tension of the bone. Oblique fracture occurs due to a compression fracture. It is slight obliquity of the fracture. Bending fracture pattern It is part transverse and part oblique. It occurs due to bending force. Butterfly fracture pattern It occurs due to bending force and axial loading. Spiral fracture occurs due to torsion force. Comminuted fracture occurs due to high energy force. A fracture can be either closed or open. Fractures than penetrate the skin are open. Fractures that do not penetrate the skin are closed…”


    Bone Fracture (Broken Bone) (cont.)
    “…When outside forces such as a direct blows or falls are applied to bone it has the potential to fail. Fractures occur when bone cannot withstand those outside forces. Fracture, break, or crack all mean the same thing. One term does not imply a more or less severe injury. The integrity of the bone has been damaged, causing the bone structure to fail, which results in a fracture or broken bone.

    Broken bones are painful for a variety of reasons:..

    Fractures can occur because of direct blows, twisting injuries, or falls. The type of forces or trauma applied to the bone determine what type of injury that occurs. Some fractures occur without any obvious trauma due to osteoporosis, defined as the loss of bone mass or a congenital bone cyst that has been present since birth, which causes a weak area in the bone…”

    *see Health: How to repair and deal with “loss” cartilage?

    What is the most common cause of bone fractures among older adults?
    “..Falls are the leading cause for emergency room (ER) visits and overnight hospital stays for adults 65 and older. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), unintentional falls are the most common cause of bone fractures among older adults, which can affect the hips, arms, legs, hands, pelvis and spine. Additionally, falls can result in severe bruising and head trauma, including traumatic brain injuries with long- and short-term consequences. ..”

    *see Fitness: “Energy” Tips for Aging-Seniors-Elderly-“Older” Age Adults

    Bone Fracture – Types, Fracture Repair and Osteomyelitis – YouTube

    First Aid for Broken Bones – YouTube

    Healing Process of Bone Fracture – YouTube

    Better Bones-How to speed fracture healing

    “..Physiology of fracture healing

    Fracture healing involves complex processes of cell and tissue proliferation and differentiation. Many players are involved, including growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, antioxidants, bone breakdown (osteoclast) and bone-building (osteoblast) cells, hormones, amino acids, and uncounted nutrients.

    Fracture healing can be divided into three phases.

    The inflammation phase is the first stage of healing. Immediately upon fracture, a blood clot forms, allowing the influx of inflammatory, clean-up cells to the wound area. ..

    The second, reparative stage begins about two weeks after the fracture occurs….

    The final step of fracture repair is known as the remodeling phase…..

    5 nutritional steps to accelerate fracture healing

    People who have had a fracture aren’t often told that they can do anything to make their bones heal faster — at most, they’re told to limit the use of the injured bone or limb (not easy to do if the fracture is in your spine!). But there are a number of methods you can employ to reduce your healing time:

    1. Provide the body with adequate energy

    Fracture healing requires more energy than you might expect. Thus, it’s appropriate to increase your caloric intake to promote healing…
    2. Check your protein intake

    Bone can be imagined as being somewhat like a sponge made of living protein upon which mineral crystals are embedded…..In addition, protein supplementation increases growth factors like insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a polypeptide that exerts a positive effect on skeletal integrity, muscle strength, immune response, and bone renewal…

    3. Increase anti-inflammatory nutrients

    Antioxidants repair oxidative damage. When a bone fracture occurs, a remarkable yield of free radicals is generated by the damaged tissues. In particular, this damage occurs as the tightly bound collagen strands running through the mineral phase of bone are forcefully broken. …. In such cases, antioxidants — including vitamins E and C, lycopene, and alpha-lipoic acid — have been suggested to be beneficial in suppressing the destructive effect of oxidant free radicals on whole body systems and improving fracture healing in animal models and cultured human cell lines.

    Inflammation is an essential component of the healing process in bone…Vitamin C, bioflavonoids and flavonols such as quercitin and proanthrocydins, and omega-3 fatty acids naturally soothe the inflammatory process and speed healing…

    4. Boost your mineral intake

    By weight, bone is roughly 70% minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, silicon, zinc, etc.) and fracture healing requires available minerals. Most of us under-consume minerals on an everyday basis, so drawing minerals to the healing site can often involve a process of “stealing from Peter to pay Paul.” (See our 20 key bone nutrients for details on average mineral intake.)

    Specific key minerals for fracture healing include the following:

    …. Early research suggested that fractures can heal normally independent of dietary calcium and indeed it has been found that during the first few weeks of healing, calcium is drawn from the skeleton for fracture healing. After that, the diet provides the calcium necessary for fracture repair. Calcium adequacy at the RDA level is important, but unusually high intakes do not appear to speed fracture healing. As calcium absorption is dependent on vitamin D, these nutrients work synergistically. Human studies, in fact, suggest that for best fracture healing both calcium and vitamin D should be obtained in optimum daily levels. Most of us consume plenty of phosphorus and often too much if the diet is high in processed foods and colas. However, the elderly, dieters, and those on low protein diets often do not consume enough phosphorus to meet the needs of new bone formation….

    *see Health: Nutrition-Micronutrients Pt. 4~Vitamins=Trace Minerals

    5. Enhance vitamin intake

    …vitamins are the catalysts for many biochemical reactions and are equally important. In fracture healing, we can clearly identify the vital roles of several vitamins including vitamin C, vitamin D, and vitamin K as well as the energy-producing B vitamins, which should all be taken in therapeutic doses:…

    Natural Healing | How to Heal Broken Bones Fast and Naturally | Bone Fracture Treatment

    EVERY MUSCULAR-SKELETAL INJURY goes through 3 stages of healing. For purposes of clarity, these stages are INFLAMMATION, REPAIR and REMODELING.


    In the second wound healing stage, called repair or proliferation, the wound begins to be rebuilt with new, healthy granulation tissue. For the granulation tissue to be formed, the blood vessels must receive a sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen. ..


    Remodeling, also known as Maturation, is the last stage of the wound healing process. It occurs after the wound has closed up and can take as long as two years…”

    Tips for Healing Broken Bones Naturally

    *getting natural sunlight helps build bones..

    The Healing Benefits of Sunlight and Vitamin D Wednesday, March 26, 2008 by: Teya Skae
    “.. our bodies need natural sunlight to synthesize adequate amounts of vitamin D in order to keep our bones strong and healthy, as well as support the immune system.

    What is Vitamin D?

    Vitamin D, in the form of calciferol (vitamin D3) is a fat-soluble vitamin. It is found in food, but also can be made in your body after exposure to ultraviolet rays from the sun. Vitamin D exists in several forms, each with a different function….”


    How to Get Natural Carpal Tunnel Relief in 24 Hours
    “..This is due to how many adults use their hands for many hours typing, reading, driving, writing or doing other types of labor. Surveys show that carpal tunnel symptoms develop in about 4 percent of the general population. This makes it one of the most common neuropathies (nerve related disorders) of the hands. (1) ..”
    *see Fitness & Health: Tips for Sedentary Occupations or Lifestyle Overall


    Carpal Tunnel Exercises using Stress Ball – YouTube

    => Healing
    *see Stories of healing?

    Someone with #carpaltunnel was #healed goodnewseverybodycom

    ‘.. Someone with #carpaltunnel was #healed ( #pain no longer exists the last couple of nights “when going to bed” ) by #God in #jesusname during a recent #ministryteaching ( #acts3 in the #bookofacts #newtestament #bible was read out loud prior ) led by #paulrapley @paulrapleyministries ) on operating on the #spiritualgifts (#1corinthians13 ) in #morrismn . #praisetheLord 🙌🏼 Got any #healingstories ? God can use you 👉🏼to be a “vessel “ for #healing for that someone (#crippled #lame #blind etc… ) and an answer to #prayer 🙏..”

    From Pain to No Pain: God Healed My Wrist
    “..But then I started to think about the recent doctor appointments and how after each one God began to speak new things into my life. He began to give me a new heart and compassion for the homeless men and women that I had driven past for years and ignored. He lit a fire inside of me to share His love with them which is exactly what I started doing! I then began to picture the faces of the individuals that God had brought me to after each doctor appointment these last few weeks… and I began to cry. I was so thankful that my silly wrists had created opportunities for me to spread the love of Jesus to people I wouldn’t have otherwise met!

    Besides, I knew the end result was healing so if enduring this silly wrist pain in the meantime was part of the journey God has taken me on as He leads me into His call and plan for my life it was SO worth it!

    As I approached the hospital I could feel the Holy Spirit stirring in me more and more. The closer I got the more I knew I was SUPPOSED to be at that office. Walking in I was smiling at everyone, making eye contact, saying “good morning” – I didn’t want to “miss” anyone in case God had sent me there to minister to them…”

    Healing prayer for carpal tunnel syndrome and pain in wrist or hand …

    Instantly Healed of Carpal Tunnel Pain – Bethel Church May 21, 2015
    “..We received this testimony from an attendee of our 2015 Healing School.

    One night after the Healing School, a man was tired from the long day and all he wanted to do was get home. But, he felt prompted to stop at a local grocery store. While inside, he noticed a woman whose hand was shaking. As he was waiting to check out, she came up behind him in line with her hand still waving around. “Are you in pain?” he asked. She said she was in a lot of pain because of carpal tunnel. “I just came from a healing conference! Would you like me to pray for you?” he asked. She couldn’t get her hand out to him fast enough she was in so much pain. After a short prayer, the pain was completely gone! The lady was amazed! She was thankful for the chance encounter. The man explained he’d been sent into the store to meet her and pray for her – it was no chance encounter, it was a divine appointment. She walked away healed and feeling known by God!

    Follow Us At:


    Good News Fitness

    “Disclaimer: No part of this site is intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any illness. Nothing on this site is to be construed as medical advice; the authors are not doctors. Please discuss your personal health, including any options or ideas you may read on the internet (on this site or others) with your personal, qualified health practitioner before making changes to your diet or adjusting/discontinuing any medication. We are not responsible for any adverse outcomes associated with using or misconstruing advice or information on this site. THANK YOU for stopping at our site! May you find what your looking for and “God speed” to good health and prosperity!”

  • Medical: How the Digestive System works?

    Digestive System | Everything You Need to Know, Including Pictures


    The digestive system is a group of organs working together to convert food into energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body. Food passes through a long tube inside the body known as the alimentary canal or the gastrointestinal tract (GI tract). The alimentary canal is made up of the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, and large intestines. In addition to the alimentary canal, there are several important accessory organs that help your body to digest food…..”

    The Digestive System Diagram, Organs, Function, and More – WebMD › Digestive Disorders › Reference

    Learn About Digestive System | Human Digestive System Animation- Part 1

    “Published on Feb 16, 2013

    This digestive system animation explains the mammalian digestive system: the structure of the alimentary canal, working and its functions. The six primary processes of the digestive system include:
    Ingestion of food
    Secretion of fluids and digestive enzymes
    Mixing and movement of food and wastes through the body
    Digestion of food into smaller pieces
    Absorption of nutrients
    Excretion of wastes”

    Digestive System – Part 2

    Basic Stages of Digestion
    by JAE ALLEN Last Updated: Aug 14, 2017
    “…”Your digestive system is essentially one long tube that starts at your mouth and ends at your anus. Organs such as the stomach and large and small intestines digest and process the food you eat. Organs outside the digestive tract also play a part in digestion. For example, the salivary glands, tongue, pancreas and liver are all essential for digestion. The digestive process has six stages from the time you eat to the time you eliminate the waste.



    …in your esophagus, waves of involuntary muscular contractions, called peristalsis, move the food toward your stomach.

    Stomach Digestion

    Digestion begins as soon as you put food in your mouth. Your teeth and saliva, from the salivary glands under your tongue, break down the food as you chew

    Small Intestine Digestion

    Your food is digested more thoroughly in your small intestine, also known as the duodenum. The small intestine, as well as the liver and pancreas, produces digestive juices and enzymes that separate out the nutrients in food. Among those enzymes are lipase and amylase from the pancreas. Muscular contractions keep the food moving along toward the large intestine.


    The digested food continues its journey into the large intestine. The nutrients — fats, carbohydrates and proteins, for example — have been broken down and are ready to be absorbed through the intestinal walls into your bloodstream for transport throughout your body….

    Waste Elimination

    Waste products from digestion are not absorbed through the intestinal walls but continue moving through your digestive tract into the colon. Waste products include dietary fiber. Waste products leave your body via bowel movements….’,

    chyme [kīm]
    the semifluid, homogeneous, creamy or gruel-like material produced by action of the gastric juice on ingested food in the stomach and discharged through the pylorus into the duodenum….”

    Bioenergetics of Exercise

    Bioenergetics and Nutrition: Creatine, Carbs, and Protein Kevin Cann Coach Nutrition
    “..Bioenergetics by definition means the flow of energy in a biological system. In the human body it refers primarily to the conversion of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats into usable energy. The human body has three energy systems – the ATP/phosphocreatine system, glycolysis, and the oxidative cycle (also known as the citric acid cycle and Krebs cycle). The ATP-PC system and the first cycle of glycolysis, fast glycolysis, are anaerobic (a process that does not require oxygen). The second phase of glycolysis, slow glycolysis, and the oxidative system are aerobic. Only carbohydrates can be metabolized in both anaerobic and aerobic conditions…

    Creatine Supplementation

    energy pathways, metabolic pathways, energy systems, nutrition, bioenergeticsCreatine supplementation has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength. It does this by allowing a faster conversion of ADP to ATP as well as increasing the storage amounts of phosphocreatine. The research has shown creatine (pictured right) to be relatively safe as well. Creatine supplementation’s biggest mark may be on its positive effects on the neurological system. It is being used in research to help treat and prevent neurodegeneration with some great results.


    *see Supplements: Good and Bad of Creatine?

    Basics of Metabolism

    What Does Fast Metabolism Mean?
    ‘..Food and Metabolism

    Your metabolic processes get the fuel to go ahead from the food you eat, and how efficiently you use that food helps determine your metabolic rate. Conversely, your metabolic rate informs the rate at which you burn calories throughout the day. The two primary components of metabolism are catabolism and anabolism. Catabolism involves breaking down food for energy, and anabolism the process of using food energy to build and repair damaged tissues in the body.

    Boosting Metabolism

    If you don’t have a very fast metabolism, there are ways to increase your metabolic rate and burn more calories every day. One way is to begin strength training — or continue it regularly, if it’s something you already do. Strength training can improve your body composition, and developing more muscle mass and less fat means you will burn fuel more efficiently, especially as you grow older. Exercising more, following proper nutrition and avoiding crash diets can also boost your metabolism.


    Biological Energy – ADP & ATP
    “…ATP to ADP – Energy Release

    This is done by a simple process, in which one of the phosphate molecules is broken off, therefore reducing the ATP from 3 phosphates to 2, forming ADP (Adenosine Diphosphate after removing one of the phosphates {Pi}). This is commonly wrote as ADP + Pi.

    When the bond connecting the phosphate is broken, energy is released.

    While ATP is constantly being used up by the body in its biological processes, the energy supply can be bolstered by new sources of glucose being made available via eating food which is then broken down by the digestive system to smaller particles that can be utilised by the body.

    On top of this, ADP is built back up into ATP so that it can be used again in its more energetic state. Although this conversion requires energy, the process produces a net gain in energy, meaning that more energy is available by re-using ADP+Pi back into ATP.
    Glucose and ATP

    Many ATP are needed every second by a cell, so ATP is created inside them due to the demand, and the fact that organisms like ourselves are made up of millions of cells.

    Glucose, a sugar that is delivered via the bloodstream, is the product of the food you eat, and this is the molecule that is used to create ATP. Sweet foods provide a rich source of readily available glucose while other foods provide the materials needed to create glucose.

    This glucose is broken down in a series of enzyme controlled steps that allow the release of energy to be used by the organism. This process is called respiration.
    Respiration and the Creation of ATP

    ATP is created via respiration in both animals and plants. The difference with plants is the fact they attain their food from elsewhere (see photosynthesis).

    In essence, materials are harnessed to create ATP for biological processes. The energy can be created via cell respiration. The process of respiration occurs in 3 steps (when oxygen is present):

    The Kreb’s Cycle
    The Cytochrome System

    Bioenergetics of Exercise Part 1

    catabolism [kah-tab´o-lizm]
    any destructive process by which complex substances are converted by living cells into simpler compounds, with release of energy; the opposite of anabolism. See also metabolism. adj., adj catabol´ic….”

    “.. The energy-burning aspect of metabolism…”
    anabolism [ah-nab´o-lizm]
    “…the constructive phase of metabolism, in which the body cells synthesize protoplasm for growth and repair; the opposite of catabolism. The manner in which this synthesis takes place is directed by the genetic code carried by the molecules of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The “building blocks” for this synthesis of protoplasm are obtained from amino acids and other nutritive elements in the diet. adj., adj anabol´ic…”

    enzymes (e.g. myosin) is needed to breakdown ATP

    bioenergetics part b

    Home » Glycolysis



    (1) The initial metabolic pathway of cellular respiration in which a series of reactions happening in the cytosol results in the conversion of a monosaccharide, often glucose, into pyruvic acid, and the concomitant production of a relatively small amount of high-energy molecules, such as ATP.

    (2) The cellular degradation of the simple sugar, glucose, to yield ATP as an energy source. ..”

    Why Does Lactic Acid Build Up in Muscles? And Why Does It Cause Soreness?
    Lactic Acid:
    By Stephen M. Roth on January 23, 2006
    Stephen M. Roth, a professor in the department of kinesiology at the University of Maryland, explains
    “..As our bodies perform strenuous exercise, we begin to breathe faster as we attempt to shuttle more oxygen to our working muscles. The body prefers to generate most of its energy using aerobic methods, meaning with oxygen. Some circumstances, however—such as evading the historical saber tooth tiger or lifting heavy weights—require energy production faster than our bodies can adequately deliver oxygen. In those cases, the working muscles generate energy anaerobically. This energy comes from glucose through a process called glycolysis, in which glucose is broken down or metabolized into a substance called pyruvate through a series of steps. When the body has plenty of oxygen, pyruvate is shuttled to an aerobic pathway to be further broken down for more energy. But when oxygen is limited, the body temporarily converts pyruvate into a substance called lactate, which allows glucose breakdown—and thus energy production—to continue. The working muscle cells can continue this type of anaerobic energy production at high rates for one to three minutes, during which time lactate can accumulate to high levels….

    A side effect of high lactate levels is an increase in the acidity of the muscle cells, along with disruptions of other metabolites. The same metabolic pathways that permit the breakdown of glucose to energy perform poorly in this acidic environment. On the surface, it seems counterproductive that a working muscle would produce something that would slow its capacity for more work. In reality, this is a natural defense mechanism for the body; it prevents permanent damage during extreme exertion by slowing the key systems needed to maintain muscle contraction. Once the body slows down, oxygen becomes available and lactate reverts back to pyruvate, allowing continued aerobic metabolism and energy for the body’s recovery from the strenuous event…”

    Oxygen “opens the door” for hydrogen ions in mitochondria for energy

    bioenergetics part c

    Electron Transport Chain

    Electron Transport Chain

    The electron transport chain is the final component of aerobic respiration and is the only part of glucose metabolism that uses atmospheric oxygen. Electron transport is a series of redox reactions that resemble a relay race. Electrons are passed rapidly from one component to the next to the endpoint of the chain, where the electrons reduce molecular oxygen, producing water. This requirement for oxygen in the final stages of the chain can be seen in the overall equation for cellular respiration, which requires both glucose and oxygen…”

    Krebs Cycle

    Following glycolysis, the mechanism of cellular respiration involves another multi-step process—the Krebs cycle, which is also called the citric acid cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle. The Krebs cycle uses the two molecules of pyruvic acid formed in glycolysis and yields high-energy molecules of NADH and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FADH2), as well as some ATP….”
    Kreb’s Cycle

    The oxidation of pyruvic acid into CO2 and water is called Krebs cycle. This cycle is also citric acid cycle because the cycle begins with the formation of citric acid. Citric acid is a carboxylic acid containing 3 COOH groups. Hence this cycle is also called as tri carboxylic acid cycle or TCA cycle. This cycle was first described by Kreb’s in 1936. This cycle occurs only in the presence of oxygen. Hence it is an aerobic process. It takes place in the mitochondria…”
    The TCA Cycle
    The tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA cycle) is a series of enzyme-catalyzed chemical reactions that form a key part of aerobic respiration in cells. This cycle is also called the Krebs cycle and the citric acid cycle. The greatly simplified cycle below starts with pyruvate, which is the end product of gylcolysis, the first step of all types of cell respiration. …”

    *same name for Krebs Cycle

    bioenergetics part D

    All About Your Metabolic Energy Systems
    By Andrew Heffernan | June 2012
    “…An Energy Systems Timeline

    Let’s say you’re going out for a serious run and you want to see just how hard you can go and for how long. You lace up your trainers, start your stopwatch, and off you go, full speed ahead. Here’s a moment-by-moment timeline of what’s going on in your three energy systems as you burn up the track:

    0 seconds–10 seconds: ATP-CP System
    The millisecond you sound the “exercise” alarm, all three energy systems go to work. But the very first to fire up is the ATP-CP (or phosphagen) system, which burns highly combustible fuels, like adenosine triphosphate, that are stored right inside your working muscles. Like a dragster engine, it burns hot and fast. It’s all but spent in about 10 seconds.

    How To Do Jump Squat on a Step

    “…Jump Squats on a Step is a plyometric exercise that strengthens the glutes and legs muscles as well as providing cardiovascular benefits. A plyometric exercise uses explosive movements to build strength and to condition the muscles and heart. The exercises themselves are forms of jumping. You perform an explosive move and each time you land your muscles get a stretch allowing you to jump with a little more power the next time. If you learn how to do Jump Squats on a Step you will have a basic plyometric move in your routine that only requires a few repetitions to be effective for great cardio benefits and a high calorie burn!..”

    10 seconds–75 seconds: Glycolytic System
    Next to get going is the glycolytic system, which ramps up its efforts just seconds into your run, and draws primarily on carbohydrate fuel. As your leg muscles churn through those carbs, hydrogen ions and other byproducts inhibit muscle contraction and make your legs ache. Try as you might, you can’t help but slow down a bit.

    75 seconds–10 minutes and more: Oxidative system
    The oxidative system has been generating energy this whole time, but it’s been working on other projects simultaneously (like digestion and cardiovascular function). During your run, your body shifts more of its focus to delivering oxygen to your working muscles, using fat as its primary fuel. Burning fat takes longer than burning carbs, though, so you’ll be compelled to slow your pace.

    Once your oxidative system kicks in, it generally stays on the job, and can keep going long after the other two systems peter out. If you find your top aerobic pace (a point just below your anaerobic threshold, or “AT”), you should be able to hold on to it for quite a while — hours if you are well trained. And highly trained endurance athletes can hover near or even a little above their AT for an hour or so.

    Fat Versus Carbohydrate Utilization During Exercise Calculator

    ‘..Since the calculator on this page uses heart rate, rather than percentage of VO2max, as a measure of exercise intensity level, a correlation between heart rate and VO2max is used within the calculator to convert the heart rate input from users to a percentage of VO2max. Determination of maximum heart rate is based on the formula defined by H Tanaka, KD Monhan, and DG Seals in their study titled “Age-predicted maximal heart rate revisited.” The correlation between percentage of maximum heart rate and percentage of VO2max that is used is a linear regression formula (shown below) derived by from experimental data gathered by DP Swain, KS Abernathy, CS Smith, SJ Lee, and SA Bunn for their study titled “Target heart rates for the development of cardiorespiratory fitness.”..”
    Respiratory Exchange Ratio & Weight Loss – Holland Clinic | Medical …

    Respiratory Exchange Ratio

    Exercise Intensity & Energy Source
    Energy is primarily supplied from two sources:

    Carbohydrates – in the form of glycogen stored in the muscles
    Fat – stored around the body

    How to Burn the Most Fat

    *see Trying to lose weight?

    Metabolic VO2 Max Explained. Triathlon Coach Dr Jeff Banas – YouTube
    Video for Respiratory Exchange Ratio percentage of carbohydrate fat burned fuel ratio


    adipose tissue
    “…. connective tissue made of fat cells in a meshwork of areolar tissue…”

    The Digestive System: CrashCourse Biology #28


    What is hepatitis?
    Online Q&A
    Reviewed July 2016


    Q: What is hepatitis?

    A: Hepatitis is an inflammation of the liver. The condition can be self-limiting or can progress to fibrosis (scarring), cirrhosis or liver cancer. Hepatitis viruses are the most common cause of hepatitis in the world but other infections, toxic substances (e.g. alcohol, certain drugs), and autoimmune diseases can also cause hepatitis.

    There are 5 main hepatitis viruses, referred to as types A, B, C, D and E. These 5 types are of greatest concern because of the burden of illness and death they cause and the potential for outbreaks and epidemic spread. In particular, types B and C lead to chronic disease in hundreds of millions of people and, together, are the most common cause of liver cirrhosis and cancer.

    Hepatitis A and E are typically caused by ingestion of contaminated food or water. Hepatitis B, C and D usually occur as a result of parenteral contact with infected body fluids. Common modes of transmission for these viruses include receipt of contaminated blood or blood products, invasive medical procedures using contaminated equipment and for hepatitis B transmission from mother to baby at birth, from family member to child, and also by sexual contact.

    Acute infection may occur with limited or no symptoms, or may include symptoms such as jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), dark urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. ..

    What is hepatitis/Types of hepatitis A,B,C,D,E – YouTube

    Hepatitis (Viral Hepatitis, A, B, C, D, E, G) Medical Author: Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD
    Medical Editor: Jay W. Marks, MD
    “..What are the common types of viral hepatitis?

    Although the most common types of viral hepatitis are HAV, HBV and HCV, some clinicians had previously considered the acute and chronic phases of hepatic infections as “types” of viral hepatitis. HAV was considered to be acute viral hepatitis because the HAV infections seldom caused or permanent liver damage that led to hepatic (liver) failure. HBV and HCV produced chronic viral hepatitis. However, these terms are outdated and not currently used as frequently because all of the viruses that cause hepatitis may have acute phase symptoms (see symptoms below). Prevention techniques and vaccinations have markedly reduced the current incidence of common viral hepatitis infections; however, there remains a population of about 800,000 to 1.4 million people in the U.S. with chronic HBV, and about 2.9 to 3.7 million with chronic HCV according to the CDC. Statistics are incomplete for determining how many new infections occur each year; the CDC documented infections but then goes on to estimate the actual numbers by further estimating the number of unreported infections (see following sections and reference 1)…”

    Viral hepatitis (A, B, C, D, E) – causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment & pathology
    “..What is the hepatitis virus? Well, the hepatitis virus invades liver cells and causes inflammation in the liver tissue. There are five known hepatitis viruses—hepatitis A, hepatitis B, hepatitis C, hepatitis D, and hepatitis E, all of which have slightly different presentations, symptoms and severity. ..”

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