Health: Nutrition-Micronutrients Pt. 4~Vitamins=Trace Minerals

Trace Minerals


The minerals that the body requires in amounts less than 100 milligrams per day are referred to as trace minerals. They are chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, manganese, molybdenum, selenium and zinc. Because iron metabolism is the most complicated of the nine, it will be discussed in greater detail.


Carries oxygen throughout the body
Assists in energy metabolism and other enzyme-mediated chemical reactions
Supports immune function
Involved in the production of neurotransmitters, chemicals that carry messages between nerve cells
Participates in the development of the brain and nervous system
Recommended Intakes of Iron: The RDA for men and postmenopausal women is 8 mg. Because of their monthly blood losses, the RDA for premenopausal women jumps to 18 mg. The RDA during pregnancy jumps even more to 27 milligrams to provide adequate iron stores for the infant. If the mother’s iron status is poor, the baby will not have enough stored iron to last the first six months of life.

*see Health & Fitness: Tips for Pregnant Women

Chicken livers on a cutting boardSources of Iron: Iron has two types: heme and non-heme. Heme iron is only present in animal flesh. Beef, liver, clams and oysters are excellent sources of iron. Additional sources are poultry, fish and pork. Non-heme iron can be found naturally in tofu, legumes, spinach, raisins, and other plant foods. It is the form of iron used in fortified and enriched foods such as breakfast cereals, bread and pasta. As an excess of iron is highly toxic, the human body tightly regulates the amount of iron it absorbs. Depending on the body’s need for iron, we absorb approximately 15 to 35% of the heme iron we ingest, but significantly less of the non-heme iron. Eating meats including fish and poultry and vitamin C-rich foods enhances the absorption of non-heme iron. Thus, you will absorb more iron from legumes, for example, if when you eat them, you also eat fresh tomatoes or an orange…”

Top 10 Iron-Rich Foods
“..It’s a primary component of two proteins: hemoglobin and myoglobin. Hemoglobin is the part of the red blood cell that carries oxygen to the body’s tissues. Myoglobin is the part of the muscle cells that hold oxygen…

Top 10 Healthy Iron-Rich Foods List

What foods are high in iron? There are many good sources of iron to choose from, but here are some of my favorite healthy foods rich in iron that definitely top the charts:

1. Spirulina: 1 ounce: 8 milligrams of iron (44 percent DV)

Spirulina is a blue-green algae renowned for its intense flavor and even more powerful nutrition profile. Just one ounce almost provides half of typical iron requirements. When it comes to vegetarian, non-heme sources of iron, spirulina is a superstar without a doubt. It’s also rich in essential amino acids, iron, protein, B vitamins, and vitamins C, D and E.

2) Liver: 3 ounces of organic beef liver: 4.05 milligrams of iron (22.5 percent DV)

When it comes to foods with iron, specifically heme iron (the more easily absorbable form), liver definitely tops the list. If you struggle with any type of anemia — a clear sign of an iron deficiency — this is probably the best food to consume in the world because it contains iron as well as folate and vitamin B12. These are the three vitamins and minerals you need in order to overcome anemia naturally.

3) Grass-Fed Beef: One lean grass-fed strip steak (214 grams): 4 milligrams of iron (22 percent DV)

Grass-fed beef is another awesome meat source of heme iron as well as many other key nutrients. It’s definitely one of my personal favorites when it comes to iron-rich foods. In addition to iron, grass-fed beef is also higher in precursors for vitamin A and E, along with cancer-fighting antioxidants, compared to grain-fed beef. (2)

4) Lentils: ½ cup: 3.3 milligrams of iron (20.4 percent DV)

Lentils are legumes that have a really impressive amount of non-heme iron per serving. Aside from their high supply of nutrients, what’s another benefit of including protein-packed lentils in your diet regularly? They’re really cheap and very versatile.

5) Dark Chocolate: 1 ounce: 3.3 milligrams iron (19 percent DV)

When you buy high-quality dark chocolate, you not only satisfy your sweet tooth — you also give your body a significant dose of iron. All you need is one ounce to fulfill almost 20 percent of your daily iron requirements. Now that’s one healthy dessert option!…

‘..When You Get Too Much or Too Little Iron: The UL for males and females aged 14 and above is 45 mg. It is 40 mg for younger individuals. Side effects of too much iron are gastrointestinal and include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and constipation. Accidental overdose of multivitamin/mineral supplements or other iron-containing products is the leading cause of poisoning deaths among young children in the U.S. Immediate emergency medical care is critical because death can occur quickly. In addition to gastrointestinal symptoms, the child may experience rapid heartbeat, dizziness and confusion.

Hemochromatosis is a genetic defect that causes excessive iron absorption. Over time, iron can accumulate in and cause damage to various parts of the body. The result could be diabetes, liver cancer, cirrhosis of the liver and joint problems.

Iron deficiency is the most common nutrient deficiency throughout the world. In the U.S., individuals experiencing rapid growth or blood losses are at increased risk for deficiency. These include young children over 6 months of age, adolescents, menstruating women and pregnant women. Because they consume no heme iron, vegetarians are also at increased risk. Iron deficiency results in anemia

*see Medical: How to “fight” Myelodysplasia & Other Blood Cells related Issues

“.. with symptoms ranging from fatigue to rapid heart rate to decreased tolerance to cold to decreased athletic performance. Pica, the eating of clay, paper, ice and other non-food items, especially during pregnancy, may also be a symptom of iron deficiency…”

Chromium: Chromium enhances the effects of insulin, and may thus, play a role in the development of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. Whole grains, brewer’s yeast, nuts and dark chocolate are sources of chromium. Clinical assessment of chromium status is difficult. …

What Is Chromium? Chromium Controls Blood Sugar – Dr. Axe

‘…Health Benefits of Chromium
1. Helps Control Blood Sugar and Prevent Diabetes

Chromium can help enhance the role of insulin, the critical hormone that controls blood sugar and helps bring glucose into cells where it’s used for bodily energy. Chromium also supports a healthy metabolism and storage of nutrients throughout the body, since it can help you better absorb and distribute nutrients from carbohydrates, fats and proteins found in the foods you eat….

Best Food Sources of Chromium…


Broccoli — 1 cup cooked: 22 micrograms (88 percent DV)

Grapes/Grape Juice (pure, unsweetened) – 1 cup juice: 8 micrograms (32 percent DV)
Potatoes — 1 cup: 3 micrograms (12 percent DV)
Garlic — 1 teaspoon: 3 micrograms (12 percent DV)
Basil — 1 tablespoon: 2 micrograms (8 percent DV)
Grass-Fed Beef — 3 oz: 2 micrograms (8 percent DV)
Oranges/Orange Juice (pure, unsweetened) — 1 cup: 2 micrograms (8 percent DV)
Turkey — 3 oz: 2 micrograms (8 percent DV)
Green Beans — 1 cup cooked: 2 micrograms (8 percent DV)
Red Wine — 5 ounces: (varies widely) 1–13 micrograms (4–52 percent DV)
Apples — 1 medium: 1 micrograms (4 percent DV)
Bananas — 1 medium: 1 micrograms (4 percent DV)

Copper: Copper assists with the transport of iron. Rich sources of copper include liver, shellfish, legumes, nuts and seeds. Deficiencies or excesses of copper are rare in healthy people…

Top 10 Copper Rich Foods
“..A deficiency in copper results in poorly formed red blood cells, known as anemia. It also is an antioxidant, helping with the elimination of free radicals.

Copper deficiency symptoms can include increased parasitic infections, weakness from anemia and leaky gut.

Copper must stay in balance with zinc and iron in the body as well and if you consume too much of one it can throw the others out of balance.

The RDA for copper is 900 mcg/day. The Daily Value is 2 mg….

Top 10 Copper Rich Foods List

1) Beef liver
3 oz: 14 mg (over 100% DV)

2) Sunflower seeds
¼ cup: 0.63 mg (31% DV)

3) Lentils
1 cup: 0.5mg (25% DV)

4) Almonds
¼ cup: 0.4 mg (20% DV)

5) Dried apricots
1 cup: 0.69mg (34% DV)

6) Dark chocolate
1 square: 0.9 mg (45% DV)

7) Blackstrap molasses
2 tsp: 0.28 mg (14% DV)

8) Asparagus
1 cup: 0.25 (12% DV)

9) Mushrooms
1 cup: 0.43 mg (20% DV)

10) Turnip greens
1 cup, cooked: 0.36 (18% DV)..

Copper Health Benefits

Brain Health
High Copper foods stimulate higher-level thought processes and mental functioning. It has been called a “brain food” because it helps enable certain neural pathways that promote out of the box thinking. A lack of copper during growth may result in incomplete brain and nerve development.

Slows Aging
Copper is a powerful antioxidant that protects cells against free radical damage. It can help reduce the appearance of wrinkles, age spots, and even macular-degeneration.

Energy Maintenance
Copper plays a role in the synthesis of ATP, the primary molecule of energy storage in our bodies. Without adequate copper, the mitochondria (the cell’s energy producer) are unable to adequately produce ATP, leaving us feeling lethargic and tired. Also, copper helps us utilize iron properly, which helps reduce anemia that can also affect energy levels…”

Fluoride: Fluoride helps prevent dental caries. Nearly 99% of the body’s fluoride resides in the bones and teeth. The main source of fluoride is municipal water supplies that add fluoride to the water. Excess fluoride discolors and damages teeth…

*see Chemicals to Avoid that’s Causing Negative Health Effects
& Hygiene: Best Natural Oral (dental teeth) Cleaning Tips

Fluoride Benefits and Deficiency Symptoms | Foods containing …

“..Fluoride Foods

Fluoride is found in certain mouthwashes, and toothpastes and fluoridated water. It occurs naturally in the sea as sodium fluoride, so most seafood contains fluoride.

Foods high in fluoride are

· fluoridated water · seafood.

Other foods containing fluoride include · chicken · canned sardines (with bones) · fish · gelatin · grape juice · tea…”
Nutrition 101: Fluoride Posted Feb 27, 2014 by Carolyn Berry

Iodine: Iodine is a component of the thyroid hormones, which regulate metabolic rate and body temperature. Sources of iodine include saltwater fish, liver, legumes, potatoes, iodized salt and dairy products. Iodine deficiency inhibits the synthesis of thyroid hormones resulting in hypothyroidism and it’s typical problems including fatigue, weight gain and intolerance to cold. Inadequate iodine intake is fairly common in some parts of the word and may affect as much as 30% of the world’s population. In recent years, the use of iodized salt has decreased deficiency cases. Under different circumstances, excess iodine can cause either hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism. Both too little and too much iodine can cause goiter, an enlargement of the thyroid gland.

Are You Eating Enough Iodine-Rich Foods?
“…One of the most widespread symptoms of iodine deficiency? Thyroid disorders. Thyroid function relies on proper levels of iodine, so too much (or too little) can cause many serious health problems. The thyroid is one of the body’s master glands responsible for balancing hormones, and thyroid disruption caused partially by a diet low in iodine-rich foods can create such negative reactions as fatigue, weight gain or loss, hormone imbalances, mood changes, and much more…

Why are more people experiencing iodine deficiency?

Several reasons might be to blame: a reduction in the amount of naturally iodine-rich foods in people’s diets (wild-caught fish, green vegetables and sea vegetables, for example), a higher exposure rate to certain chemicals found in processed foods that reduce iodine absorption (especially the compound called bromine, found in many plastic containers and baked goods, for example), and a depletion in the amount of iodine found in soils…

Here are 12 of the best iodine foods, with percentages below based on the recommended dietary allowance for the average adult: (10)

Seaweed/Dried Kelp — 1 whole sheet dried: 19 to 2,984 micrograms (amounts vary widely — anywhere from 11 percent to 1,989 percent)
Cod (wild-caught) — 3 ounces: 99 micrograms (66 percent DV)

Yogurt (organic, grass-fed and ideally raw) — 1 cup: 75 micrograms (50 percent DV)
Raw Milk — 1 cup: 56 micrograms (37 percent DV)
Eggs — 1 large: 24 micrograms (16 percent DV)
Tuna — 1 can in oil/3 ounces: 17 micrograms (11 percent DV)
Lima beans — 1 cup cooked: 16 micrograms (10 percent DV)
Corn (organic) — 1/2 cup: 14 micrograms (9 percent DV)
Prunes — 5 prunes: 13 micrograms (9 percent DV)
Cheese (look for raw, unpasteurized) — 1 ounce: 12 micrograms (8 percent DV)
Green peas — 1 cup cooked: 6 micrograms (4 percent DV)
Bananas — 1 medium: 3 micrograms (2 percent DV)


Manganese: Manganese is important in many enzyme-mediated chemical reactions including enzymes involved in the synthesis of cartilage in skin and bone. Tea and coffee are significant sources of manganese in the American diet. Additional sources are nuts, whole grains, legumes and some fruits and vegetables. Magnesium deficiency is rare. Toxicity is also uncommon and is most frequently the result of exposure to airborne manganese dust. The UL for manganese is 11 mg per day.

Manganese — Encyclopedia of Food – Precision Nutrition

“..Manganese has many functions in the body including:

Assisting the antioxidant enzymes of the mitochondria
Working enzymatically to assist carbohydrate, amino acid, and cholesterol metabolism
Assisting in the synthesis of proteoglycans.

Food Sources

Manganese can be found in several foods including:

Whole wheat
Brown rice
Sweet potatoes
Green and black tea


Top 10 Foods Highest in Manganese
“..#1: Seafood (Mussels, Cooked)
Manganese 100g Per 3oz (85g) Per ounce (28g)
6.8mg (340% DV) 5.8mg (289% DV) 1.9mg (96% DV)
Other Seafood High in Manganese (%DV per 3oz cooked): Clams (43%), and Crayfish (22%). Click to see complete nutrition facts.

#2: Nuts (Hazelnuts)
Manganese 100g Per 2oz (56g) Per ounce (28g)
5.6mg (278% DV) 3.1mg (156% DV) 1.6mg (78% DV)
Other Nuts High in Manganese (%DV per ounce): Pecans (55%), Walnuts (48%), Macadamia (43%), Almonds (32%), Cashews (23%), and Pistachio (17%). Click to see complete nutrition facts.

#3: Seeds (Pumpkin)
Manganese 100g Per cup (129g) Per ounce (28g)
4.5mg (227% DV) 5.9mg (293% DV) 1.3mg (64% DV)
Other Seeds High in Manganese (%DV per ounce): Chia Seeds (38%), Sesame and Flaxseeds (35%), and Sunflower Seeds (30%). Click to see complete nutrition facts.

#4: Bread (Whole-Wheat)
Manganese 100g Per slice (28g) Per 2 slices (56g)
2.1mg (107% DV) 0.7mg (35% DV) 1.4mg (70% DV)
Other Breads High in Manganese (%DV per piece): Whole-Wheat English Muffin (59%), Whole-Wheat Pita (56%), and Whole-Wheat Roll (32%). Click to see complete nutrition facts.

#5: Tofu (Firm, Raw)
Manganese 100g Per 1/2 cup (126g) Per 1/4 block (81g)
1.2mg (59% DV) 1.5mg (74% DV) 1.0mg (48% DV)
Tempeh is also High in Manganese (%DV per 1/2 cup): (54%). Click to see complete nutrition facts.

#6: Beans (Butter/Lima Beans, Cooked)
Manganese 100g Per cup (170g) Per 1/2 cup (85g)
1.3mg (63% DV) 2.1mg (106% DV) 1.1mg (53% DV)
Other Beans High in Manganese (%DV per cup cooked): Winged Beans (103%), Chickpeas (84%), Adzuki Beans (66%), White Beans (57%), Black-eyed Beans (47%), and Kidney Beans (42%). Click to see complete nutrition facts.

#7: Fish (Bass, Cooked)
Manganese 100g Per fillet (62g) Per 3oz (85g)
1.1mg (57% DV) 0.7mg (35% DV) 1.0mg (48% DV)
Other Fish High in Manganese (%DV per 3oz cooked): Trout (46%), Pike (44%), and Perch (38%). Click to see complete nutrition facts.

#8: Spinach (Cooked)
Manganese 100g Per cup (180g) Per 1/2 cup (90g)
0.9mg (47% DV) 1.7mg (84% DV) 0.8mg (42% DV)
Other Dark Green Leafy Vegetables High in Manganese (%DV per cup cooked): Frozen Spinach (68%), Amaranth Leaves (57%), Beet Greens (37%), Swiss Chard (29%), and Napa Cabbage (11%). Click to see complete nutrition facts.

#9: Whole Grains (Brown Rice)
Manganese 100g Per cup, Cooked (195g) Per 1/2 cup cooked (98g)
1.1mg (55% DV) 2.1mg (107% DV) 1.1mg (54% DV)
Other Grains High in Manganese (%DV per cup cooked): Teff (360%), Quinoa (58%), Buckwheat (34%). Click to see complete nutrition facts.

#10: Tea (Black, Brewed)
Manganese 100g Per cup (237g) Per fluid ounce (30g)
0.2mg (11% DV) 0.5mg (26% DV) 0.1mg (3% DV)
A cup of instant tea contains (47% DV). Click to see complete nutrition facts. ..”

Molybdenum: Molybdenum assists several enzymes including one required for the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. Peas, legumes and some breakfast cereals supply molybdenum. Both molybdenum deficiency and toxicity are rare. High doses of molybdenum, however, inhibit copper absorption.

Foods High in Molybdenum (81st – 100th) (per 100 g edible portion)


43 μg
43 μg
Curry powder
Curry powder
42 μg
Pumpkin seed (roasted and salted)
Pumpkin seed (roasted and salted)
42 μg
Red pepper (ground)

Red pepper (ground)
41 μg
Scarlet runner bean (whole, dried, raw)
Scarlet runner bean (whole, dried, raw)
41 μg
Soybean, Tofu (momen-tofu)
Soybean, Tofu (momen-tofu)
41 μg
Soybean, Whole bean (china, dried, raw)
Soybean, Whole bean (china, dried, raw)
41 μg
Shoyu, Soy sauce (usukuchi-shoyu)
Shoyu, Soy sauce (usukuchi-shoyu)
40 μg
Parsley (leaves, raw)
Parsley (leaves, raw)
39 μg

Selenium: Selenium is required for immune function and for the synthesis of thyroid hormones. Additionally, this mineral assists enzymes in protecting cell membranes from damage. Depending upon the soil in which they are grown, Brazil nuts are one of the richest sources of selenium. Organ meats, seafood, other meats and whole grains are additional sources. Low selenium intake may decrease an individual’s ability to fight viral infections. Some research also links low intakes to some cancers. Toxicity causes brittle hair and nails and is most likely to occur with supplements.

Top 10 Foods High in Selenium
“..Selenium is a trace mineral that works in conjunction with vitamin E to help prevent oxidative damage in the body…

Selenium also helps iodine regulate metabolism and selenium helps recycle vitamin C in the body improving overall cellular protection.

Selenium works as powerful anti-oxidant and is required for your body to create glutathione your bodies master antioxidant.

For this reason, consuming foods high in selenium can support detoxification and take stress off the organs like the liver and thyroid…

*see 9 Ways to Boost Glutathione
“…What Is Glutathione?

Glutathione (GSH) is a peptide consisting of three key amino acids that plays several vital roles in the body. Longevity researchers believe that it is so pivotal to our health that the level of GSH in our cells is becoming a predictor of how long we will live! (2, 3, 4)..”


Selenium deficiency symptoms include:

Top 10 Foods High in Selenium

1) Brazil nuts
1 oz (6-8 nuts): 544 mcg (over 100% DV)

2) Yellowfin tuna
3 oz: 92 mcg (over 100% DV)

3) Halibut, cooked
3 oz: 47mcg (67% DV)

4) Sardines, canned
3 oz: 45mcg (64% DV)

5) Grass-fed beef
3 oz: 33 mcg (47% DV)

6) Turkey, boneless
3 oz: 31 mcg (44% DV)

7) Beef liver
3 oz: 28 mcg (40% DV)

8) Chicken
3 oz: 22 mcg (31% DV)

9) Egg
1 large, 15 mcg (21% DV)

10) Spinach
1 cup: 11 mcg (16% DV)..”

Zinc: Zinc is critical for normal growth and sexual maturation. It plays a role in the immune system and is important to the proper function of at least 70 enzymes including one that helps protect cells from damage. Oysters, beef and clams are rich sources of absorbable zinc. Whole grains also contain zinc, but it is less available for absorption. Zinc deficiency causes delayed growth and sexual development, decreased immune function, altered sense of taste, hair loss and gastrointestinal distress. Zinc deficiency is uncommon in healthy people in the U.S. It is more common among populations that consume cereals as their primary source of nutrition. Zinc toxicity is rare.”

Top 10 Foods High in Zinc
“.. Zinc benefits come from its presence within all bodily tissue — it’s needed for healthy cell division, and it acts like an antioxidant, fighting free radical damage and slowing the aging process. ..
*see Longevity: How to “slow” the aging process?


Top 10 Foods High in Zinc

Consume two to three servings of these zinc foods daily to support optimal zinc levels.

1. Lamb: 3 ounces: 6.7 milligrams (45 percent DV)

Lamb is a rich source of many vitamins minerals. In addition to zinc, lamb contains vitamin B12, riboflavin, selenium, niacin, phosphorus and iron. (1)

2. Pumpkin Seeds: 1 cup: 6.6 milligrams (44 percent DV)

Pumpkin seeds and pumpkin seed oil are able to reduce the risk of breast cancer in post-menopausal women, according to research published in Nutrition and Cancer. (2) Pumpkin seeds are also good for prostate health, and they promote your mental health.

3. Grass-Fed Beef: 100 grams: 4.5 milligrams (30 percent DV)

Grass-fed beef nutrition includes omega-3 fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acid, a powerful polyunsaturated fatty acid that has been shown to help fight cancer, reduce the risk of heart disease, improve blood sugar, discourage weight gain and build muscle. (3)

4. Chickpeas (Garbanzo Beans): 1 cup: 2.5 milligras (17 percent DV)

Chickpeas, like all legumes, are a form of complex carbohydrates that the body is able to slowly digest and use for energy. Chickpeas increase satiety and help with weight loss. (4) They also improve digestion by quickly moving foods through the digestive tract.

5. Cocoa Powder: 1 ounce: 1.9 milligrams (13 percent DV)

Cocoa powder is a good source of two flavonoids, epicatechin and catechin, which function as antioxidants that help prevent inflammation and disease. Because of the presence of flavonoids in cocoa powder, it helps improve blood flow and lower blood pressure too. (5)

6. Cashews: 1 ounce: 1.6 milligrams (11 percent DV)

Cashews are rich in unsaturated fatty acids and high in protein. Cashews nutrition helps fight heart disease, reduce inflammation, promote bone health and support healthy brain function. Plus, these nuts help with weight loss or maintenance because they make you feel fuller and curb food cravings. (6)

7. Kefir or Yogurt: 1 cup: 1.4 milligrams (10 percent DV) (values vary)

Kefir and yogurt are cultured dairy products that serve as probiotic foods. Both kefir and probiotic yogurt support healthy digestion, boost the immune system, promote cardiovascular health and regulate your mood. (7)

8. Mushrooms: 1 cup: 1.4 milligrams (9 percent DV)

Proven mushroom nutrition benefits include the ability to boost immunity due to its antioxidant activities, reduce inflammation, fight cancer, protect your heart and improve brain function. (8)

9. Spinach: 1 cup: 1.4 milligrams (9 percent DV)

Spinach is one of the most nutrient-dense foods in existence. It contains special protective carotenoids that have been linked with decreasing the risk of many diseases, including heart disease, obesity, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and even cancer. (9)

10. Chicken: 100 grams: 1 milligram (7 percent DV)

In addition to the zinc present in chicken, it’s also a good source of B vitamins, including vitamin B12, niacin, vitamin B6 and pantothenic acid. The vitamin B12 in chicken helps maintain energy levels, boost mood, maintain heart health and boost skin health. (10)..”

Trace Elements

Biology Professor
Published on Sep 10, 2015
In this video, Biology Professor discusses trace elements, those elements needed only in small quantities in living organisms.

Essential Elements and Trace Elements

*see <= Health: Nutrition-Micronutrients Pt. 1~Vitamins=Water Soluble , Health: Nutrition-Micronutrients Pt. 2~Vitamins=Fat Soluble & Health: Nutrition-Micronutrients Pt. 3~Vitamins=Major Minerals

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Health: Nutrition-Micronutrients Pt. 3~Vitamins=Major Minerals


Major minerals are the ones that the body requires in amounts of at least 100 milligrams per day. They are sodium, potassium, chloride, phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sulfur. The first four are included in the discussion of fluid and electrolytes.

Major component of bones and teeth
Required for muscle contraction
Required for nerve transmission
Plays a role in cellular metabolism
Aids blood clotting
Recommended Intakes of Calcium: The AI for adults aged 19 to 50 is 1000 mg. Because calcium is so critical to preventing bone disease later in life, the AI is higher for adolescents and teens since they can still build bone mass. The AI for males and females aged nine to 18 is 1300 milligrams. For those aged 51 and older, the AI is 1200.
An opened can of sardinesSources of Calcium: Americans get about half of their calcium from dairy foods. Chinese cabbage, kale and turnip greens contain absorbable calcium. Spinach and some other vegetables contain calcium that is poorly absorbed. Sardines and other canned fish with bones are additional sources. Some foods such as orange juice and bread are fortified with calcium, and some tofu is processed with calcium making it another source of this mineral.

Top 10 Calcium Rich Foods
“…Top 10 Calcium Rich Foods

1) Raw Milk
1 cup: 300 mg (30% DV)

2) Kale (cooked)
1 cup: 245 mg (24% DV)

3) Sardines (with bones)
2 ounces: 217 mg (21% DV)

4) Yogurt or Kefir
6 oz: 300 mg (30% DV)

5) Broccoli
1 ½ cup cooked: 93 mg (9% DV)

6) Watercress
1 cup: 41 mg (4% DV)

7) Cheese
1 oz: 224 mg (22% DV)

8) Bok Choy
1 cup:74 mg (7% DV)

9) Okra
1 cup: 82 mg (8% DV)

10) Almonds
1 oz: 76 mg (8% DV)..”

“..When You Get Too Much or Too Little Calcium: The UL for calcium is 2,500 milligrams. Excess calcium may cause mineral imbalances because it interferes with the absorption of iron, magnesium, zinc and others. Too little calcium causes osteoporosis. Some research connects low calcium intake to increased risks of high blood pressure, colon cancer and preeclampsia (high blood pressure and excess protein in the urine of a woman more than 20 weeks pregnant)…”


Assists enzymes in more than 300 chemical reactions in the body
Supports cellular activity
Participates in muscle contraction
Aids blood clotting
A component of bone

Recommended Intakes of Magnesium: The RDA for men and women aged 19 to 30 years is 400 and 310 milligrams per day, respectively. For older adults, the RDA bumps up to 420 milligrams and 320 milligrams for men and women, respectively.
Sources of Magnesium: Leafy greens, potatoes, whole grains, nuts, seeds and legumes are good sources of magnesium…”

Top 10 Magnesium Rich Foods Plus Proven Benefits
“..Magnesium-rich foods are essential for cellular health and over 300 biochemical functions in the body. Unfortunately, around 80 percent of American’s may have a magnesium deficiency, and the majority of them don’t even know it!..

Some of the major functions that require magnesium are:

Protein synthesis
Nerve function
Blood sugar control
Neurotransmitter release
Blood pressure regulation
Energy metabolism
Production of the antioxidant glutathione

Top 10 Magnesium Rich Foods

Green leafy vegetables aren’t the only foods rich in magnesium and chlorophyll. Here are the top 10 foods high in magnesium that you will want to add into your diet.

(Men RDA 400 milligrams and Women RDA 310 milligrams a day)

Spinach — 1 cup: 157 milligrams (40% DV)

Chard — 1 cup: 154 milligrams (38% DV)
Pumpkin seeds — 1/8 cup: 92 milligrams (23% DV)
Yogurt or Kefir — 1 cup: 50 milligrams (13% DV)
Almonds — 1 ounce: 80 milligrams (20% DV)
Black Beans — ½ cup: 60 milligrams (15% DV)
Avocado — 1 medium: 58 milligrams (15% DV)
Figs — ½ cup: 50 milligrams (13% DV)
Dark Chocolate — 1 square: 95 milligrams (24% DV)
Banana — 1 medium: 32 milligrams (8% DV)

Other foods that are also high in magnesium include: salmon, coriander, cashews, goat cheese and artichokes…”

“..UL for magnesium is 350 milligrams from supplements or medicines because it may cause diarrhea. Severe toxicity may cause confusion, loss of kidney function, difficulty breathing and cardiac arrest. Individuals with kidney Doctor taking a patient’s blood pressuredisease are at higher risk for magnesium toxicity. Overt symptoms of magnesium deficiency in healthy people are rare. However, a magnesium deficiency can occur in individuals with kidney disease, alcoholism or prolonged diarrhea. Early signs of poor magnesium status are loss of appetite and weakness. Later signs are muscle cramps, irritability, confusion and cardiac abnormalities. Many people consume suboptimal amounts of magnesium, and low magnesium stores may be related to increased risk of cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes and immune dysfunction…”
*see Medical: Benefits Soaking Feet in Magnesium Chloride Hexahydrate?


Helps maintain acid-base balance
Assists in some of the liver’s drug-detoxifying pathways
A component of some vitamins and amino acids
Recommended Intakes of Sulfur: There is no Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) for sulfur
Sources of Sulfur: Since sulfur is a component of amino acids, protein-rich foods are good sources of sulfur…”

The Benefits of Sulfur — Why You Need Epsom Salt, Broccoli and MSM
“..Sulfur-Rich Vegetables

Fibrous, non-leafy vegetables are rich in sulfur. Examples include:

Cruciferous veggies7 such as cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, mustard greens and bok choy
Alliums such as onions, shallots, garlic and leeks
Edible stalks and stems such as celery, fennel and asparagus

Cruciferous vegetables have become well known for their anti-cancer properties, and the organosulfur compound sulforaphane is one of the primary compounds responsible for this effect. As noted by The World’s Healthiest Foods:8…

Other Sulfur-Rich Foods

Other foods that are high in sulfur include:

Protein-rich animal products such as organic pastured egg yolks, grass-fed beef, organic pastured chicken and wild-caught fish
Nuts such as walnuts, almonds and cashews
Seeds such as sesame seeds and sunflower seeds
Dairy products such as milk, cheese and sour cream (ideally from organic grass-fed cows)
Certain fruits: coconut, bananas, pineapple and watermelon

Sulfur and Sulfite Rich Foods, Sulfur Burps – Nutrients Review

“…You can get all the required sulfur from the sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine [1], cystine, homocystine, homocysteine and taurine. Other sources of dietary sulfur include vitamins B1 (thiamin) and B7 (biotin), methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), inorganic sulfate in foods, drinking water and other beverages.
Chart 1. Foods High in Sulfur
PLANT FOODS Sulfur (mg)
Tea (1 cup, 237 mL) 430
Cocoa drink (1 cup, 237 mL) 400
Carrageenan, dried (1 tsp, 5 g) 270
Peaches, dried (100 g) 240
Apricots, dried (100 g) 170

Barley (100 g) 120
Coffee (100 mL) 110
Peanuts (1 oz, 28 g) 110
Duck (3 oz, 85 g) 340

Shellfish (3 oz, 85 g) 230-340
Beef (3 oz, 85 g) 170-300
Poultry: chicken, turkey, goose (3 oz, 85 g) 200-280
Beef liver (3 oz, 85 g) 230
Fish (3 oz, 85 g) 110-210
Cheese (2 oz, 57 g) 130-190
Egg (50 g) 180
Lamb, mutton (3 oz, 85 g) 140-170
Sausage (3 oz, 85 g) 70-150..

“..When You Get Too Much or Too Little Sulfur: There are no known deficiency or toxicity symptoms…”

Micronutrients – Vitamins and Minerals – YouTube

Macrominerals: The Seven Major Minerals of Human … – YouTube

Major Minerals – YouTube

*see <= Health: Nutrition-Micronutrients Pt. 1~Vitamins=Water Soluble & Health: Nutrition-Micronutrients Pt. 2~Vitamins=Fat Soluble Health: Nutrition-Micronutrients Pt. 4~Vitamins=Trace Minerals

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Good News Health

“Disclaimer: No part of this site is intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any illness. Nothing on this site is to be construed as medical advice; the authors are not doctors. Please discuss your personal health, including any options or ideas you may read on the internet (on this site or others) with your personal, qualified health practitioner before making changes to your diet or adjusting/discontinuing any medication. We are not responsible for any adverse outcomes associated with using or misconstruing advice or information on this site. THANK YOU for stopping at our site! May you find what your looking for and “God speed” to good health and prosperity!”

Health: Nutrition-Micronutrients Pt. 2~Vitamins=Fat Soluble

Fat-soluble vitamins
“..Fat-soluble vitamins accumulate in the liver and fat tissues. These reserves may be released when dietary intakes are low. There is research, however, suggesting that blood levels of vitamin D may be low even in the presence of significant storage in the fat…

Vitamin A – Retinol, Retinal, Retinoic Acid, Provitamin A – Carotenoids

Required for night vision and color vision
Needed for cell differentiation
Supports immune function
Aids both male and female reproductive processes
Required for bone health
Additional Functions of Carotenoids: Research is mounting that carotenoids have health benefits. For example, lutein and zeaxanthin may protect the eye from cataracts and age-related macular degeneration. Lycopene, crytoxanthin, beta-carotene and alpha-carotene might be cancer-protective.
Recommended Intakes of Vitamin A: The RDA for males and females aged 14 years and older is 900 and 700 micrograms, respectively.
Egg yolk sitting in a half of an egg shellSources of Vitamin A: Sources for preformed vitamin A come from animal foods only. They include liver, egg yolks and whole milk. Carotenoids are precursors to vitamin A. Sources of these precursors, referred to as provitamin A, include broccoli, spinach, carrots, sweet potatoes, cantaloupe, peaches and other dark green and yellow/orange fruits and vegetables…

Top 10 Vitamin A Foods
“..Vitamin A is a fat soluble vitamin that has a critical role in maintaining healthy vision, neurological function and healthy skin…

Top 10 Vitamin A Foods

1) Beef Liver
3 ounces: 14,363 IU (almost 3x the DV)

2) Carrots
1 cup raw sliced: 21,384(over 100% DV)

3) Sweet potato
1 whole: 18,443 IU (over 100% DV)

4) Kale
1 cup, chopped: 6693 IU (over 100% DV)

5) Spinach
1 cup raw: 2813 IU (56% DV)

6) Apricots
1 fruit: 674 IU (13% DV)

7) Broccoli
1 cup raw: 567 IU (11% DV)

8) Butter
1 Tbsp: 355 IU (7% DV)

9) Eggs
1 extra-large: 302 IU (6% DV)

10) Winter squash
1 cup, cubes: 514 IU (10% SV)..”

“…When You Get Too Much or Too Little Vitamin A: The UL for vitamin A is 3000 micrograms. Excess preformed vitamin A can cause birth defects including cleft palate and spontaneous abortions. Pregnant women should not take supplements or medications containing preformed vitamin A (retinol). Instead they should use pre-natal supplements that have beta-carotene as the vitamin A source. High doses of vitamin A are also linked to increased hip fractures in older women. Excess beta-carotene can cause carotenodermia, a harmless condition that turns the skin yellowish in color. Even though beta-carotene is an antioxidant, supplements may increase the risk of lung cancer among smokers. Too little vitamin A may cause night blindness and even permanent blindness, increased infections, impaired growth and reproductive function…

Vitamin D – Cholecalciferol

*see Health: Vitamins-How Important is Vitamin D?

Regulated blood calcium levels
Supports bone health
Recommended Intakes of Vitamin D: The AI for males and females aged 1 to 70 is 600 IU (International Units). After age 70, the AI jumps to 800 IU.
Two salmon steaks with a lemon wedge garnishSources of Vitamin D: The best source of vitamin D is sunlight. Ultra violet light triggers the synthesis of vitamin D in your skin. With increased use of sunscreen and fewer work hours and leisure time outdoors, many people do not synthesize adequate vitamin D. There are few food sources of naturally occurring vitamin D. They include fatty fish such as salmon and tuna, egg yolks, beef liver and some mushrooms. Fortified milk, orange juice, breakfast cereals and other foods are additional sources…

Top 10 Vitamin D Rich Foods

“..Top 10 Vitamin D Rich Foods

1) Sunlight
Promotes vitamin D synthesis from cholesterol in the skin.

2) Cod liver oil
1 tsp: 440 IU (over 100% DV)

3) Sardines
3 ounces: 164 IU (41% DV)

4) Salmon
3 ounces: 400 IU (100% DV)

5) Mackerel
3 ounces: 400 IU (100% DV)

6) Tuna
3 ounces: 228 IU (57% DV)

7) Raw Milk
1 cup: 98 IU (24% DV)

8) Caviar
1 oz: 33 IU (8% DV)

9) Eggs
1 large: 41 IU (10% DV)

10) Mushrooms
1 cup: 2 IU (1% DV)..”

“..When You Get Too Much or Too Little Vitamin D: The UL for adults and children aged 9 and older is 4,000 IU. Excess vitamin D can cause hypercalcemia, dangerously high levels of calcium in the blood. Hypercalcemia can cause bone loss and kidney stones. It may also affect the nervous system, heart, lungs, kidneys and blood vessels. Vitamin D deficiency results in weak bones. In children, this is called rickets and is characterized by bowlegs and other skeletal deficiencies. In adults, low vitamin D levels cause osteomalacia and osteoporosis, which lead to an increased risk of bone fractures. Researchers are studying vitamin D for it’s potential role in the prevention of certain cancers and autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and Crohn’s disease. It is possible that low vitamin D could increase the risk of developing one of these diseases…”
*see Health: How to repair and deal with “loss” cartilage?


Vitamin E – Tocopherol

Functions. Protects cell membranes from oxidation
Recommended Intakes of Vitamin E: The RDA for men and women is 19 mg.
Sources of Vitamin E: Seeds, nuts, vegetable oils and fortified breakfast cereals are among the best sources of vitamin E…”

Top 10 Vitamin E Rich Foods
“..Top 10 Vitamin E Rich Foods List

1) Almonds
1 oz: 7.3 mg (27% DV)

2) Spinach
1 bunch: 6.9 mg (26% DV)

3) Sweet Potato
1 Tbsp: 4.2 mg (15% DV)

4) Avocado
1 whole: 2.7 mg (10% DV)

5) Wheat germ
1 ounce: 4.5 mg (17% DV)

6) Sunflower seeds
2 Tbsp: 4.2 mg (15% DV)

7) Palm Oil
1 Tbsp: 2.2 mg (11% DV)

8) Butternut squash
1 cup, cubed: 2 mg (7% DV)

9) Trout
3 oz: 2 mg (7% DV)

10) Olive oil
1 Tbsp: 2 mg (7% DV)..”

When You Get Too Much or Too Little Vitamin E: Vitamin E is relatively nontoxic, but large doses from supplements may interfere with blood clotting. The UL is 1,000 mg of supplemental vitamin E, however, some studies have shown increased mortality with lower doses. Vitamin E deficiency is rare in healthy people. It manifests as hemolytic anemia, the early destruction of red blood cells because of the lack of vitamin E to protect them from oxidation…’

*see Medical: How to “fight” Myelodysplasia & Other Blood Cells related Issues

‘..Vitamin K – Phylloquinone, Menaquinones

Assists in blood clotting
Aids bone formation
Recommended Intakes of Vitamin K: The AI (Adequate Intake) for men is 120 micrograms and 90 micrograms for women.
Small pile of Brussels sproutsSources of Vitamin K: Animal foods contain little vitamin K. Good sources include Brussels sprouts, broccoli, spinach and other leafy green vegetables, black-eyed peas and soybeans. We get additional vitamin K from the normal bacteria thriving in our colons…”

Top 10 Vitamin K Rich Foods
“..There are two types of vitamin K we have in our diet, vitamin K1 and vitamin K2. Vitamin K1 is found in vegetables where vitamin K2 also called menaquinone is found in dairy products and produced by the bacteria in your gut…

Top 10 Vitamin K Rich Foods List

1) Green Leafy Vegetables (Kale)
½ c: 444 mcg (over 100% DV)

2) Natto (fermented soy)
2 oz: 500 mcg (over 100% DV)

3) Spring onions (Scallions)
½ c: 103 mcg (over 100% DV)

4) Brussels Sprouts
½ c: 78 mcg (98% DV)

½ cup: 82 mcg (over 100% DV)

6) Broccoli
½ c: 46 mcg (58% DV)

7) Dairy (fermented)
½ c: 10 mcg (10% DV)

8) Prunes
½ c: 52 mcg (65% DV)

9) Cucumbers
1 medium: 49 mcg (61% DV)

10) Dried basil
1 Tbsp: 36 mcg (45% DV)..”

‘..When You Get Too Much or Too Little Vitamin K: Both vitamin K toxicity and deficiency are rare. When present, a deficiency of vitamin K causes impaired blood clotting. Suboptimal intakes of vitamin K are linked to reduced bone density and increased risk of fractures…”
*see Health: Natural Remedies for that Heart Burn
Medical: What are parts of the Skeletal System?

Difference between Fat Soluble and Water Soluble Vitamins – YouTube

Fat soluble vitamins – YouTube

Fat Soluble Vitamins – YouTube

What Is The Role Of Fat Soluble Vitamins? – YouTube

*see <= Health: Nutrition-Micronutrients Pt. 1~Vitamins=Water Soluble“> & Health: Nutrition-Micronutrients Pt. 3~Vitamins=Major Minerals =>

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Good News Health

“Disclaimer: No part of this site is intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any illness. Nothing on this site is to be construed as medical advice; the authors are not doctors. Please discuss your personal health, including any options or ideas you may read on the internet (on this site or others) with your personal, qualified health practitioner before making changes to your diet or adjusting/discontinuing any medication. We are not responsible for any adverse outcomes associated with using or misconstruing advice or information on this site. THANK YOU for stopping at our site! May you find what your looking for and “God speed” to good health and prosperity!”

Health: Nutrition-Micronutrients Pt. 1~Vitamins=Water Soluble

Micronutrients | Learn All About Essential Vitamins & Minerals

“..Micronutrients are those nutrients we require in relatively small quantities. They are vitamins and minerals, and our good health requires them in milligram and microgram amounts. Recall that fats, carbohydrates and proteins are macronutrients, meaning that we require them in relatively large quantities. We consume the macronutrients in gram amounts. For example, we might have 200 grams of carbohydrate, 100 grams of protein and 50 grams of fat, yet only 18 mg of iron and 400 micrograms of folate.

Vitamins are carbon-containing molecules and are classified as either water-soluble or fat-soluble. They can be changed and inactivated by heat, oxygen, light and chemical processes. The amount of vitamins in a food depends on the growing conditions, processing, storage and cooking methods. Minerals do not contain carbon, and are not destroyed by heat or light. Unlike other nutrients, minerals are in their simplest chemical form. Minerals are elements. Whether found in bone, seashells, cast iron pots or the soil, they are they same as the minerals in our food and our bodies. The mineral content of plant foods varies with the soil content and the maturation of the plant…

Water-Soluble Vitamins
Fat-Soluble Vitamins
Major Minerals
Trace Minerals

1. Water-Soluble Vitamins

If you look to vitamins for a jolt of energy, you are looking in the wrong place – even if a supplement bottle says, “promotes energy,” or makes some other similar vague statement. Vitamins are not energy boosters. Many B vitamins do, however, participate in energy-yielding chemical reactions in the body. This is confusing because calorie is another word for energy. It’s clearer to say that B vitamins help the body get calories from food. While you’re unlikely to get more pep by taking vitamins, eating vitamin-rich foods will certainly help you maintain health….

Vitamin B1 – Thiamin

Functions: Assists in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism
Recommended Intakes of Thiamin: Your thiamin needs are proportional to your energy or calorie needs. The more calories you consume, the greater your need for this vitamin. The beauty is that the more calories you consume, the more thiamin you automatically consume anyway. The RDA for adult women and men is 1.1 and 1.2 mg, respectively.
Sources of Thiamin: Though thiamin is found in most food groups, Americans get most of their thiamin from fortified breakfast cereals and enriched grains such as rice and pasta. Pork, beans and peas are additional sources….

Top 10 (Thiamine) Vitamin B1 Foods
‘..Thiamine B1 deficiency is caused by consuming a diet low in animals products and overconsumption of alcohol.

The most common vitamin B1 deficiency symptoms include:

Chronic fatigue
Gut issues
Muscle wasting
Neurological degeneration
It also plays a role in healthy liver function and is needed for healthy skin, eyes, hair, and nails. Most foods are a good source of thiamine. The RDA for thiamine is 1.2 mg/day for men and 1.1 mg/day for women. The Daily Value is 1.5mg.

Check out these top 10 Vitamin B1 Foods.
Top 10 Vitamin B1 Foods

1) Green Peas
1 cup: 0.386 mg (26% DV)

2) Asparagus
1 cup: 0.19mg (13% DV)

3) Brussels Sprouts
1 cup: 0.122 mg (8% DV)

4) Sesame Seeds
2 Tbsp: 0.142 mg (9% DV)

5) Sunflower seeds
¼ cup: 0.17 mg (11% DV)

6) Pistachios
1 oz: 0.247 mg (16% DV)

7) Herring
1 filet: 0.105 mg (7% DV)

8) Crimini mushrooms
1 cup: 0.068 mg (4.5% DV)

9) Ground flaxseed
1 Tbsp: 0.115 mg (8% DV)

10) Spinach
1 bunch: 0.265 mg (18% DV)..”

When You Get Too Much or Too Little Thiamin:

“…Thiamin deficiency is not common in the U.S., however alcoholics and those who eat a junk food-heavy diet are at risk. A diet of highly processed, but unenriched foods provides ample calories with little thiamin. Additionally, alcohol contributes calories without providing good nutrition, and it interferes with thiamin absorption…”
*see Health-Neutral Perspective: Alcohol: Good and Bad?

Vitamin B2 – Riboflavin

Functions: Assists in carbohydrate and fat metabolism
Recommended Intakes of Riboflavin: The RDA for riboflavin also reflects energy needs with higher riboflavin intakes recommended for those whose calorie needs are higher. The RDA for adult women and men is 1.1 and 1.3 mg, respectively.

Sources of Riboflavin: Diary products, fortified cereals and enriched grains are major contributors of dietary riboflavin. Mushrooms and organ meats such as liver are additional sources…

Top 10 (Riboflavin) Vitamin B2 Rich Foods
“..It may also help protect cells from oxidative damage.

Generally, riboflavin and thiamine deficiencies are seen together.

Vitamin B2 Deficiency symptoms include cracks in the corners of the mouth, sore throat, and hypersensitivity to light.

One of the most common side effects of vitamin B2 deficiency are migraine headaches…

Top 10 Vitamin B2 Rich Foods

1) Beef liver
3 oz: 2.9 mg (over 100% DV)

2) Lamb
3 oz: 3.9 mg (over 100% DV)

3) Milk
1 cup: 0.45 mg (26% DV)

4) Natural yogurt
1 cup: 0.57 (34% DV)

5) Mushrooms
½ cup: 0.23 mg (14% DV)

6) Spinach
½ c: 0.21 mg (12% DV)

7) Almonds
1 oz: 0.323 mg (19% DV)

8) Sun-dried tomatoes
1 cup: 0.285 mg (17% DV)

9) Salmon (wild)
3 oz: 0.135 mg (8% DV)

10) Eggs
1 large: 0.228 mg (13% DV)..”

Niacin – Nicotinamide, Nicotinic Acid

Assists in carbohydrate and fat metabolism
Helps with cell differentiation
Participates in DNA replication and repair
Recommended Intakes of Niacin: The RDA for adult women and men is 14 and 16 mg, respectively.
Sources of Niacin: Meat, poultry, fish, fortified breakfast cereals and enriched grains are good sources of niacin…”

Top 10 Vitamin B3 Niacin Foods
“..Niacin also known as vitamin B3 is a water-soluble vitamin that is a part of the coenzymes that assist with energy metabolism. A niacin deficiency will lead to pellagra, a deadly disease characterized by diarrhea, dementia, dermatitis, poor concentration, anxiety and depression…

Top 10 Niacin Rich Foods

1) Turkey
1 breast: 101 mg (over 100% DV)

2) Chicken breast
3 oz: 8.9 mg (44% DV)

3) Peanuts
1 cup: 21.9 mg (over 100% DV)

4) Mushrooms
1 cup: 7.6 mg (34% DV)

5) Liver
1 slice: 11.9 mg (60% DV)

6) Tuna
3 oz: 11.3 mg (56% DV)

7) Green peas
1 cup: 3 mg (15% DV)

8) Grass-fed Beef
3oz: 7.6 mg (36% DV)

9) Sunflower seeds
1 cup: 3.8 mg (19% DV)

10) Avocado
1 whole fruit: 3.5 (17% DV)..”

Vitamin B6 – Pyridoxine, Pyridoxal, Pyridoxamine


Assists in protein and carbohydrate metabolism
Supports blood cell synthesis and neurotransmitter synthesis
Recommended Intakes of B6: Since B6 is important in protein metabolism, individuals with very high protein diets require increased B6. The RDA for men and women is 1.3 mg until age 51 when it increases to 1.7 mg per day for men and 1.5 mg per day for women.
A bowl of chickpeasSources of B6: Fortified breakfast cereals are especially good sources of vitamin B6. Other sources include bananas, chickpeas, white potatoes, sunflower seeds, beef and poultry…

Vitamin B6 Benefits, Deficiency & Sources
“…Vitamin B6 helps the body to maintain a healthy nervous system, to make hemoglobin that carries oxygen in red blood cells throughout the body, to provide energy from the food that we eat, to balance blood sugar levels, to act as a natural pain treatment, to boost mood, and also to create antibodies that our immune system uses to protect us. Yes, it’s that vital…

The recommended amount of vitamin B6 for an average adult who is under the age of 50 is 1.3 milligrams. Normally, this amount is relatively easy to get from your diet, assuming you eat enough calories in general.

However, for vitamin B6 benefits, the intake recommendation jumps up as you get older, with experts recommending that adults over 50 get up to 1.7 milligram daily. The increase in vitamin B6 that is needed as someone ages makes older people more prone to experiencing a vitamin B6 deficiency….

Symptoms of Vitamin B6 Deficiency

..Although a deficiency is not very common, studies have linked a vitamin B6 deficiency with an increased risk for a range of different disorders and symptoms.

A vitamin B6 deficiency can overtime cause symptoms including:

Changes in mood, such as irritability, anxiety and depression
Muscle pains
Low energy, or fatigue
Worsening of PMS symptoms
Worsening symptoms of anemia

Because vitamin B6 is so important for nerve function, a vitamin B6 deficiency is linked most commonly with neuropsychiatric disorders, including seizures, migraines, chronic pain and mood disorders like depression.

Other studies have indicated that poor vitamin B6 status is linked to an increased risk of heart disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Other research shows that vitamin B6 deficiency is more common among older people, with the risk of Alzheimer’s disease and other forms of dementia increasing as someone ages and their level of vitamin B6 drops. (1)

Since they are at a higher risk for having a vitamin B6 deficiency, it’s recommended that older adults have their vitamin B6 levels tested by their doctor if they begin to lose their appetite, start generally eating less, lose weight or suffer from nutrient malabsorption for any reason…

Best Vitamin B6 Food Sources

Vitamin B6 can be found in high levels naturally in the following 13 foods (percentages based on 1.3 milligrams daily for adults under 50 years old):

Turkey Breast (3) — 3 ounces: 0.7 milligrams (53% DV)
Grass-Fed Beef (4) — 3 ounces beef tenderloin: 0.5 milligrams (38% DV)
Pistachio Nuts (5) — 1/4 cup: 0.5 milligrams (38% DV)
Tuna (6) — 1 3-ounce can: 0.4 milligrams (30% DV)
Pinto Beans (7) — 1 cup cooked: 0.4 milligrams (30% DV)
Avocado (8) — 1 raw: 0.4 milligrams (30% DV)
Chicken Breast (9) — ½ one breast: 0.3 milligrams (23% DV)
Blackstrap Molasses (10) — 2 tablespoons: 0.26 milligrams (20% DV)
Sunflower Seeds (11) — 1/4 cup: 0.25 milligrams (19% DV)
Sesame Seeds (12) — 1/4 cup: .25 milligrams (19% DV)
Chickpeas/Garbanzo Beans (13) — 1 cup cooked: 0.2 milligrams (15% DV)
Amaranth Grain (14) — 1 cup cooked: 0.2 milligrams (15%DV)

*see Health-Neutral Perspective: Alcohol: Good and Bad?
“…Alcoholism increases the risk of vitamin B6 deficiency just as it does for many other B vitamins. Otherwise deficiencies are rare. Symptoms include anemia, dermatitis, depression, confusion and convulsions…”

“..Vitamin B12 – Cobalamin

Participates in the metabolism of folate
Helps protect the myelin sheath, the coating that surrounds and protects nerve fibers

Recommended Intakes of B12: The RDA is 2.4 micrograms for both men and women.
Sources of B12: There are no sources of B12 in foods of vegetable origin, so strict vegans will need a supplement. Fish, beef, poultry and dairy contain naturally occurring vitamin B12. Vegans can obtain B12 from fortified breakfast cereals and fortified soy products as well as supplements…”

*see Health: Vegetarian-Vegan Diet Needs?

Top 10 Vitamin B12 Foods
“…Benefits of vitamin B12 are vast and include boosting energy, reducing depression, decreasing sugar cravings and lowering neurological degeneration. This is definitely a vitamin B (one of eight) that you don’t want to fall short on for so many reasons! How can you get B12 in your diet? Consume naturally high vitamin B12 foods like meat, poultry, fish, eggs and dairy products. Are you ready for some of my top healthy picks when it comes to foods high in B12?
Top 10 Vitamin B12 Foods

Here are just some of the vitamin B12 foods you can consume on a regular basis to make sure you’re getting enough of this essential vitamin in your diet:

Beef liver: 1 ounce: 20 micrograms (over 300 percent DV)
Sardines: 3 ounces: 6.6 micrograms (over 100 percent DV)

Atlantic mackerel: 3 ounces: 7.4 micrograms (over 100 percent DV)
Lamb: 3 ounces: 2.7 micrograms (45 percent DV)
Wild-caught salmon: 3 ounces: 2.6 micrograms (42 percent DV)
Nutritional yeast: 1 tablespoon: 2.4 micrograms (40 percent DV)
Feta cheese: 0.5 cup: 1.25 micrograms (21 percent DV)
Grass-fed beef: 3 ounces: 1.2 micrograms (20 percent DV)
Cottage Cheese: 1 cup: 0.97 micrograms (16 percent DV)
Eggs: 1 large: 0.6 micrograms (11 percent DV)

When You Get Too Much or Too Little B12: There are no known toxicity effects of vitamin B12. A healthy individual who switches from an omnivorous diet to a vegan diet will not become vitamin B12 deficient right away because we can store enough B12 in the liver to last two years. Older people are at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency because many have a stomach condition that decreases the absorption of this vitamin. Too little vitamin B12 causes a type of anemia called megaloblastic anemia. The red blood cells grow very large and have a short life span. Because of vitamin B12’s role in protecting the myelin sheath, a deficiency also causes neurological symptoms including tingling, numbness, cognitive changes, disorientation and dementia….

*see Health: How to “improve” your memory?
These neurological defects may or may not be reversible. Pernicious anemia is the form of B12 deficiency resulting from an autoimmune disease that damages the stomach and inhibits vitamin B12 absorption. Pernicious anemia is treated with vitamin B12 injections.


Folate – Folic Acid (synthetic form)

“.. Functions:
Assists in DNA synthesis and cell division
Participates in amino acid metabolism
Required for the maturation of cells including red blood cells

Recommended Intakes of Folate: The RDA for men and women is 400 micrograms. The RDA during pregnancy increases to 600 micrograms.
One glass of orange juiceSources of Folate: Fortified breakfast cereals and enriched grains are important sources of folic acid. Other reliable sources of folate include legumes, green leafy vegetables, orange juice, wheat germ and liver…

Folate vs Folic Acid… 1 is Healthy and 1 is Dangerous

“…Folic Acid Side Effects

Folic acid is a synthetic B vitamin found in supplements and fortified foods. Curiously, mainstream media and government agencies use the term synonymously with folate, the natural form of multiple B vitamins commonly referred to as “vitamin B9.”…

..High Folate Foods

It is important to keep in mind that folic acid was relatively non-existent in our diet until being first introduced in 1943. After it was shown to help prevent the risk of developing neural tube defects in infants, it became part of the mandatory food fortification list in 1998.

Until then, humans received their vitamin B9 naturally in the foods that they ate.

The highest folate foods include:

Citrus fruits and juices

Dark green leafy vegetables
Soaked Beans
Sprouted ancient grains

Here is an excellent chart listing out some of the best high folate foods… except for number 4 (breakfast cereal), which actually contains folic acid:..”

When You Get Too Much or Too Little Folate: Excess folic acid may mask a deficiency of vitamin B12 by reversing or preventing anemia. Unfortunately, the neurological effects of a lack of vitamin B12 still continue without early obvious signs. The UL for adults is 1,000 micrograms from folic acid supplements and fortified foods. Because folate is required for cell division, too little folate causes megaloblastic anemia just as a lack of vitamin B12 does. Inadequate folate stores and intakes are linked to increased risks of birth defects such as spina bifida and anencephaly (neural tube defect in which all or part of the brain is missing). Low folate intake is also linked to increased risks of heart disease and cancer.


7. Vitamin C – Ascorbic Acid

Enhances iron absorption
Helps with collagen synthesis
Acts as an antioxidant
Regenerates vitamin E
Plays a role in immune function
Assists in the synthesis of neurotransmitters, DNA and hormones

Special interest in vitamin C in the treatment or prevention of the common cold: A review of the research does not suggest that vitamin C supplements prevent colds in the general public. However, among those subjected to extreme cold or engaging in extreme physical activity, vitamin C doses ranging between 250 mg/day to 1000 mg/day reduced the incidence of colds by 50%. Taken before the onset of a cold, supplemental vitamin C appears to slightly reduce the length of the cold.
Recommended Intakes of Vitamin C: The RDA for men and women is 90 and 75 milligrams respectively. Smokers should add and additional 35 milligrams per day.

Sources of Vitamin C: Vitamin C is present in fruits and vegetables. Rich sources include bell peppers, citrus fruits, strawberries, pineapple, kiwifruit, potatoes, tomatoes, broccoli and leafy greens…”

Vitamin C Foods, Signs of Deficiency, & Health Benefits
“..Top Food Sources of Vitamin C:

Try to consume 2-3 of these vitamin C foods sources daily; this will help you maintain optimal levels of vitamin C. Many of these foods are included in my recommended healing diet due to their high antioxidant content and numerous health benefits.

1) Guava

1 fruit: 377 mg (over 628% DV)

2) Black Currant

1 cup: 203 mg (over 338% DV)

3) Red pepper

1 cup raw: 190 mg (over 317% DV)

4) Kiwi

1 piece: 164 mg (273% DV)

5) Green peppers

1 cup chopped, raw: 120 mg (200% DV)

6) Orange

1 large: 82 mg (over 163% DV)

7) Strawberries

1 cup: 89.4 mg (149% DV)

8) Papaya

1 cup, in pieces: 86.5 mg (over 144% DV)

9) Broccoli

1 cup raw: 81.2 mg (135% DV)

10) Kale

1 cup raw: 80 mg (134% DV)

11) Parsley

1 cup, fresh: 79.8 mg (over 133%)

12) Pineapple

1 cup, fresh: 78.9 mg (over 131%)

13) Brussels sprouts

1 cup raw: 74.8 mg (125% DV)

14) Grapefruit

1 cup: 71.8 mg (120% DV)

15) Peas

1 cup raw: 58 mg (97% DV)

16) Cauliflower

1 cup raw, chopped: 46.4 mg (over 77% DV)

17) Mango

1 cup: 45.7 mg (76% DV)..”

water soluble vitamins

Water-Soluble Vitamins: B-Complex and Vitamin C – 9.312
Table 1. Recommended Dietary Intake (RDA) and Adequate Intake (AI) for Water-Soluble Vitamins

Vitamins made easy (water soluble)

Vitamins and Minerals
Are You Getting What You Need?
“..What they do

Although water-soluble vitamins have many tasks in the body, one of the most important is helping to free the energy found in the food you eat. Others help keep tissues healthy. Here are some examples of how different vitamins help you maintain health:

Release energy. Several B vitamins are key components of certain coenzymes (molecules that aid enzymes) that help release energy from food.
Produce energy. Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic acid, and biotin engage in energy production.
Build proteins and cells. Vitamins B6, B12, and folic acid metabolize amino acids (the building blocks of proteins) and help cells multiply.
Make collagen. One of many roles played by vitamin C is to help make collagen, which knits together wounds, supports blood vessel walls, and forms a base for teeth and bones.

*see Health: Nutrition-Micronutrients Pt. 2~Vitamins=Fat Soluble & Health: Nutrition-Micronutrients Pt. 3~Vitamins=Major Minerals & Health: Nutrition-Micronutrients Pt. 4~Vitamins=Trace Minerals

Any other suggestions, feedback, comments, questions, etc..?

Digestive System
*see Medical: How the Digestive System works?

Digestion of Vitaminsby Cydney Walker
‘…Water-soluble vitamins have to be obtained through the diet daily because excess levels are excreted through your urine and feces..

Digestion of Vitamins

…Water-soluble vitamins are digested and transported into the blood through active-transport channels in the intestine, meaning the concentration of the vitamin allows for channels to open and the vitamin to cross the intestines to a specific protein in the blood. Vitamin B-12 needs a specific transport protein called the intrinsic factor for absorption. The intrinsic factor is a protein produced by the stomach to combine with vitamin B-12 when stomach acid comes in contact with food for digestion, according to Colorado State University. When vitamin B-12 and intrinsic factor reach the small intestines, the pH of the digested food becomes higher, allowing both components to combine and B-12 to become absorbed into your bloodstream.


The small intestine serves as the primary site of vitamin digestion and absorption. Vitamins perform various functions in the body. Vitamin C is incorporated into collagen, a protein that serves to provide structure for your bones and skin. Vitamin D acts to enhance calcium absorption from your small intestines and incorporate calcium into your bones. Vitamin K maintains proper blood clotting proteins and increases calcium deposition in your bones in addition to vitamin D. B-complex vitamins aid in the digestion and use of carbohydrates, proteins and fat for energy….”

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Good News Health

“Disclaimer: No part of this site is intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any illness. Nothing on this site is to be construed as medical advice; the authors are not doctors. Please discuss your personal health, including any options or ideas you may read on the internet (on this site or others) with your personal, qualified health practitioner before making changes to your diet or adjusting/discontinuing any medication. We are not responsible for any adverse outcomes associated with using or misconstruing advice or information on this site. THANK YOU for stopping at our site! May you find what your looking for and “God speed” to good health and prosperity!”

Health: Nutrition-Macronutrients

Micronutrients vs. Macronutrients: The Secret to Understanding Food Breakdown

“…Macronutrients are the structural and energy-giving caloric components of our foods that most of us are familiar with. They include carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

Micronutrients are the vitamins, minerals, trace elements, phytochemicals, and antioxidants that are essential for good health….”

Macronutrients | Learn About Carbohydrates, Proteins & Fats
“..Carbohydrates, fats and proteins are macronutrients. We require them in relatively large amounts for normal function and good health. These are also energy-yielding nutrients, meaning these nutrients provide calories…”

*see Health: Alternatives to “processed” sugar for your “sweet tooth”?

“..What are Carbohydrates?

The basic structure of carbohydrates is a sugar molecule, and they are classified by how many sugar molecules they contain.

Simple carbs: Simple carbohydrates, usually referred to as sugars, are naturally present in fruit, milk and other unprocessed foods. Plant carbohydrates can be refined into table sugar and syrups, which are then added to foods such as sodas, desserts, sweetened yogurts and more. ..

Complex carbs: Complex carbohydrates are any that contain more than two sugar molecules. Short chains are called oligosaccharides. Chains of more than ten monosaccharides linked together are called polysaccharides. They may be hundreds and even thousands of glucose molecules long. The way glucose molecules link together makes them digestible (starch) or non-digestible (fiber). Polysaccharides include the following.

Starch is a series of long chains of bound glucose molecules. It’s the storage form of glucose for grains, tubers and legumes and is used during the plant’s growth and reproduction.
Fiber is also long chains of glucose molecules, but they are bound in a way we cannot digest.
Glycogen is the storage form of glucose in humans and other animals. It’s not a dietary source of carbohydrate because it is quickly broken down after an animal is slaughtered…”

Added Sugars: …Nearly 60% of added sugars come from soda, energy drinks, sports drinks, fruit drinks and grain-based desserts like cakes, cookies and brownies.[3] The problem with added sugars is that they do not come packaged with an abundance of nutrients like a piece of fruit and a glass of milk do. For this reason, many people call them empty calories.

…All of these factors complicate the usefulness of the GI. Additionally, many high-calorie, low-nutrient foods such as some candy bars and ice creams have desirable GI scores, while more nutritious foods like dates and baked potatoes have high scores. It’s important to recognize that the healthfulness of a food depends largely on its nutrient density, not its type of carbohydrate or its GI score.

Proponents of low-carbohydrate diets are incensed by the RDA and AMDR for carbohydrates. “Nutrition experts are trying to kill us,” they argue and claim that carbohydrates have made us overweight. However, research supports that diets of a wide range of macronutrient proportions facilitate a healthy weight, allow weight loss and prevent weight regain. The critical factor is reducing the calorie content of the diet long-term.[4][5]

Fiber Needs: If we shunned all carbohydrates or if we severely restricted them, we would not be able to meet our fiber needs or get ample phytochemicals, naturally occurring compounds that protect the plant from infection and us from chronic disease. The hues, aromas and flavors of the plant suggest that it contains phytochemicals. Scientists have learned of thousands of them with names like lycopene, lutein and indole-3-carbinol. Among other things, phytochemicals appear to stimulate the immune system, slow the rate at which cancer cells grow, and prevent damage to DNA.

High Carbs Or Low Carbs? Why Not Both? Myron Mielke January 19, 2015 • 6 min read

Depending on your plan, carbs might be restricted to 50 grams or less per day. Of course to make it more confusing, carbs are subcategorized into specific types of carbs. You have sugars and starches and they’re the net carbs. There are also fibers and a newly-concocted chemical called sugar alcohol. That’s the ingredient glycerin, which is in your low-carb, high-protein bars that keeps the bar moist instead of being a sawdust consistency. ..”
Low vs. High Carbohydrate Diet: Which is Better?
Fitday Editor
“…Low Carbohydrate Diet

Low carb diets is that they are very low in calories, which is the basis behind weight loss with this program. Two very popular diets on the market today, the Atkins and the Zone diet, both use low calorie and low carb foods. This can be a good thing, as long as you keep your calorie intake to a minimum of 1300 per day for women and 1700 per day for men. You should also take a fiber supplement.

Another good thing about low carbohydrate diets is that they stick with small quantities of low glycemic carbs in combination with fat and protein…

The main danger with high-carb diets is not paying close attention to the kinds of carbohydrates you are consuming, which can easily result in weight gain. Carbohydrates are easily overeaten and lack essential, healthy fats, so seeing a good nutritionist for proper meals and menus prior to starting a diet is essential…”
44 Healthy Low-Carb Foods That Taste Incredible
“..This is a list of 44 low-carb foods. Most of them are healthy, nutritious and incredibly delicious.
Total Carbs vs Net Carbs

Under each food, I have listed the carb content for a standard serving, as well as the number of carbs in a 100 gram portion.

However, keep in mind that some of these foods are high in fiber, so sometimes the digestible (“net”) carb content is even lower.
1. Eggs (Almost Zero)

Eggs are among the healthiest and most nutritious foods on the planet.

They are loaded with all sorts of nutrients, including important brain nutrients and compounds that can improve eye health (11, 12).

Carbs: almost zero.


12 High-Carb Foods That Are Actually Super Healthy
“..1. Quinoa

Quinoa is a nutritious seed that has become incredibly popular in the natural health community.

It is classified as a pseudocereal, a seed that is prepared and eaten like a grain.

Cooked quinoa is 21.3% carbs, making it a high-carb food. However, it is also a good source of protein and fiber…”


The Nutrition of Whole Wheat Pasta
Emily DeLacey
“..Choose products high in fiber and protein, because sometimes the product may be brown because of food additives like molasses, not necessarily indicating that it is a whole grain.

In a 1 cup/140-calorie serving of cooked whole wheat pasta, there are 174 calories, 7 grams of protein and 6 grams of fiber, which is about 25% of your daily fiber needs! It is a low-fat food and contains high levels of manganese and selenium, which are minerals important in maintaining bone health and immune function.

Whole Wheat Pasta and Fiber

One of the top reasons why whole wheat pasta is good for your is the fiber content. The USDA states, “Dietary fiber from whole grains or other foods may help reduce blood cholesterol levels and may lower risk of heart disease, obesity, and type 2 diabetes. Fiber is important for proper bowel function. It helps reduce constipation and diverticulosis. Fiber-containing foods such as whole grains help provide a feeling of fullness with fewer calories.”..”

*see Health: Benefits of “Fasting”?


*see Health: When is “too much” Protein in your diet “too much”?

…The truth is, most Americans eat much more protein than their bodies require. And even if you choose to eat no meat at all, you can still meet your protein needs…

..Though protein provides your body with 4 kcals per gram, giving you energy is not its primary role. Rather, it’s got way too many other things going on. In fact, your body contains thousands of different proteins, each with a unique function. Their building blocks are nitrogen-containing molecules called amino acids. If your cells have all 20 amino acids available in ample amounts, you can make an infinite number of proteins. Nine of those 20 amino acids are essential, meaning you must get them in the diet…

Proteins in the Diet

…Proteins in the body are constantly broken down and re-synthesized. Our bodies reuse most of the released amino acids, but a small portion is lost and must be replaced in the diet. The requirement for protein reflects this lost amount of amino acids plus any increased needs from growth or illness. The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for protein for adults is 0.8 g/kg of body weight. Because of their rapid growth, infants have the highest RDA for protein at 1.5 g/kg of body weight. The RDA gradually decreases until adulthood. It increases again during pregnancy and lactation to a level of 1.1 g/kg. The RDA for an adult weighing 140 pounds (63.6 kg) is a mere 51 grams of protein, an amount many of us consume before mid-afternoon…


Health & Fitness: How to get more “energy” for the Elderly?

One population that needs special attention is the elderly. Though the RDA for older adults remains the same as for younger adults, some research suggests their needs may be 1.2 grams/kg body weight in order to prevent the common muscle loss and osteoporosis that come along with aging.[9] Though this doesn’t require the elderly to eat large servings of food, they frequently have poor appetites and dental problems that make chewing difficult. Helping them meet their nutritional needs may take a little creativity and perseverance….

A complete protein includes all of the essential amino acids. Complete proteins include all animal proteins and soy. Incomplete proteins lack one or more essential amino acids. Beans, nuts, grains and vegetables are incomplete proteins. Previously, registered dietitians and physicians advised vegetarians to combine foods that contained incomplete proteins at the same meal to give the body all the necessary amino acids it needed at one time. Today we know this is unnecessary. Your body combines complementary or incomplete proteins that are eaten in the same day.[10]…

Complete vs. Incomplete Proteins March 30, 2017 by Zac Price
“..Some proteins are complete, meaning that your body can readily use them for protein synthesis, whereas others are incomplete and by themselves cannot be fully utilized in protein synthesis.

In basic terms, complete proteins sustain lean muscle by themselves and incomplete proteins do not.

So, what makes a complete protein “complete” and an incomplete protein “incomplete”?
It’s All About Amino Acids..”

What Are Complete Proteins, Incomplete Proteins, Essential Amino Acids, Non Essential Amino Acids

List of Amino Acids Needed by Your Body
“..Amino acids are classified into two general types: essential and non-essential amino acids. Essential amino acids are those that can not be synthesized by the body on its own and thus need to be acquired through your diet. Non-essential amino acids are those that your body can produce, specifically by the liver, without any outside help…”

Amino Acids – What are Amino Acids – What Do Amino Acids Do


“..Dietary fat has critical roles in the body. Each gram of fat, whether it’s from a spoon of peanut butter or a stick of butter, provides 9 kcals. This caloric density is a lifesaver when food is scarce and is important for anyone unable to consume large amounts of food. The elderly, the sick and others with very poor appetites benefit from high-fat foods. Because their tiny tummies can’t hold big volumes, small children too need fat to provide enough calories for growth…

Our bodies are amazing machines capable of producing most of the needed fatty acids. There are two fatty acids that it cannot make at all, however. They are called LA (linoleic acid) and ALA (alpha linolenic acid). This makes LA and ALA “essential”, meaning they must be obtained through the diet. In the body, fatty acids are important constituents of cell membranes, and they are converted to chemical regulators that affect inflammation, blood clotting, blood vessel dilation and more. Clinical deficiencies are rare. A deficiency of LA is usually seen in people with severe malabsorption problems. Its symptoms are poor growth in children, decreased immune function, and a dry, scaly rash. In the few cases of ALA deficiency that doctors and researchers are aware of, the symptoms were visual problems and nerve abnormalities…..

List of Foods With Essential Fatty Acids by SANDI BUSCH Last Updated: Dec 18, 2013
Essential Fatty Acids

The omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids help prevent cardiovascular disease by lowering cholesterol. They’re essential for the proper functioning of your brain, nerves and cells throughout body. They also help regulate the inflammatory response. Two of the essential fatty acids must come from your diet; your body uses them to make three more. The essential omega-3 is alpha-linolenic acid, or ALA. You also need to consume the omega-6 called linoleic acid, or LA. Women need 1.1 grams of omega-3 and 12 grams of omega-6 daily. Men should get 1.6 grams of omega-3 and 17 grams of omega-6 daily.
Two of the omega-3 fatty acids — eicosapentaenoic acid, or EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid, or DHA — come from oily fish. Even though they can be synthesized from ALA, your body may not produce an adequate amount, according to the Linus Pauling Institute. The best sources include…

… salmon, sardines, mackerel, tuna and freshwater trout. The American Heart Association recommends eating oily fish twice weekly. If you don’t consume enough fish, you can take fish oil supplements. A recommendation for fish oil has not been established, but patients with coronary heart disease are advised to take 1 gram of combined EPA and DHA daily….

15 Omega-3 Foods Your Body Needs Now
“..There are actually three different types of “omega-3s”: ALA (alpha-linolenic acid), DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) and EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid). The preferred sources are DHA and EPA, the kinds found in seafood sources like salmon and sardines. ALA, on the other hand, is found in some plant foods, including certain nuts and seeds, as well as high-quality cuts of meat like grass-fed beef…

Historically, we’ve seen that populations that consume the most omega-3 foods, like people in Okinawa, Japan, live longer and healthier lives than people who eat a standard diet low in omega-3s. The typical Okinawa diet — which consists of plenty of fish, sea vegetables and other fresh produce — is actually believed to have about eight times the amount of omega-3s that you’d find in the standard American diet, which is likely one reason why this population is considered one of the healthiest in human history…
*see Longevity: How to “slow” the aging process?

“..What Are the Best Omega-3 Foods?

Here’s a list of the top 15 omega-3 foods (percentages based on 4,000 milligrams per day of total omega-3s): (7)

Mackerel: 6,982 milligrams in 1 cup cooked (174 precent DV)
Salmon Fish Oil: 4,767 milligrams in 1 tablespoon (119 percent DV)
Cod Liver Oil: 2.664 milligrams in 1 tablespoon (66 percent DV)
Walnuts: 2,664 milligrams in 1/4 cup (66 percent DV)
Chia Seeds: 2,457 milligrams in 1 tablespoon (61 percent DV)
Herring: 1,885 milligrams in 3 ounces (47 percent DV)
Salmon (wild-caught): 1,716 milligrams in 3 ounces (42 percent DV)
Flaxseeds (ground): 1,597 milligrams in 1 tablespoon (39 percent DV)
Tuna: 1,414 milligrams in 3 ounces (35 percent DV)
White Fish: 1,363 milligrams in 3 ounces (34 percent DV)
Sardines: 1,363 milligrams in 1 can/3.75 ounces (34 percent DV)
Hemp Seeds: 1,000 milligrams in 1 tablespoon (25 percent DV)
Anchovies: 951 milligrams in 1 can/2 ounces (23 percent DV)
Natto: 428 milligrams in 1/4 cup (10 percent DV)
Egg Yolks: 240 milligrams in 1/2 cup (6 percent DV)

Omega 3-6-9 Fatty Acids: What’s The Difference? By Jonathan Serfaty / 11.27.13 / Medically Reviewed
‘..The Basics of Fatty Acids

Fatty acids (FA) have several roles in the body. In addition to being the primary component of stored fat, they also serve as important building blocks of cell membranes and regulate inflammatory processes.2

There are two main types of fatty acids: saturated and unsaturated. Saturated fats, which are solid at room temperature, you’ll find in animals and tropical plants. Unsaturated fats, which are usually liquid at room temperature, you’ll find in vegetables, seeds, and fatty fish.

Unsaturated fats are classified as either polyunsaturated fats (PUFA), which mainly include omega-3 omega-6 fatty acids, or monounsaturated fats (MUFA), which include omega-9 fatty acids…”

Trans Fats.

‘…Many experts consider trans fats even worse than saturated fats because, like saturated fats, they contribute to insulin resistance[14] and raise LDL cholesterol, but there’s more bad news. They also lower HDL cholesterol (the good cholesterol).[15] The American Heart Association recommends that we keep our trans fatty acid intake to less than 1% of total calories (less than 2 grams if consuming 1600 calories daily). Achieving this might be trickier than you realize because many foods touting No Trans Fats on their labels actually contain traces of these artery-scarring fats. That’s because the law allows manufacturers’ to claim zero trans fats as long as a single serving contains no more than 0.49 grams. If you eat a few servings of foods with smidgens of trans fat like margarine crackers and baked goods, you can easily exceed the recommended limit…

Unsaturated Fats. As discussed, unsaturated fatty acids improve blood cholesterol levels and insulin sensitivity when they replace saturated and trans fats. There are two classes of unsaturated fatty acids: monounsaturated fats and polyunsaturated fats.

Monounsaturated fat souces include avocados, nuts, seeds and olives. Peanut, canola and olive oils are additional sources.

There are several types of polyunsaturated fats, and they each have different roles in the body.

Omega-3 fatty acids have been in the spotlight recently because of their role in heart disease prevention. ALA is an omega-3 fatty acid, and you can find it in walnuts, ground flaxseed, tofu and soybeans, as well as common cooking oils like canola, soybean and walnut oils. Remember that your body is unable to create ALA, so it’s essential to get it in the diet. From ALA, your body makes two other critically important omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA), but the conversion is very inefficient. It’s better to get EPA and DHA from fish. Not only are EPA and DHA important to the heart, but they also promote visual acuity and brain development in the fetus, infant and child; they seem to slow the rate of cognitive decline in the elderly; and they may decrease the symptoms associated with arthritis, ulcerative colitis and other inflammatory diseases. You will find them in bluefish, herring, lake trout, mackerel, salmon, sardines, and tuna.
Omega-6 fatty acids are a second type of polyunsaturated fats. LA is an omega-6 fatty acid and has to be acquired through the diet. Sources of omega-6 fatty acids are sunflower seeds, Brazil nuts, pecans and pine nuts. Some cooking oils are good sources too, such as corn, sunflower, safflower and sesame oils.[16]


Good Fats vs. Bad Fats | HealthiNation

*see Health: Nutrition-Foods to Know About /

*see Health: Nutrition-Micronutrients Pt. 2~Vitamins=Fat Soluble & Health: Nutrition-Micronutrients Pt. 3~Vitamins=Major Minerals

Follow us on IG or Instagram #healthfitnesslifeguy

Good News Health

Disclaimer: No part of this site is intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any illness. Nothing on this site is to be construed as medical advice; the authors are not doctors. Please discuss your personal health, including any options or ideas you may read on the internet (on this site or others) with your personal, qualified health practitioner before making changes to your diet or adjusting/discontinuing any medication. We are not responsible for any adverse outcomes associated with using or misconstruing advice or information on this site. THANK YOU for stopping at our site! May you find what your looking for and “God speed” to good health and prosperity!”

Fitness: “Safety” & Best Tips (Properly) When Running, Jogging, and/or Walking Outdoors

Top 5 Tips for Safe Spring Runs Locke Hughes

11 Tips for Staying Safe on the Roads By Jennifer Van Allen Thursday, April 25, 2013, 12:00 am
Take these precautions to protect yourself when you’re walking and running outside.


10 Ways You Can Stay Safe When Out On Morning Runs By Mile Posts Published Sep. 5, 2014 Updated Dec. 7, 2016
“..I personally have had run-ins with crazy people in cars. I’ve had people swerve towards me while I was pushing my kids in the running stroller, and sadly I saw a woman who died from being hit and dragged by a trash truck not 15 feet from the front door of my townhouse. These incidents have kept me on my toes while running, so to say. I know that keeping myself safe is my priority. I can’t rely on others to see me or for people to act in a manner that they should.

Here are some of my tips for staying safe on early morning runs—though many of these tips work for other times as well!…”


10 Safety Tips for Running in the Dark – Happy Fit Mama

Running at Night: 6 Safety Tips for Beginners – YouTube


6 Running Safety Tips By Lauren Hargrave For
“..It’s summer. That means warmer weather, more daylight, people out and about enjoying the sunshine—it has to be safer to run outdoors, right? Wrong.

Generally speaking, yes, it is safer to run when it’s light out, as opposed to when it’s dark, but there’s something that happens to most of us during daylight—we feel invincible. And this is just as hazardous as running by ourselves at midnight on a poorly lit street…”

Jogging Trails: 7 Tips to Stay Safe – YouTube


Proper Breathing While Running | How To

Running Tips : How to Control Breathing While Running
*see Medical: How the Lungs (respiratory system) Function?

How To Run Properly For Beginners – 5 Running Secrets


Jogging For Beginners – Tips For Proper Technique


Safety and Walking Tips | Move It People


Top 10 Running Surfaces Marc Bloom
By Marc Bloom Posted on June 1, 2002
Not all running surfaces are created equal – we’ve rated the top 10, from asphalt to woodland
“..“In the summer, when I run mainly on grass, my whole body seems to relax,” said two-time world indoor champion Marcus O’Sullivan after winning a mile race. Concrete, he noticed, sent shock waves through his body and was a surefire route to long-term damage. There was only one way to sum it up: “I’m convinced that if you run on softer surfaces, your career will last longer.” ..”


Don’t run on hard surfaces
Posted at: Aug 2, 2015, 12:52 AM; last updated: Jul 29, 2015, 7:45 PM (IST)
Jog in parks or on grass as running on solid surfaces like concrete or on roads can give you knee problems
“..Hard surface runs can lead to inflammation like Achilles tendonitis,( a condition where the tendon that connects the heel bone to lower leg becomes inflamed, causing heel pain), inflammation of the tendons and muscles in the front and outside of the leg, the knees cap and the lower leg bone, or tibia. Sometimes repetitive impact also can lead to stress fractures in the small bones of the foot or ankle, which can ultimately result in breakage. Changing your running surface, “is much like increasing your mileage, changing your shoes or some other aspect of your training program.” Abrupt changes can be risky so notice your problems first before going on any coclusion…”

5. Synthetic Track
Nowadays, almost all British tracks are made of modern synthetic materials. While most people think of them purely as fast surfaces for fast runners, they’re more versatile than that.
Pros: Synthetic tracks provide a reasonably forgiving surface and, being exactly 400 metres around, make measuring distances and timing sessions easy.
Cons: With two long curves on every lap, ankles, knees and hips are put under more stress than usual. Longer runs also become very tedious.
Conclusion: Tracks are ideal for speedwork, but you have to be dedicated to use them for anything else.
Rating: 7…”

Sal: I personally prefer running on a “rubber” outdoor track…

…it’s easier on my knees and I don’t have to worry about the other “outdoor elements” (e.g. unexpected uneven surfaces, traffic, etc..)

Is running on concrete bad for your knees?

s Running on Pavement Risky? updated Jul 29, 2017
by Paul Ingraham, Vancouver, Canada bio
Hard-surface running may be risk factor for running injuries like patellofemoral pain, IT band syndrome, shin splints, and plantar fasciitis

“…there’s a lot of research about impact, some of it concerning different surfaces, just a few of those specifically about the relationship between impact and injury. As of the end of 2016, there were only about 18 decent experiments, with too many differences between them to clearly interpret. A review of these by van der Worp et al concluded just a single thing with confidence: a history of stress fractures is associated with a higher impact forces in running gait.13..”


The Best Running Surface for Your Knees
Is running on hard surfaces really bad for your knees?
“…The bottom line: When it comes to injury, researchers currently believe no single surface is better than another. Concrete, for instance, is hard, but it’s typically consistent. Asphalt roads often are cambered for drainage, while the unpredictability of many grass and dirt surfaces can cause instant injuries. (Mickey Mantle famously injured his right knee during the 1951 World Series when he sprinted across a baseball field and caught his shoe on a sprinkler.) Your best bet for avoiding injuries, experts say: mix it up. Incorporate a variety of surfaces into your training, including grass, dirt, asphalt, concrete, and tracks…”

*see Fitness: Various Cardio Workouts

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Good News Fitness

“Disclaimer: No part of this site is intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any illness. Nothing on this site is to be construed as medical advice; the authors are not doctors. Please discuss your personal health, including any options or ideas you may read on the internet (on this site or others) with your personal, qualified health practitioner before making changes to your diet or adjusting/discontinuing any medication. We are not responsible for any adverse outcomes associated with using or misconstruing advice or information on this site. THANK YOU for stopping at our site! May you find what your looking for and “God speed” to good health and prosperity!”

Fitness: Various Exercises for the Hip

Hip Joint – Anatomy Pictures and Information – Human Anatomy › Skeletal System › Bones of the Leg and Foot
“…is one of the most important joints in the human body. It allows us to walk, run, and jump. It bears our body’s weight and the force of the strong muscles of the hip and leg. Yet the hip joint is also one of our most flexible joints and allows a greater range of motion than all other joints in the body except for the shoulder.

The hip joint is a ball-and-socket synovial joint formed between the os coxa (hip bone) and the femur. A round, cup-shaped structure on the os coax, known as the acetabulum, forms the socket for the hip joint. The rounded head of the femur…..”
Hip and thigh (Anatomy) – Study Guide | Kenhub
Muscles of the Hip?
The hip joint is one of the most flexible joints in the entire human body. The many muscles of the hip provide movement, strength, and stability to the hip joint and the bones of the hip and thigh. These muscles can be grouped based upon their location and function. The four groups are the anterior group, the posterior group, adductor group, and finally the abductor group…”

Muscles of the Hip and Thigh – Human Anatomy | Kenhub

Kinesiology of the Hip:
By Brent Brookbush MS, PES, CES, CSCS, ACSM H/FS


a. Biomechanics

What Are the 3 Main Hip Flexor Muscles?
by STEPHANIE CHANDLER Last Updated: Sep 11, 2017

Hip Flexor animation and tightness
What Are the 3 Main Hip Flexor Muscles?
by STEPHANIE CHANDLER Last Updated: Sep 11, 2017
‘…Iliopsoas..Sartorius…Rectus Femoris..”

b. Fitness/Exercises
*see Medical: Parts of the Muscular System

8 Hip Flexor Stretches and Exercises for Healthy Hips
“..The hip flexors are the group of muscles that allow you to lift your knees toward your chest and bend forward from the hips. What is collectively referred to as the hip flexors is actually a group of muscles that includes the iliopsoas, the thigh muscles (rectus femoris, Sartorius and tensor fasciae latae), and the inner thigh muscles (adductor longus and brevis, pectineus and gracilis).

Tight hip flexors are a common problem among those of us who spend a lot of the day sitting at a desk. When you spend a lot of time in a seated position, the hip flexors remain in a shortened position. Over time, the shortened muscles become “tight,” which leads to its own set of problems…”

Problems: Sitting too much will increase lower back pain due to constant stretch of back muscles (e.g. Simple Test To See If You Have Tight Hip Flexors from

11 Exercises to Boost Hip Strength By Dan Kehlenbach

2. Extension

a. Bio Mechanics

Muscles Used in Hip Extension by AUBREY BAILEY Last Updated: Jun 16, 2015
“…Gluteus Maximus…Hamstrings..”



(a) Fitness

The 17 Best Glutes Exercises
Target your body’s largest and most powerful muscle group with these expert-approved moves

Exercise n. 6- Hip extension backward leg lifts – YouTube=

Also: Indoor cycling, power walking in steep inclines, running, stair climbing, etc..

(2) =>Hamstrings

(a). Fitness’s 10 Highest-Rated Hamstring Exercises Matt Biss March 01, 2016 • 3 min read
“…Most people think hamstrings only serve one function: knee flexion. In reality, the hamstrings are not one single muscle, but a group of muscles with multiple functions. The hammies’ most important function is hip extension, which is vital for explosiveness, sprinting, jumping, and even low-back health…”

At Home Hamstring Workout Video – Hamstring Exercises with No Equipment

Hamstrings Workout At Home | 5 Killer Exercises For Bigger And Stronger Hamstrings

Supine Ball Leg Curl for Strong Hamstrings, from

3. Abduction

a. Bio Mechanics

Gluteus Medius
Gluteus Medius Muscle
Gluteus Medius is an important muscle in controlling the level of the hips. Weaknesses in gluteus medius often result in a trendelenburg sign, an abnormal gait cycle where the hip of the swinging leg drops down, rather than raises up. This results in increased degrees of knee flexion in order to clear the ground….”

b. Strengthening

Stability Exercise – Side Lying Hip Abduction

4. Hip Rotation

a. Bio Mechanics

Hip External Rotators

06 Hip external rotation – YouTube

b. Exercises-stretching
*see Fitness: Various kinds of Stretches

External Hip Rotator Stretches
by JOSHUA MCCARRON Last Updated: Sep 11, 2017
Hip External Rotation Exercise
*helps with knee stress from collapse legs
Hip External Rotator Strengthening Exercise from

5. Hip Adduction

a. Bio Mechanics

Anatomy of the Hip Adductors – Human Anatomy | Kenhub – YouTube

b. Strengthening

Side Lying Adductor Leg Raise Exercise

c. Stretches

PNF Stretching for the Adductors Muscles – Kinetic Health

*see Fitness: Lower Body Workout

c. Exercises


10-Minute Hips Workout By Betsy Stephens; Photos by Susan Pittard

Do this 10-minute hips workout developed by Marcus Minier, exercise physiologist at The Gym in New York City, three times a week along with five days of cardio, and we guarantee that you’ll have the slimmer hips you deserve in no time!

Hip Mobility Routine: 8 Exercises to Do Daily for Flexibility, Less Pain, and Ease of Movement

“GMB Fitness
Published on Aug 12, 2014
More detailed instruction here:

Tight hips are extremely common, especially since most of us spend our days sitting, sitting, and sitting some more. This tightens the hip flexors and makes it difficult to get the most out of this incredibly important joint.

This sequence will help you loosen up your hips nicely.

Less tension in the hips can help reduce back pain and overall stiffness. You’ll also notice greater ease of movement in all your physical activities.

You can practice this routine everyday – it only takes a few minutes 🙂

If any position is painful, back off and just do what you can. Over time, your range of motion will increase. Don’t compare yourself to the guy in the video – he’s been doing this a loooooong time. Just play your own game and use this demonstration as a guide to find your own range for the best stretch. “
*see Supine “… With the back or dorsal surface downward. A person who is supine is lying face up. As opposed to prone…”

20 Hip Mobility Exercises – Hip Stretches

*see more Fitness: Lower Body Workout

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