Medical: Sarcopenia- Causes, Prevention, and Treatment

Sarcopenia: What you need to know Last reviewed Fri 21 July 2017 By MaryAnn de Pietro
Reviewed by Alana Biggers, MD, MPH
“..This decrease in muscle leads to a reduction in a person’s strength. As a result, their balance and gait are also affected…”

Health-Fitness: Information on Sarcopenia w/HealthFitnessLifeGuy


Learn How to Muscle Test Yourself in 3 Minutes – YouTube

How to Do Self Muscle Testing ~ 7 Ways to Muscle Test … – YouTube

*see Medical: Parts of the Muscular System



How to reverse the loss of muscle mass associated with aging
“..Starting at age 40, adults can lose up to 8 percent of their muscle mass per decade; that rate can accelerate to 15 percent per decade starting at about age 70. That is alarming when you think about it. But don’t get frustrated — you can reverse the trend.

That’s why exercise is so important, especially if you are feeling fatigued. Regular exercise can increase energy levels while also increasing strength, which is all the more reason to start now on forming habits that prevent more muscle loss..

Exercise: Increase resistance exercise, such as weight lifting, body weight exercises and using resistance bands or tubes. Check out local fitness classes—Pilates, barre, aerobics with strength training and water resistance classes are all choices. Make it fun and get your friends involved, too.

Don’t forget muscle-friendly foods: Make sure you work in nutrients such as protein and essential amino acids, such as HMB and leucine. HMB, or β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, is an amino acid metabolite that occurs naturally in muscle and is found in small amounts in some foods, such as avocado, grapefruit and catfish. Also, make sure you have adequate intakes of vitamin D, which can help support muscle health.

Still need more advice? Talk to your doctor about other ways to maintain muscle health and prevent sarcopenia.

How to Prevent Sarcopenia (Age-Related Muscle Loss) – YouTube

Avoid Muscle Wasting Disease

Published on May 5, 2015
Richard Wolff reveals how expensive muscle wasting disease it. Prevent it at

Sarcopenia: 10 Keys to Keep Your Muscle Mass Up as You Age
“..Natural Sarcopenia Treatment

While everyone loses some muscle mass with age, it’s possible to slow or even reverse that loss with regular exercise and many other easy, natural treatments. For the elderly, maintaining muscle mass and function is vital to having functional independence. Muscle deterioration can be prevented, decreased and reversed with the following methods:

1. Exercise..

*see Health & Fitness: How to get more “energy” for the Elderly?

“2. Increase Overall Dietary Protein

Protein is the most valuable food for repairing and building muscle fibers. Studies show that 12 percent of men and 24 percent of women over age 70 eat significantly less than the recommended 0.8 gram of protein per kilogram of their body weight each day. ..

3. Choose Protein Wisely

..The amino acid leucine has been shown to preserve body muscle. Leucine is an essential amino acid, which means our bodies cannot produce it, so we must get it from dietary sources…

Leucine is found in higher amounts in animal foods, including beef, lamb, poultry, fish, eggs, milk and products made with milk. It’s also found in soybeans and, to a lesser extent, other beans, nuts and seeds. Of course, I always recommended choosing the best quality of these food items.

The best protein foods to include in your diet are the following:

Grass-fed beef

Whey protein (organic, ideally from raw goat milk)
Wild-caught fish (salmon..

…, mackerel, tuna, etc.)
Organic chicken

Black beans (or other beans)

Raw milk
Kefir or yogurt
Free-range eggs

Raw cheese

Muscle Wasting prevention and treatment | Sarcopenia … – YouTube


Sarcopenia and Protein with Dr. Scarbrough – Your Health TV

How to reverse the loss of muscle mass associated with … – YouTube

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Good News Medical

“Disclaimer: No part of this site is intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any illness. Nothing on this site is to be construed as medical advice; the authors are not doctors. Please discuss your personal health, including any options or ideas you may read on the internet (on this site or others) with your personal, qualified health practitioner before making changes to your diet or adjusting/discontinuing any medication. We are not responsible for any adverse outcomes associated with using or misconstruing advice or information on this site. THANK YOU for stopping at our site! May you find what your looking for and “God speed” to good health and prosperity!”

Health & Fitness: What “Motivates” you and how to stay “committed” to what you started?

Why do you want to keep “healthy” ? Why do you want to keep “fit”? What “motivates” you to do one of the other or both? Everyone has some “personal” reason to do each of these or both? However, what keeps one going?

Fitness: Deep Thought-“What Motivates YOU to Workout?” w/healthfitnesslifeguy

What keeps me striving to keep healthy is my “medical challenges”. I was diagnosed “border-line” pre-diabetic (see Health: How to “fight” Diabetes? ) at “too” young age (27 or so). I have a family (mom’s side) history of “diabetes” and don’t want to be the “next” one in line.

What about you? What’s your family’s medical history? Whatever “barriers” you were “born” or “inherited” with, don’t let it STOP you. Instead, let it “motivate” you to “overcome” it! We all were born with some “disability” or “challenge”, no one was born “perfect”!


“Make a plan (daily, weekly, monthly, yearly, etc..”)!”-Denzel Washington

Benefits of Working Out

“Happy” Hormones

Feel happier after working out? You’re not imagining it
“…Here are the most prominent theories:
There’s increased blood flow to the brain

The reason you feel so alert after a good huff-and-puff could be thanks to increased blood volume in the brain…

You get a surge of happy hormones

Researchers believe that exercising to the point of fatigue causes an increase in tryptophan, which leads to the synthesis of the serotonin neurotransmitter, which is what antidepressants target…

It gives you a sense of accomplishment

It’s not just physiological changes – there are also psychological affects that come from ticking exercise off your to-do list for the day, in the form of that little fist-pump feeling…

It helps you sleep better

It’s no secret that sleeping poorly can suck the joy out of life, so the fact exercise helps regulate our sleep patterns makes it an obvious mood enhancer…”

Legally Blonde – endorphins

How to increase the HAPPY hormone Serotonin Naturally

Published on Jul 31, 2015
On the Science of Happiness we meet with PACCHI RESENDE A PERSONAL TRAINER who demonstrates two easy physical activities you can do at home, to increase your endorphins and serotonin, to assist you on your journey to HAPPINESS.

-Mountain Climbers


Exercise Pushes Your Happiness Button – YouTube

*intense exercises releases endorphins and decreases depression

The brain-changing benefits of exercise | Wendy Suzuki

“30 minutes at least each of 3-4 days a week with an #aerboicexercise at the end”

Power Foods for the Brain | Neal Barnard | TEDxBismarck

“10->15->…40 minute a walk 3x a week will help “reverse brain sinkerage”

Other Well-Know Successful People’s “Motivation” Advice

CHANGE YOUR MIND AND BECOME SUCCESSFUL – Best Motivational Videos Compilation for 2017

“”You have to know where your going…set #goals ”

Motivation, Success, Greatness. -Will Smith


“If you don’t know where you’re going, your going to have pitfalls”..
“you can achieve anything if you put your #mind to it”
“it’s behind the scenes”
“Work is behind the scenes, competition is the easy party, behind the scenes is where work is done, everything is done is to get where the race is done”-Bolt

Any other suggestions?

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Good News Words

“Disclaimer: No part of this site is intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any illness. Nothing on this site is to be construed as medical advice; the authors are not doctors. Please discuss your personal health, including any options or ideas you may read on the internet (on this site or others) with your personal, qualified health practitioner before making changes to your diet or adjusting/discontinuing any medication. We are not responsible for any adverse outcomes associated with using or misconstruing advice or information on this site. THANK YOU for stopping at our site! May you find what your looking for and “God speed” to good health and prosperity!”

Health & Fitness: How to increase Estrogen Levels and Keep it Balance?

12 Tips to Balance Estrogen Levels Naturally In Hormone Balance, Medications, Weight Loss | by Dr. Jockers | Comments are closed | Affiliate Disclosure
“Dangers Behind Hormone Replacement:

When hormones such as thyroid, estrogen, & progesterone are supplemented through prescriptions, creams, & contraceptives such as birth control pills, they are abnormally flooding their body with an unnatural amount of hormones (2, 3). This causes several responses within the body:..

12 Tips to Balance Your Hormones:

..3. Anti-Inflammatory Diet: Keep grains, sugars, bad fats and commercialized meat out of your diet. Load up on non-starchy veggies, low-glycemic fruit (lemons/limes, grapefruit, berries, granny smith apples), organic meat, good fats (coconut, grass-fed butter/ghee, olives, olive oil and avocados). Use herbs in abundance and fermented foods and tonics like apple cider vinegar

4. Practice Intermittent Fasting: Doing a liquid fast for 16-24 hrs daily or even just a few days a week can be an incredible practice to improve detoxification pathways. I personally enjoy doing 16-18 hour fasts daily where I eat my meals between a 6-8 hour eating window (12-7pm for example)….”
How to Boost Estrogen Levels by JAIME HERNDON Last Updated: Aug 14, 2017
“..Estrogen is a naturally occurring female hormone that helps regulate the menstrual cycle and is important in the typical sexual development of females, says the Mayo Clinic. The body makes varying amounts of estrogen throughout the lifespan, with levels dropping off after menopause. There may be other reasons for a reduction in estrogen, like a medical condition or extreme weight loss. Raising estrogen levels can be done in a variety of ways, but it must be done under a doctor’s care, as too much estrogen can have negative health effects…”

16 Signs Your Estrogen Is Low — And What You Can Do About It
“..For some people, having low estrogen is genetic. Other people end up with low levels of this hormone because they have a thyroid disorder, ovarian cysts, or because they’ve undergone chemo or radiation. If you have very low body fat (due to too much exercise or not eating enough), you might also be causing your body to have low estrogen. If your weight was really low when you were going through puberty (for instance, if you were a gymnast or you were struggling with an eating disorder), that may have caused delays in development of your secondary sex characteristics.

Having low estrogen means that your levels of this hormone are low compared to the other hormones in your system. Estrogen levels vary widely from person to person, so it’s more important to know how the levels of this hormone changes in your body over time, as opposed to the actual measurable amount. Your estrogen levels decline naturally as you get closer to menopause, so many of the signs of low estrogen are what you’ve heard of as menopause symptoms — but low estrogen can actually cause a lot of other changes. It’s important to note that these symptoms can vary from person to person, and some of them are dependent on how low your estrogen actually dips…”


10 foods that increase estrogen levels naturally By: Emily Lunardo | Women’s Health | Tuesday, April 11, 2017 – 02:00 PM
‘…If you happen to be experiencing symptoms of low estrogen, there are several estrogen-rich foods that may help boost your estrogen level. These foods contain phytoestrogen, which is a plant-based estrogen that mimics estrogen once it is processed by the body. The following is a list of foods that are known for containing excessive amounts of phytoestrogens. It is important to keep in mind that estrogen rich foods may have unwanted effects in men.

Soybean products: Soy is a rich source of phytoestrogen and comes in a variety of easy to consume forms like soy milk, tofu, or edamame. Soy products are the greatest source of isoflavones, a class of phytoestrogen that can be easily consumed in your diet. Soy is also a great source of protein, making it an ideal meat substitute for vegans and vegetarians.

Flaxseeds: These little seeds contain up to three times the phytoestrogens of soybeans, but your body will not reap their benefits unless they are cracked or ground prior to consumption. Also high in fiber, flaxseeds will make you feel full and may aid in weight loss and in the reduction of cholesterol.

Sesame seeds: Whole seeds—or even sesame oil—contain lignans (a chemical compound found in plants) that possess phytoestrogens. The seeds are also loaded with fiber and are a great source of minerals.

Beans: They are relativity high in phytoestrogens, but they don’t get much attention. Beans are known for having a high fiber content, which helps to control cholesterol levels. Types of beans include peas, pinto bean, and lima beans

Dried Fruit: Not only are they a healthy snack, but they also contain a modest amount of phytoestrogens. It is advised to limit how much you eat, as dried fruit does contain a lot of calories. Apricots, dates, and prunes are good sources.

Bran: Wheat bran is a reliable way get your dose of phytoestrogens. It can be found in muffins, bread, and cereals.

Nuts: Several types of nuts, including pistachios, chestnuts, hazelnuts, and walnuts, are great sources of phytoestrogens.

Alfalfa Sprouts: Naturally low in calories and carbohydrates, alfalfa sprouts are an excellent choice.

Chickpeas: A reliable source of phytoestrogens that are also high in fiber and protein.

Olives and olive oil: Having a bevy of healthy effects for your hair, skin, nail, and heart, they are also great for your hormone levels…”

Personal Stories:

Increase Estrogen Levels Naturally

*see Women: Menopause- Health & Fitness Tips?

Any other tips from “women” readers?

Good News Women

“Disclaimer: No part of this site is intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any illness. Nothing on this site is to be construed as medical advice; the authors are not doctors. Please discuss your personal health, including any options or ideas you may read on the internet (on this site or others) with your personal, qualified health practitioner before making changes to your diet or adjusting/discontinuing any medication. We are not responsible for any adverse outcomes associated with using or misconstruing advice or information on this site. THANK YOU for stopping at our site! May you find what your looking for and “God speed” to good health and prosperity!”

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Supplements: Good and Bad of Creatine?


Creatine 101 All You Need To Know!

-Improved performance – strength, power, speed, endurance
-Longer / larger work volume

-maximal strength + muscular endurance
-increase anaerobic power and performance
-lean body mass + muscle density
-improves functions associated with neuromuscular disease

The 10 Myths of Creatine , from
“Published on Oct 14, 2012

Hi, Shawn Phillips here.
Enjoy my response to the 100’s of questions I get about Creatine, the supplement we launched at EAS in the mid 90’s… wow. Time flies. And this is STILL the #1.”

“What Happens When I Stop Taking Creatine?”

The first is the additional water retention that is held inside of the muscle cell. After stopping creatine for around 2 or 3 weeks, this particular benefit will in fact be lost. Creatine requires additional water in order to be stored inside of your muscle cells, and when you stop using creatine, those extra water stores will flush out along with the creatine itself.

The second is the increased strength and gym performance. This one will vary quite a bit from person to person and it depends on how well you responded to creatine supplementation in the first place. Assuming you do respond well, you might notice a slight reduction in gym performance after cycling off creatine. However, it shouldn’t be too significant, and whatever additional muscle you originally gained from the creatine use should remain intact.

So, to sum it up, when you discontinue creatine use, you will lose the additional creatine water weight and you may experience a slight reduction in strength, but you likely won’t lose any actual lean muscle tissue that you gained.

The real question though, is why stop using creatine in the first place? There is no benefit to creatine cycling (going off creatine for a month, for example, isn’t going to give you any added benefits)… it is completely safe to use over the long term… and it’s also very inexpensive.

Assuming you are someone who benefits from this supplement, my advice is to just use it continuously, as I can’t see any reason why going off creatine would be beneficial.”

Creatine and Testosterone: King Of All Bodybuilding Supplements

Creatine in my opinion is probably the number #1 supplement. I’ve been taking it for years and I recommend it to all men, even if they’re not building muscle.

Read about creatine and testosterone here –…

Also, download the exclusive 30 man foods grocery list here to know what the top 30 foods are to boost your testosterone naturally:”

Creatine Monohydrate 101: The Research Behind A Phenomenon! Matt Weik June 05, 2017 • 5 min read
“…Some research suggests creatine supplementation may serve as a buffer in the muscle and may decrease muscle lactate accumulation, enhancing performance in sport events dependent on the lactic acid energy system.

One consistent finding in most studies is an increased body mass. A week of creatine supplementation has been found to increase body mass by about 0.9-2.2 kilograms (2.0-4.6 pounds)” (Williams, 1998).
“In one study, creatine supplementation reduced ATP degradation by 30% and increased work output during two 30 second bouts of maximal isokinetic cycling” (Casey, 1996).
Paul Greenhaff, a British exercise physiologist said, “Creatine should not be viewed as another gimmick supplement; its ingestion is a means of providing immediate, significant performance improvements to athletes involved in explosive sports” (Williams, 1998).

How to Use Creatine Effectively: 6 Things You Need to Know
“..1. The first point we will go through is what type of creatine should you get. There are a variety of different types of creatine but most studies have concluded that creatine monohydrate delivers the same (or in some cases better) effect as the other forms of creatine. However, polyethylene glycosylated creatine is one molecule that may be better absorbed by the body than creatine monohydrate. 2. The next thing we go through is what you should take it with. Studies have shown that taking creatine with 96g of carbs or an equivalent of 47g of carbs and 50g of protein was able to increase muscle creatine stores by 60% more than taking it with just water. Based on this, we can assume it’s better to take creatine with a post-workout meal or shake. 3. This brings me to the next point which is when to take it. Based on previous information from the second point, I would advise to take it post-workout with a meal or shake. 4. I often get asked whether to do a loading, or cycling protocol when taking creatine. Studies concluded that loading protocols provide faster initial effects but provide the same long-term effect as non-loading protocols. Cycling protocols do not appear to provide a more enhanced effect. 5. How long should you take creatine for? If you are a responder and it’s helping with your strength, then take creatine regardless of whether you’re bulking or cutting. In the case that you get bloated and want to cut, I would stop taking it. 6. You can stack creatine with beta-alanine which may provide more enhanced effects than creatine alone. I suggest adding 3g of beta-alanine to your daily creatine intake. ..”

All About Creatine!
Jeremy Likness June 05, 2017 • 14 min read
Calculate Your Creatine Intake – Based On Total Bodyweight
“..Therefore, it is proposed that the above equations would be more accurate if based on lean mass. Following the previous example, the 200 lb individual at 20% body fat would have 160 lb of lean mass (200 lb [total weight] – (200 lb * 0.2) [fat weight] = 160 lb [lean weight])…”

*see Health & Fitness: Ergogenic Aids & Energy Enhancing Supplements

Food Sources of Beta-Alanine by MICHELLE KERNS Last Updated: Oct 03, 2017
Pick Poultry

Turkey and chicken are some of the richest natural sources of alanine. A single cup of roasted chicken breast contains over 2 grams of the amino acid, while 3 ounces of cooked turkey breast supplies just under 2 grams a serving. To duplicate the amount of supplemental beta-alanine that showed a link between the amino acid and higher muscle carnosine levels in studies, you’d need to consume around 4 to 6 grams daily, or at least 2 cups of chicken breast and 6 ounces of turkey breast…”

Do I REALLY Need To Take Creatine Monohydrate?
*with carbs post workout


Is Creatine Safe? | Creatine for Muscle and Brain Performance- Thomas DeLauer

“Published on Sep 29, 2016

Is Creatine Safe? | Creatine for Muscle and Brain Performance- Thomas DeLauer:
Finally, one of the most popular questions! Is Creatine Safe? Want to Chat with me? Go to http:/

An early study on creatine supplementation found a 20% increase in the stored creatine and phosphocreatine in the body when participants consumed 20 grams of creatine for several days in a row. This increase looks to be the upper limit with the remaining being excreted through urine. Many studies have shown benefits of creatine supplementation, including bench press, sprinting, high intensity exercise, among other fast cardio and weight training type workouts.

Side Effects:
Unfortunately studies have examined safety of creatine for less than two weeks, not for long term use. Many possible side effects include dehydration, muscle cramping, nausea, kidney damage and kidney stones, and renal damage. Creatine supplements are not monitored by the FDA and thus there is the danger of impurities in supplements.

Creatine as a Nootropic:
Nootropics are substances that people use to enhance their brain function, giving mental clarity, energy and health. Five percent of the creatine stored in our bodies is found in our organs, such as the brain. For your brain to work quickly, it needs readily available energy stores just like your muscles do! Neurons rely on the fast phosphagen cycle to create energy for communication. Vegetarians have been found to have lower levels of creatine stores in their brains. One study found creatine supplementation to enhance performance on some skills related to cognitive function.

You can find dietary creatine in meats, particularly beef, wild game and wild caught fish. A common study protocol was to have participants take 20 grams per day for 5 or 6 days, so be sure not to exceed that quantity. It’s only beneficial for short duration, high intensity exercise, not for endurance sports.


Build Muscle, Lose Fat & Stay Motivated!
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“.. What is Creatine Monohydrate?

Creatine is similar to protein in that it is a nitrogen-containing compound, but is not a true protein. In the nutritional biochemistry world it is known as a “non-protein” nitrogen. It can be obtained in the food we eat (typically meat and fish) or formed endogenously (in the body) from the amino acids glycine, arginine, and methionine..”

Creatine Monohydrate:
The Advantages & Disadvantages
By Susan Moraa On 8 June 2014 In Creatine Supplements
“..Naturally, creatine monohydrate is found in small quantities in the body where it assists in the generation of energy for the normal functioning of the cells. Although we have had other sportsmen and women using the modern and other mixtures of creatine, I highly recommend the use of simple, basic monohydrate because it is effective and completely safe. In fact, it is the only creatine supplement that has clinical trials backing up it’s validity as a muscle-building supplement…


According to researchers creatine monohydrate not only increases the weightlifting performances but also all the other kinds of physical training including cardio.
Apart from getting enough energy to do extreme exercises for longer periods, creatine monohydrate will help your muscles recover more quickly.
By speeding up the fat burning process in your body, it will greatly assist you get lean muscle mass hence a fine body shape. This however will not happen if you don’t work out.
Creatine does not contain calories. This is a relief to those who fear adding excessive weight if they don’t exercise adequately.


So long as you drink a lot of water during exercises after the consumption of creatine, you are safe; because creatine helps draw water to the muscles. Dehydration and muscles cramp are the results of not drinking enough water. Sometimes, due to the accumulation of creatine in the small intestines, you are bound to experience nausea and stomach pains. This can be avoided if you buy high quality creatine monohydrate and take the dosage as prescribed…”

Creatine Monohydrate Effects, Side Effects, Dangers … – YouTube


Why I don’t take CREATINE & Why you should STOP

“Published on Jun 2, 2016

If you are taking CREATINE watch this!

Listen, I know creatine is widely accepted by the athletic community, but I just don’t take it. In this video I will explain the reason why, as well as some reasons you may want to reconsider using it.

Thanks and God Bless,

Ron Williams – Natural Bodybuilder of the Decade

Bioenergetics and Nutrition: Creatine, Carbs, and Protein Kevin Cann Coach Nutrition

‘…There are some negative consequences to taking creatine. Some studies suggest that creatine supplementation suppresses our body’s ability to create our own creatine. This means that if we take creatine while we train and then remove it at some point our training will slide backwards. Anecdotally, I have seen this happen to a few of my clients…”

*see Health & Fitness: Ergogenic Aids & Energy Enhancing Supplements

Follow us at..

Thoughts, suggestions, personal stories/experiences, feedback, etc..?

Good News Fitness

“Disclaimer: No part of this site is intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any illness. Nothing on this site is to be construed as medical advice; the authors are not doctors. Please discuss your personal health, including any options or ideas you may read on the internet (on this site or others) with your personal, qualified health practitioner before making changes to your diet or adjusting/discontinuing any medication. We are not responsible for any adverse outcomes associated with using or misconstruing advice or information on this site. THANK YOU for stopping at our site! May you find what your looking for and “God speed” to good health and prosperity!”

Fitness: Various kinds of Stretches

How far can you go?

Human Anatomy Fundamentals: Flexibility and Joint Limitations
by Joumana Medlej6 Mar 2014
“.. Some people who are exceptionally flexible, or double-jointed, or have undergone intensive flexibility training from a young age, and they can move beyond the range shown here. This in no way means it’s OK to ignore flexibility rules, as we all instinctively know what’s “normal” for a body and what’s exceptional. If you draw someone with limbs at an impossible angle, outside of a context that would allow suspension of disbelief (circus, gymnastics, the Exorcist), you risk coming across as a poor artist.

The Three Types of Flexibility

For drawing purposes, we need only be concerned with three kinds: passive, active and dynamic….

Range of Movement For Each Joint

Here are the joints discussed below:..”

Goniometry for the Upper Extremity, Part 1

Upper Limb: Range of Motion – Anatomy | Medical Education Videos

Lower Limb: Range of Motion – Anatomy | Medical Education Videos


*see Fitness: Physiology of Exercise

Practical Application of Functional Assessments: Flexibility Assessments Jessie Newell by Jessie Newell on September 04, 2015

Flexibility and Functional Assessments

*see Fitness: How to reverse common Abnormal Postures?

8. Assessment – Passive Straight Leg Raise (SLR) Test – YouTube

*see Fitness: Various Exercises for the Hip

Thomas Test – YouTube

*see Fitness: Upper Body Workouts-Shoulders

ROM Testing for Shoulder Flexion and Extension – YouTube

Shoulder internal/external rotation test – YouTube

Apley Scratch Test of External Rotation and Internal Rotation (Full …


The Physiology of Flexibility
“..3. Connective Tissue
Deep connective tissue such as fascia and tendons can limit ROM. In particular, two characteristics of connective tissue, elasticityand plasticity are related to ROM. Elasticity is defined as the ability to return to the original resting length after a passive stretch (5). Plasticity can be defined as the tendency to assume a new and greater length after a passive stretch (5)…

5. Proprioceptors
The capacity of the neuromuscular system to inhibit the antagonists (those muscles being stretched) influences flexibility (9).

There are two important proprioceptors involved in the mechanics of stretching and flexibility. The first is the muscle spindles. Located within the muscle fibres they monitor changes in muscle length. The stretch reflex is the bodys involuntary response to an external stimulus that stretches the muscle (5) and causes a reflexive increase in muscular activity. It is the muscle spindles that activate this response.

When stretching, it is best to avoid this activating the muscle spindles and the stretch-reflex response, as it will limit motion.

Static stretching does not elicit the muscle spindles, allowing muscles to relax and achieve a greater stretch.

The other important proprioceptors are the golgi tendon organs (GTO). These are located near to the musculotendinous junctions and are sensitive to increase in muscle tension. When the GTO is stimulated it causes a reflexive relaxation in the muscle. When this relaxation occurs in the same muscle that is being stretched, it is referred to as autogenic inhibition and can facilitate the stretch (8).

Autogenic inhibition can be induced by contracting a muscle immediately before it is passively stretched a technique used in .

Reciprocal inhibition occurs when the GTO is stimulated in the muscle opposite to that being stretched (i.e. so the opposing muscle relaxes) (8). This can be achieved by simultaneously contracting the opposing muscle group to the one being passively stretched…

Types of Stretching and Proprioceptors – YouTube

Warm-ups Before

Fitness: Warm-up Stretches while Standing Up

Warmup & Stretching
“..To stay safe and get the most out of your workout you must always include a pre-workout warm-up before you begin and then finish with a cool down to get your body back into gear.
The difference between warm-ups and stretching

During a workout we can all go from zero to hero and push hard but the safe way to train is to bring the body’s temperature up slowly and loosen up the muscles before we get to do anything serious. That’s what warm-ups are designed to do. Stretching, on the other hand, is done in order to improve overall flexibility. Once muscles have worked they are at their most compliant state and they let us stretch further than we normally would gaining more ground while we are at it…”

How to Warmup Before Stretches by RACHEL NALL Last Updated: Sep 11, 2017

Jogging is not the only activity you can perform to warm up. Instead, substitute the aerobic activity of your choice — such as cycling, playing tennis, jumping rope or dancing — for jogging. Work to achieve the same 40 to 60 percent of your target heart rate while warming up.


Stretching without a warmup increases your risk of sprains and strains.


The Safest Way to Warm Up Before a Workout is Dynamic Stretching – Here’s a Basic Routine

The Best Pre-Workout Stretching Warm Up Routine. Burn 20% more Calories


What Is the Major Difference Between Static & Dynamic Stretching? by Fitzalan Gorman
Static Stretching Basics

When you hold a stretch for an extended period, then you are performing a static stretch. Static stretching neither improves nor enhances muscular performance when done before a workout, according to an article published in the “Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research” in 2005, so save this stretching for a time when it actually does help your body: during your cool-down or an off day.
Dynamic Stretching Basics

Dynamic stretching is an active stretching routine that has you slowly moving through motions to increase your heart rate, raise your body temperature and send extra blood to your muscles. This prepares them for exercise by increasing your range of motion. This is especially true if you are about to do a workout that requires lots of lower-extremity muscular power. A study published in the “Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research” in 2008 showed that dynamic stretching significantly increased peak knee power compared to static stretching.

What Is the Major Difference Between Static & Dynamic Stretching? : Getting in Shape


-Post Workout

12 Post-Workout Static Stretches By Arnav Sakar • For
“..Regular stretching helps improve flexibility, increases range of motion, and reduces the risk of injury caused by lesions of the connective tissue. Plus, stretching is great for stress relief. So after your workout, take a few minutes to rid the lactic acid and stretch. Try these 12 static stretches that will keep your body healthy and performing strong. ..”
Flexibility Exercises | Full Body Static Stretches – Spotebi

“..Stretch your entire body with this set of flexibility exercises. A 10-minute static stretching routine to improve your joint range of motion and stretch your muscles, …”
*includes picture-diagram

15 Min Static Stretching Exercises for Beginners – Cool Down Exercises after Workout – Stretches

“…Unlock rewards and help keep HASfit free by donating now – Visit… for the 15 Min Static Stretching Exercises for Beginners – Cool Down Exercises after Workout – Stretches instructions..”

-Pre-Workout Stretches

Fitness: Morning Routine Sample Exercises (situps/crunches/push-ups/stretches) w/HealthFitnessLifeGuy

Fitness: Morning Routine-Different types of Sit-Ups-Crunches & Fitness: Morning Routine-Different types of Push-Ups

=>Track & Field
How Active & Passive Stretching Affect Muscle Tissue

*includes dynamic at the end

Dynamic Stretches

Try This Full-Body Dynamic Warm-Up to Prep for Any Workout
“Around 10 years ago, dynamic warm-ups started gaining popularity in the sports world as an effective method for athletes to prep before an event. Today, dynamic warm-ups are a standard routine for athletes ranging from amateurs to professionals.

In this article, you’ll learn why a dynamic warm-up is so effective, and we’ll cover a specific full body routine you can use before you exercise—whether you’re about to play a sport or hit the weights. Check out the video below for demonstrations of each move!..”
12 Crucial Dynamic Warm-up Exercises to Do Before Your Workout by: Yuri Elkaim
“..Why Is It Important to Warm-up Before Exercise?

Unless you want to increase your risk of injury and reduce your performance, a good warm-up is critical. A good dynamic warm-up increases range of movement and blood and oxygen flow to your muscles, tendons, and ligaments before they’re called upon to do serious workout.

When I worked as the strength coach for the men’s soccer team at the University of Toronto, I had the importance of dynamic warm-up exercises drilled in to our players’ heads. Every practice and game we had a solid 10 to 15-minute dynamic warm-up and it made a huge difference in preventing injuries and increasing their performance…”

*includes diagram -pictures
21 Dynamic Stretching Warm Up Exercises

“.. There is a lot of debate about whether or not you should stretch before your workout. And while I don’t recommend static stretches, dynamic stretches are a great way to warm up and get your body ready for an intense workout. Dynamic stretches loosen everything up, improve your mobility and get your blood pumping. Make sure to use stretches that focus on the muscles you plan to work! 21 Dynamic Stretching Warm Up Exercises 1.Downward Dog to Runner’s Lunge (1:07) 2.Inchworm (1:21) 3.Dynamic Squat Stretch (1:36) 4.Crescent to Hamstring Stretch (1:48) 5.Half Kneeling Hip to Hamstring Stretch (1:56) 6.World’s Greatest Stretch (2:05) 7.Half Kneeling Thoracic Rotation (2:18) 8.Kneeling Thoracic Rotations (2:29) 9.Wringing out the Towel (2:39) 10.Child’s Pose with Reaches (2:53) 11.Side to Side Lunge with Reach (3:01) 12.Standing Calf and Hamstring Stretch (3:12) 13.Pigeon Pose with Circles (3:25) 14.Hamstring and Thoracic Rotation (3:35) 15.Squat Push Up (3:44) 16.Hurdles (3:54) 17.Kneeling Lat and Thoracic Extension Stretch (4:04) 18.Side to Side Lunge with Step (4:16) 19.IT Band Stretch (4:26) 20.Walking Quad Stretch (4:36) 21.Suspension Trainer Chest Stretch (4:50)..”
Dynamic Stretches & Stretching Routine
*with 3D moving model pics

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)
*see Medical: Cerebral Palsy types-Spastic Diplegia, etc…

PNF Stretching
‘..Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) was first developed by Margaret Knott PT, and Herman Kabat MD in the 1940’s to treat neurological dysfunctions. This was an attempt to gain better control in a population of neurologically impaired instead of just offering the standard treatment at the time which was range of motion exercises and gait training. Treatment involved reeducation of developmental movements and postures. This approach helped patients become more efficient in their movements and activities of daily living…

What is a PNF pattern?
PNF patterns of movements were developed because all normal coordinated human movements occur in spiral or diagonal motions. Muscular contractions are strongest and most coordinated during these diagonal patterns of movement. These diagonal patterns involve rotation of the extremities and require core stability. Muscular contraction is also enhanced through irradiation and there is optimal facilitation of the stretch reflex in a synergistic muscle group during movements within these patterns of movement.(2)..”

PNF Stretching: A How-To Guide
‘..PNF techniques
1. Hold-relax

One PNF technique that Black says can trigger the reflex is commonly called “hold-relax.” This involves:

Putting a muscle in a stretched position (also called a passive stretch) and holding for a few seconds.
Contracting the muscle without moving (also called isometric), such as pushing gently against the stretch without actually moving. This is when the reflex is triggered and there is a “6- to 10-second window of opportunity for a beyond ‘normal’ stretch,” Black says.
Relaxing the stretch, and then stretching again while exhaling. This second stretch should be deeper than the first.

2. Contract-relax

Another common PNF technique is the contract-relax stretch. It is almost identical to hold-relax, except that instead of contracting the muscle without moving, the muscle is contracted while moving. This is sometimes called isotonic stretching.

For example, in a hamstring stretch, this could mean a trainer provides resistance as an athlete contracts the muscle and pushes the leg down to the floor.
3. Hold-relax-contract

A third technique, hold-relax-contract, is similar to hold-relax, except that after pushing against the stretch, instead of relaxing into a passive stretch, the athlete actively pushes into the stretch.

For example, in a hamstring stretch, this could mean engaging the muscles to raise the leg further, as the trainer pushes in the same direction.

Regardless of technique, PNF stretching can be used on most muscles in the body, according to Black. Stretches can also be modified so you can do them alone or with a partner.

Helpful tips

Black offers several tips to help you figure out whether you’re using PNF stretching correctly.

“Every time you exhale and deepen the stretch, you should see a noticeable change in range of motion, from 10 to 45 degrees,” she says.
Black recommends breathing through stretches and using calming thoughts to avoid tightening up during the stretch.
Finally, when using PNF, “Keep it simple and just remember: contract, relax, breathe, and stretch,” Black says. “The nervous system and reflexes will do the rest.”


What is PNF, Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation? Charlie Weingroff

BEST Flexibility Technique Known: PNF Stretching!

-Resistive Bands
*see Fitness: Various Resistance Training Exercises

Effective Band Stretches
“..Sometimes simplicity is best, especially in training gear. For athletes on the go, resistance bands are perfect tools. They’re light, compact and inexpensive, convenient to toss in your bag and take anywhere. Plus, they are effective for just about any type of training:


Increase your range of motion and boost your recovery process with these simple methods. In the videos, we used EFS Mini bands, but I also use the green stretch bands from “Perform Better.” They both work well.
Band Stretches..”

Stretching With Resistance Bands – YouTube

Ballistic Stretching

Ballistic Stretching
“..This type of stretching exercise involves bouncing into a range when the muscle is not prepared or relaxed such that it can enter that range. This exercise can be dangerous if done without supervision or training by a professional.

Stretching to improve flexibility is a common practice amongst athletes both recreational and competitive. There are many studies that show joint range of motion improves with stretching exercises and many have looked at the different types of stretching. But, stretching doesn’t just affect the muscle, it can affect the tendons as well. ..”

*practicing tennis swings, karate kicks, batting swing (only should done by athletes)

Stretching: 4 Different Types (Static, Dynamic, PNF, Ballistic) and examples

The Most Flexible Man In The World Demonstrates Stretching Techniques

Active Isolated Stretching

Active Isolated Stretching
“The Active Isolated Stretching (AIS) method of muscle lengthening and fascial release is a type of Athletic Stretching Technique that provides effective, dynamic, facilitated stretching of major muscle groups, but more importantly, AIS provides functional and physiological restoration of superficial and deep fascial planes.

Over the past few decades many experts have advocated that stretching should last up to 60 seconds. For years, this prolonged static stretching technique was the gold standard. However, prolonged static stretching actually decreases the blood flow within the tissue creating localized ischemia and lactic acid buildup. This can potentially cause irritation or injury of local muscular, tendinous, lymphatic, as well as neural tissues, similar to the effects and consequences of trauma and overuse syndromes.

The AIS Technique
Deep, Superficial Fascial Release

Performing an Active Isolated Stretch of no longer than two seconds allows the target muscles to optimally lengthen without triggering the protective stretch reflex and subsequent reciprocal antagonistic muscle contraction as the isolated muscle achieves a state of relaxation. These stretches provide maximum benefit and can be accomplished without opposing tension or resulting trauma.

Active Isolated Stretching 1/5

Get rid of Soreness

*see Medical: Parts of the Muscular System

Fitness: Medical-Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

Good Stretches to Get Rid of Being Sore : LIVESTRONG – Exercising with Jeremy Shore

Upper Body


Posterior Pelvic Tilt Correction Exercises

Back Exercises


16 Simple Stretches for Tight Shoulders
“..”All four [shoulder] joints need to be working appropriately and efficiently in order to have pain-free, functional range of motion,” Wu says. The best approach is to move frequently—forward, backward, and to the sides throughout the day. But if you are feeling stiff by 5:00 p.m., we’ve rounded up 16 easy stretches to try…”

Lower Body
*see more Fitness: Lower Body Workout

The Absolute Best Way to Stretch Every Muscle You Have
By Laura Williams Published On 10/06/2016


Stretch It Out
“Stretching before and after you run will not only increase your performance, it will help with soreness and recovery and prevent injury…”

Examples of what NOT to do with “correction”

Videos Show School Cheerleaders Forced Into Splits – YouTube

Coach explains how to safely stretch after video of cheer squad’s forced splits goes viral
Danamarie McNicholl , KREM 6:42 PM. PDT August 24, 2017
“.. video from Colorado of a high school cheerleader being forced into the splits and held down by her teammates has gone viral.

Back in Washington State, coaches said that is definitely not the way to accomplish the splits.

“What is actually happening there is that she’s resisting so much, even if she tries to relax she’s still resisting a lot,” explained Tucker Frye. “She’s building muscles into the opposite direction which is actually detrimental.”

Tucker Frye, from Spokane Gymnastics, has experience training in gymnastics, cheerleading and parkour.

“Because they were pulling so much their hips start to move around a little bit…you can see it messes with where her joints are aligned,” he explained. “If they got a hair off she could have dislocated her hip.”

RELATED: Videos show Denver high school cheerleaders repeatedly forced into splits, police investigating

For Tucker, it is all about mechanics to prevent injuries. Stretch only until you feel a good stretch, not pain.

“They are all using gravity to do a passive stretch, rather than somebody actively pulling them,” he said.

Splits can take up to two years to perfect, and unsafe techniques like the one used in the video has long-term consequences.

“It could lead to big deductions later on if they are doing gymnastics or competitive cheerleading,” he said. “Everyone has her limit and she was definitely pushed past hers.”..”

*see Fitness: How “Balanced” are you? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.comf

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“Disclaimer: No part of this site is intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any illness. Nothing on this site is to be construed as medical advice; the authors are not doctors. Please discuss your personal health, including any options or ideas you may read on the internet (on this site or others) with your personal, qualified health practitioner before making changes to your diet or adjusting/discontinuing any medication. We are not responsible for any adverse outcomes associated with using or misconstruing advice or information on this site. THANK YOU for stopping at our site! May you find what your looking for and “God speed” to good health and prosperity!”

Fitness: Exercise tips for Seniors


Functional “Abilities” for Independent Lifestyle

Six essential functional tests for senior adults
“..The typical strength and flexibility tests used with a younger population will usually not meet the needs of the senior adult nor will the normative values associated with those functional tests apply. Delaying frailty and improving functional mobility are primary goals when working with seniors. Functional tests designed for seniors can help identify weaknesses in those areas, hopefully before limitations occur. Following are brief descriptions of six essential functional tests for senior adults that are easy to perform and require very little equipment. Many software programs and other text resources are available for specific test protocols as well normative values…”

Assessing Functional Fitness in Mature Adults Cody Sipe by Cody Sipe on September 05, 2017
The Senior Fitness Test
Common Senior Fitness Tests

-30-Second Chair Stand Test
*see Fitness: Lower Body Exercises for those with “limited” mobility

30-Second Chair Stand Test – YouTube

How to Perform the 30-Second Chair Stand Test (and why) – YouTube

30-Second Chair Stand Test Protocol – YouTube


*great instructions: show the test yourself (arms cross over shoulders) , let participant try it out , and then do the actual test

Senior (Elderly)-Fitness: Test (30 second chair stand)

=>Scoring Results

Assessment 30-second Chair Stand – CDC
30 Second Sit to Stand Test | Shirley Ryan AbilityLab – Formerly RIC
“… The 30-Second Chair Test is administered using a folding chair without arms, with seat height of 17 inches (43.2 cm). … That way, it is possible to assess a wide variety of ability levels with …..”
An evaluation of the 30-s chair stand test in older adults: frailty detection based on kinematic parameters from a single inertial unit

For the stand-up and sit-down phases, velocity peaks and “modified impulse” parameters clearly differentiated subjects with different frailty levels (p < 0.001). The trunk orientation range during the impulse phase was also able to classify a subject according to his frail syndrome (p < 0.001). Furthermore, these parameters derived from the inertial units (IUs) are sensitive enough to detect frailty differences not registered by the number of completed cycles which is the standard test outcome.."

-30 Second Arm Curl Test
*see Fitness: Upper Body Workouts-Arms, Biceps, etc…

30 Second Arm Curl Test – YouTube

Northeastern University Senior Fitness Assessments – 30-second Arm …

Arm Curl Test – YouTube

=>Scoring Results

Senior’s Arm Curl Test
“…’Repetitions’ is the number of times subject curls weight within 30 seconds. Click “Calculate”. Evaluates arm flexor strength endurance for seniors, 60 through 94 years of age. ..

Subject should be encouraged to perform a trial of one or two repetitions without weight before test to clarify form.

Sit on chair with dumbbell
Women: 5 lbs (2.3 kg)
Men: 8 lbs (3.6 kg)
Hold weight in a handshake grip with arm fully extended to side of chair
Curl weight by flexing elbow while turning palm of hand toward shoulder
Lower until elbow is straight
Repeat curling until 30 seconds expire

Arm Curl (Bicep) Test
“..scoring: The score is the total number of controlled arm curls performed in 30 seconds. Below is a table showing some recommended ranges for this test based on age groups (from Jones & Rikli, 2002)…”

-Six Minute Walk Test
*see Fitness: Various Cardio Workouts

Six Minute Walk Test – YouTube

The Six-Minute Walk Test: Why and How? — BAVLS

Six Minute Walk Test 2012

=>Scoring Results

6 Minute Walk Test
“..It is an adaptation of the Cooper 12 minute run. The 6 Minute Walk test is part of the Senior Fitness Test Protocol. For people who use orthopedic devices when walking, as well as people who have difficulty balancing, there is an alternative 2 minute step in place test…”
Miles to Meters conversion
1mi= 1609.344m
The 6-Minute Walk Test in Mobility-Limited Elders: What Is Being Measured?
“..In this study involving mobility-limited older adults with no significant cardiovascular or respiratory disease, the 6mw test was strongly associated with performance-based measures of functional limitation, yet was poorly associated with proxy measures of submaximal aerobic capacity. Consistent with other performance-based measures of function, impairments in leg power and strength were predictive of 6mw performance, with the greatest influence being at distal lower extremity sites…”

“The object of this test is to walk as far as possible for 6 minutes. You will walk back and forth in this hallway. Six minutes is a long time to walk, so you will be exerting yourself. You will probably get out of
breath or become exhausted. You are permitted to slow down, to stop, and to rest as necessary. You
may lean against the wall while resting, but resume walking as soon as you are able. You will be walking
back and forth around the cones. You should pivot briskly around the cones and continue back the other
way without hesitation. Now I’m going to show you. Please watch the way I turn without hesitation.”…

6 Minute Walk Test | Shirley Ryan AbilityLab – Formerly RIC

Six Minute Walk Test / 6 Minute Walk Test

Place cones at either end of the 30 metre stretch as turning points
Have chairs set up either side and halfway along the walking stretch..”

IFA Senior Fitness

Cardiovascular Testing

Stress testing should be performed by a doctor. Once the doctor has given the written approval with a list of limitations, the trainer must then determine the fitness level of the cardiovascular system by performing fitness testing. Testing should not be performed on clients who have tachycardia. Fitness tests should be performed on an individual basis and not as a group to avoid competitive results.

The Six-Minute Walk Test is used to measure aerobic endurance. The client will walk at their fastest pace around a rectangular track whose length is 50 yards (45.7m) and width is 5 yards (4.6m).,,

The following table lists average distances based on age. Scores lower than these figures are considered below average. Scores higher than these figures are considered above average. ..”

-2 Minute Step Test
*see Fitness: Various Cardio Workouts

2 Minute Step Test – YouTube

2 Minute Step Test – YouTube

The 2 Minute Step Test – YouTube

2 Minute Step in Place Test
“..scoring: Record the total number of times the right knee reaches the tape level in two minutes. Below is a table showing the recommended ranges for this test based on age groups (from Jones & Rikli, 2002)…”
The 2-minute step test is independently associated with cognitive function in older adults with heart failure
“…. The 2-minute step test (2MST) has been suggested as a more practical alternative to the 6MWT, though no study has examined whether it is associated with cognitive impairment in persons with HF. This study examined whether the 2MST is associated with cognitive function in older adults with HF….”

-Chair Sit and Reach Test
*see Fitness: Lower Body Workout
particularly hamstring

Chair Sit And Reach Test – YouTube

Northeastern University Senior Fitness Assessments – Chair Sit-and …

Chair Sit and Reach Trial 1 – YouTube

=>Scoring Results

Chair Sit and Reach Test
“..scoring: The score is recorded to the nearest 1/2 inch or 1 cm as the distance reached, either a negative or positive score. Record which leg was used for measurement. Below is a table showing the recommended ranges (in inches) for this test based on age groups (from Jones & Rikli, 2002)…”
Chair Sit and Reach Test
“..Equipment required

ruler or tape measure,
straight back or folding chair (about 44 cm high).


Sit on the edge of the chair (placed against a wall for safety). One foot must remain flat on the floor. The other leg is extended forward with the knee straight, heel on the floor, and ankle bent at 90°.
Place one hand on top of the other with tips of the middle fingers flush.
Inhale, and then as you exhale, slowly reach forward toward the toes by bending at the hip. Keep the back straight and head up. Avoid bouncing or quick movements, and never stretch to the point of pain.
Keep the knee straight, and hold the reach for 2 seconds. If your knee bends, straighten your leg and start again.
The distance is measured between the tips of the fingertips and the toes. If the fingertips touch the toes then the score is zero. If they do not touch, measure the distance between the fingers and the toes (a negative score), if they overlap, measure by how much (a positive score). Record the measurement to the nearest 1 cm and which leg you performed the test.
Repeat the test 2 times on each leg.

-Back Scratch Test
*see Fitness: Upper Body Workouts-Shoulders

Back Stratch Test – YouTube

Back scratch Test – YouTube

Back Scratch Test.mpg – YouTube

=> Scoring Results

Back Scratch Test
“..An assistant is required to direct the subject so that the fingers are aligned, and to measure the distance between the tips of the middle fingers. If the fingertips touch then the score is zero. If they do not touch, measure the distance between the finger tips (a negative score),..”
Back Scratch Test
Practical Application of Functional Assessments: Flexibility Assessments Jessie Newell by Jessie Newell on September 04, 2015
…Apley’s Scratch Test

“This assessment examines the ability to combine motions of the shoulder (glenohumeral joint) and shoulder girdle (scapulothoracic) joint. The hand that is reaching up and over the head to touch the top of the back with the palm should ideally touch the medial or vertebral border of the opposite shoulder blade or even farther down the spine. The hand reaching up the back with the back the hand reaching up mid back should ideally touch the inferior angle of the opposite shoulder blade. ..”

-8 foot and up go test
*see Fitness: How “Balanced” are you?

8 Foot up and go test – YouTube

Part 2: 8-foot Up and Go Assessment – Prevent Senior Falls – YouTube

8-foot Up and go test – YouTube

Northeastern University Senior Fitness Assessments – 8-Foot Get Up …

=>Scoring Results

8 Foot Up and Go Test
“..Place the chair next to a wall (for safety) and the marker 8 feet in front of the chair. Clear the path between the chair and the marker. The subject starts fully seated, hands resting on the knees and feet flat on the ground. On the command, “Go,” timing is started and the subject stands and walks (no running) as quickly as possible (and safely) to and around the cone, returning to the chair to sit down. Timing stops as they sit down. Perform two trials…”
The 8-foot up and go test is the best way to assess physical function in the rheumatoid arthritis clinic
“..RA patients typically experience adverse, inflammatory-driven changes in body composition, which result in muscle wasting and increased fat mass. This condition, termed rheumatoid cachexia (RC) [1], is a major contributor to the impaired physical function of these patients [2, 3]. Poor physical function is a strong predictor of clinical outcome in RA, and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality, reduced quality of life and higher treatment costs [4–6]. Both patients and health-care professionals identify physical function as a key outcome in the management of RA [7] and improving function as an important therapeutic target in clinical care [6, 8–10]. Hence, accurate assessment of physical function is required if RA treatment is to be optimized [10]…”
8-Foot Up-and-Go Test
Validity of the 8-Foot Up and Go, Timed Up and Go, and Activities-Specific Balance Confidence Scale in older adults with and without cognitive impairment.
“..Fall history was found as the only significant predictor of test outcome for the TUG, 8UG, and ABC, indicating that MCI is not a significant determinant of test performance…”

*see Health & Fitness: How to get more “energy” for the Elderly?

Mobility Assessments for Higher Functioning

*see Fitness: How to get “defined” glutes (butt)?

3 Functional Tests for Older Clients to Assess Quality of Movement …

2. Sit-to-stand test
“..his test mimics an everyday activity: can your client comfortably get in and out of her chair?

During this test, have the client sit with her back touching the back of the chair. Now ask the client to stand from the seated position, counting aloud every rep. Stop the test when the patient can get five reps of sit-to-stands…”

How Fit Are You? The Chair Test – The Truth About Getting … – YouTube

< 35 Men 10 in 10 sec
< 35 Weomen 12 in 12 sec
55 Men 19 in 19 sec
*see Fitness: How “Balanced” are you?

-Frontal Planks
*see Fitness: Morning Routine-Different types of Sit-Ups-Crunches

Fitness Over 50: Prone Planks – YouTube

Elderly 30 Second Plank – YouTube

87-year-old woman doing the plank for four minutes. – YouTube

-Overhead Reach

How to do the Functional Reach Test – YouTube

Others Related

5 Chair Exercises for Older Adults
Franklin Antoian by Franklin Antoian
on May 09, 2017

A simple life expectancy test – How To Stay Young: Episode 1 Preview – BBC One

Sitting Rising Test…Debunked

8 Balance Moves for Active Agers
Lawrence Biscontini by Lawrence Biscontini
on May 15, 2015
“.. Participants in this study were 168 men with systolic heart failure (New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I-IV). In the study we used the two-minute step test, the six-minute walk test, the cardiopulmonary exercise test and isometric dynamometer armchair. Results: Patients who performed more steps during the two-minute step test covered a longer distance during the six-minute walk test (r = 0.45). The quadriceps strength was correlated with the two-minute step test and the six-minute walk test (r = 0.61 and r = 0.48). ..”

Designing Balance Exercise Programs for Older Adults
“..Decreased balance is attributable to an age-related decline in multiple physiological systems that contributes to decreased muscle flexibility and strength, reduced central processing of sensory information, and slowed motor responses (American Geriatrics Society, British Geriatrics Society, and American Academy of Orthopedic Surgeon Panel on Falls Prevention, 2001). In addition to an increased risk of falls, diminished balance and mobility may limit activities of daily living or participation in leisure-time activities. Accordingly, it is essential that balance exercises be incorporated into the physical activity programs of older adults. The following article uses case studies to outline the critical components of designing individualized balance exercise programs for clients that reduce their risk of falls. Sample balance exercises and training progressions (from simple to complex) will also be presented…”

How long will I live? Simple sitting test predicts longevity


What Type of Exercise Do You Use to Help Older Adults Prevent Falls? Jan 01, 2008

Exercise for Seniors
‘…Walking for just five or 10 minutes at a time on several days each week, is a great way to begin. Once you can walk for 30 minutes at a time, you’ve built a solid foundation and are ready to add more challenging activities to your routine. Starting a basic strength routine while you begin your aerobic routine will help you build the strength you need to support your aerobic workouts.

The best aerobic activities for older adults to begin with are low-impact exercises, such as walking, cycling, swimming, and water aerobics. Other options include:”

15 Min Senior Workout – HASfit Exercise for Elderly – Seniors Exercises for Elderly – Seniors

“Published on Oct 7, 2013
Unlock rewards and help keep HASfit free by donating now –

Coach Kozak’s 15 minute senior workout is great for senior strength and will get your heart rate up at the same time. The total body exercise for elderly doesn’t require any equipment, but you may choose to use some light weights or a couple water bottles. Senior exercises for elderly are low impact and safe on the joints. Visit for the seniors workouts instructions, more videos, free meal plans, and other health tips. for the best free workout and senior aerobic exercise routines for men and women at home or in gym. ..”

20 Min Chair Exercises Sitting Down Workout – Seated … – YouTube

“Fun Exercises for Seniors: What you can do while watching TV
Tired of exercise rudely interrupting your binge watching sessions of your favorite TV show? …

Seated Jumping-Jacks

While traditional jumping jacks are possible while watching TV, they can also be a bit hard on your joints. Instead, do a seated version by sitting on the edge of your chair and lifting your arms up and open wide while also spreading your legs apart. Do a set of 10 of these as quickly as possible, rest and repeat. This will keep your limbs moving and circulating.

Leg Extensions

To do a proper leg extension, simply sit in your chair, extend one leg out and flex your foot so only your heel touches the floor, then raise your leg as high as you can without rounding your back. Hold this for a count of three, lower your leg, repeat or alternate with your other leg.

Use Your Water Bottle

The most obvious use for a water bottle (other than drinking from it, of course) is using it as a hand weight, however it can also be used to strengthen your thighs. To do this, simply sit on your chair with your back straight and shoulders back. Plant your feet on the floor, with your ankles in line with your knees. Now, place a water bottle between your legs and squeeze your thighs around it 30 times. It may not sound like much at first, but when you try it you’ll feel how your thigh muscles will work during this.

Bonus: Do this while also doing the arm exercises listed below.

Elbow Curls

This exercise will help stretch your chest and shoulder muscles and help decrease upper back pain and stress. Simply place your hands on either side of your head with your elbows pointed out then bring your elbows together in front of your face then pull them back to the starting position, repeat up to 30 times.

Arm Circles

It doesn’t get much simpler than this, but if you haven’t exercised in a while, this could be a beneficial way to flex muscles you forgot you even had. For this, simply sit on the edge of your seat and extend your arms out at your side at shoulder height. Move your arms in small circles 20 times going forward and 20 times going back before resting.

Create a Routine Around the Program You’re Watching

A simple way to get yourself moving is to plan on moving around during the commercials (no fair DVRing something and fast forwarding the commercials!). Instead of using this time to grab a snack, stand up and march or walk in place.

You can also create a routine based on the individual show. For example, whenever a certain character comes on screen make sure you do at least one exercise from this list or even just simply stretch your arms above your head or stretch your legs out to keep your joints from stiffening.


Not the most creative exercise on this list, but it is effective and something most people can do no matter what their level of physical fitness is. If you can’t put a treadmill in front of your current television, consider getting a treadmill with a screen already attached. Yes, these exist now and are making it even harder for many people to make excuses for not working out.

Already have a treadmill and you’re not willing to take up living room space with it? Simple, get a TV for the room where you’re treadmill is. While no fitness trainer is likely to encourage you to get more televisions, if the options are not working out at all, or working out with a TV in your home gym, then this is clearly the better plan.

To find more exercise ideas for seniors, read our article Exercise for People Who Hate Exercise.

Looking for a retirement community where you can enjoy television and exercise in your own home while also having plenty of options for social and aerobic activities? The Cedars of Chapel Hill, North Carolina offers a fitness center complete with treadmills, indoor pool and, of course, television. Visit their website to learn about life at The Cedars.

*see Fitness: Various Workouts while Watching T.V.

15-minute Sample Workout for Older Adults from Go4Life – YouTube

30 Min Senior Workout Routines – Standing & Seated Chair Exercise for Seniors, Elderly, Older People

Full Body Flexibility Exercises for Seniors – YouTube

Daily Life Activities

*see Fitness: Various “Home” & “Backyard” Exercises

Stronger Bones
*see Health: How to repair and deal with “loss” cartilage?

Osteoporosis Weight bearing exercises – YouTube

Exercise for Seniors : Strengthening Exercises for Osteoporosis …

Unbreakable: How Martial Artists Develop Stronger Bones
By Adam Sinicki on March 11, 2016


Health: How to deal with arthritis as one ages?

Exercise for Arthritis & Aging : Hip & Knee Arthritis Exercises – YouTube

Exercise with Mary: Seated Exercises for Arthritis – YouTube
*see Fitness: Exercises for those with “limited” mobility

*see Medical: How to “get rid” of back pain?

Exercise for Seniors : Senior Citizen Back Strengthening … – YouTube


Staying Fit,
Eva Medical Pedal Exerciser Chrome Frame (Fully Assembled Exercise Peddler, no tools required)
EVA Medical

BoneSmart Pilates AGING STRONG DVD Vol I with Enhanced Props Bundle – Newly Released! – Exercise to Build Bone, Avoid Injury, Age Strong by BoneSmart Pilates

-Resistance Bands
*see Fitness: Various Resistance Training Exercises

Senior resistance band exercises with balance and Wellness – YouTube

Resistance Band Exercises for Seniors – YouTube

Resistance Band Exercises : Stretch Band Exercises for Seniors …

Senior Fitness Exercise – Resistance Band Workout with Stef – YouTube

Balance Training
*see Fitness: Kinesiology-Kinematic Exercise Types

12 Best Elderly Balance Exercises For Seniors to Help Prevent Falls
“…Most common reasons seniors fall

Your vision may decrease which can lead to falls due to not seeing clearly.
Your hips and legs can become weaker making it harder to walk.
We can develop poor posture or have spinal degeneration making it harder to stand erect.
Our ability to lift our feet decreases and we can stumble.
It takes longer to react when something is in our way causing us to fall.
Many drugs interact causing dizziness or decrease balance.
Low blood pressure can lead to light-headedness increasing our risk of falls.

12 Best balance exercise videos: Follow along with our videos and improve your balance…..”

Balance Exercises for Seniors – Fall Prevention – Balance Exercises for Elderly

“Grow Young Fitness
Published on Nov 25, 2015
Balance Exercises for Seniors: Check out the FULL PROGRAM on the website!

In this video Deron Buboltz takes you through his fun, step by step Balance Exercises for Seniors. These balance exercises are designed specifically for fall prevention in the Elderly/Senior community. Deron’s goal is to bring Senior Fitness to a place it has never been before. To learn how you can join the club and start living a better more mobile lifestyle just click the link ABOVE.”

7 Balance Exercises for Seniors-Fall Prevention by Physical Therapists

Dr. Mercola’s Mom Demonstrates Balance Exercises for Seniors
*including hand-eye coordination

Prevent FALLS with These Simple Balance Exercises for Seniors and …

Dynamic Standing Balance Exercises for Elderly

*see Fitness: How “Balanced” are you?

Hip Flexors
*see Fitness: Various Exercises for the Hip

Hip Flexor Exercises For Seniors And The Elderly; Hip Marching
“..Hip flexor exercises for seniors and the elderly like hip marching are very important in maintaining lower body strength.

These leg exercises will increase your walking endurance and ability to pick up objects off lower surfaces…”

How to Strengthen the Hip Flexor Exercises for Seniors – YouTube
Video for hip flexor strength exercises for elderly

Top 3 Exercises for Hip Flexor Strengthening

Hip Stretches | Exercise for Older Adults – YouTube

Senior Physical Fitness at Home : How to Strengthen the Hip Flexor …

*see Fitness: How to reverse common Abnormal Postures?

10 Daily Posture Exercises for Seniors

Lower Body

*see Fitness: Lower Body Exercises for those with “limited” mobility

-Seated Squats

Senior Squat Exercise – Senior Sit Down Stand Up Exercise – YouTube

Senior Citizen Exercises : Senior Exercises: Seated Chair Squats …

Senior Exercises: Seated Chair Squats – YouTube

20 Min Standing & Seated Exercise for Seniors, Obese … – YouTube

-Single-leg Lunge with Chair

Lunge With A Chair For Seniors – YouTube

Leg Strengthening Exercises for Seniors – The forward Lunge – YouTube

17 Min Chair Exercises for Seniors & Beginners – HASfit Senior …

-Leg Curls

Senior Physical Fitness at Home : Hip Abduction Chair … – YouTube

Senior Physical Fitness at Home : How to Strengthen the Hamstring …


Geriatric Hamstring Stretches – YouTube

Senior exercise videos: HAMSTRING STRETCH – YouTube

Senior Physical Fitness at Home : How to Strengthen the Hamstring …

-Calf Raises

Senior Physical Fitness at Home : Calf Raise & Calf Muscle … – YouTube

Standing Calf Stretch

Published on Jan 28, 2013
Calf stretch in standing position is performed by standing in a lunge position with hands placed against the wall or on a sturdy table for support. The hips are directed forward and the trunk is upright. The back foot is flat on the floor and pointing straight forward. Slowly transfer your weight onto the front leg until you feel the stretch in the calf of the back leg. Hold for 30 seconds to 1 minute. Repeat 2-3 times per side. You can also slightly bend the back knee to affect a different portion of posterior calf muscles.


12 Best Leg Exercises For Seniors And The Elderly
“..Strengthening the lower body is one of the most effective and efficient methods of preserving your independence and improving your health as you age..”

4 Lower Body Strength Exercises for Older Adults from Go4Life

Leg Strengthening Exercises for Seniors – YouTube

Best Leg Exercises For Seniors – YouTube

Standing Exercises for Older Adults – YouTube

4 Lower Body Strength Exercises for Older Adults from … – YouTube


20 Min Exercise for Seniors, Older People, Elderly – Seated … – YouTube

Chair Fitness Workout | Chair Exercises For Seniors – YouTube

How to Side Leg Raises For Seniors – YouTube

How to Do Chair Stand Exercises for Seniors – YouTube

Seated Exercises for the Elderly – YouTube


Stretching for Older Adults – Legs & Lower Back – YouTube

Back and leg stretch for Seniors – YouTube

The Best Leg Stretches for Seniors – Part 1: Lower Body … – YouTube

Seated Stretches for the Elderly or those with Limited Mobility – YouTube

Gastroc stretch at wall

Upper Body Workouts


Exercise for Seniors : Back Strengthening Exercises That … – YouTube

Seated Back Extension – YouTube

Exercise for Seniors : Back Strengthening Exercises That … – YouTube

Seated Back Extension – YouTube

-Chest Press

Senior Fitness Exercises : Seated Chest Press Exercise for … – YouTube

Senior Citizen Exercises : Senior Exercises: Chest Presses – YouTube

How to Do Seated Resistance Band Chest Press – YouTube

-Wall Push-Ups

Senior Fitness – Pushups at the Counter – YouTube

Wall Push Ups For Beginners | How To – YouTube

-Bicep Curls

How To Do Resistance Band Bicep Curls-Exercise Tutorial – YouTube

How to Do Bicep Curls for Seniors – YouTube

Senior Physical Fitness at Home : Bicep Curl Exercises for … – YouTube

-Lateral Arm Raises

How to Exercise: Arm Raise Range of Motion for Seniors – YouTube

Exercise for Seniors : How to Strengthen Flabby Arms – YouTube

Lateral Raise with Resistance Band | Tim McComse

*see Fitness: Morning Routine-Different types of Sit-Ups-Crunches

Core Strengthening Exercises for Seniors – YouTube

Core Strengthening Exercises for Seniors – YouTube

Seated Upper Body and Core exercises for Seniors – YouTube

Smart Moves Abdominal and Core Exercises in a Chair – YouTube

*see Fitness: Upper Body Workouts-Shoulders

Shoulder Exercises for Seniors – YouTube

Physical Therapy Exercises for Seniors: Shoulder Pain … – YouTube

Flexibility and Mobility Enhancing Stretches for Older Adults

Easy exercises for seniors, Part II: Shoulder shrug, neck … – YouTube


6 Upper Body Strength Exercises for Older Adults from … – YouTube

Physical Therapy Exercises for Seniors: Upper Body … – YouTube

Five Minutes of Fitness After Fifty, #9, Upper Body Strength – YouTube

=> Chairs

Seated Row Chair Exercise for Older Adults – YouTube

*see Fitness: Various kinds of Stretches

Mid Back Pain For Seniors – Back Extensions – YouTube

Upper Body Active Stretch Workout – Arms, Shoulder, Chest – YouTube

Exercises for Seniors – Stretching Exercises for Seniors … – YouTube

The Best Stretches For Seniors – Part 2: Upper Body … – YouTube

Shoulder Stretches | Exercise for Older Adults – YouTube

Neck Stretches | Exercise for Older Adults – YouTube

*see Health: Be more safe in Swimming Pools?

Senior Citizen Water Workout | Water Aerobics – YouTube


Flash mob seniors, Senior Exercise Class, chair exercise, exercise choreography older adults

Fitness: Eldery-What’s your favorite exercise video?

*see Longevity: How to “slow” the aging process?

Any other exercises you suggest , recommend, etc..?

Good News Elderly

Follow Us At:


Medical: How the Heart Functions?

Human Heart – Diagram and Anatomy of the Heart

The heart is a muscular organ about the size of a closed fist that functions as the body’s circulatory pump. It takes in deoxygenated blood through the veins and delivers it to the lungs for oxygenation before pumping it into the various arteries (which provide oxygen and nutrients to body tissues by transporting the blood throughout the body). The heart is located in the thoracic cavity medial to the lungs and posterior to the sternum.

On its superior end, the base of the heart is attached to the aorta,……

How the Heart Works

How the Heart Works

The heart is made up of chambers, muscles, and valves

“Your heart has four chambers (these are like rooms). Each chamber has a valve that opens and closes like a gate to make sure that blood can only travel in one direction, like a one-way traffic system…”

Blood is pumped through the heart in a specific direction

“…Blood flows from the body into the right side of the heart, then out to the lungs, before re-entering the heart on the left side and being pumped back out to the rest of the body.

The atria are like the ‘entrance rooms’ of the heart. Blood lacking in oxygen first enters the heart through the right atrium (via the vena cava)
Blood flows from the right atrium into the right ventricle
The right ventricle pumps blood to the lungs (via the pulmonary artery) where it collects oxygen
Oxygen-rich blood from the lungs flows back to the heart (via the pulmonary vein) and arrives in the left atrium
This blood flows from the left atrium into the left ventricle, where it is pumped out to the rest of the body (via the aorta).


Inferior vena cava
“… is also referred to as the posterior vena cava. The inferior vena cava is a large vein that carries de-oxygenated blood from the lower body to the heart. De-oxygenated blood means most of the oxygen has been removed by tissues, and therefore the blood is darker. This blood comes from the legs and the lower torso of the body. The inferior vena cava empties into the right atrium of the heart. ..”

CircsystemsUNSIG09R3b – (d) The heart (diagram)

The heart is the organ that supplies blood and oxygen to all parts of the body,the heart is found in almost all animals. It is about the size of a clenched fist, weighs about 10.5 ounces and is shaped like a cone. The heart is located in the chest cavity just posterior to the breastbone, between the lungs and superior to the diaphragm. The heart is also the strongest muscle in your body, five and six thousands quarts of blood are pumped each day in your body…”

Human Heart

“..Layers of the Heart

It consists of three layers namely:

Myocardium– The myocardium includes heart muscle cells that make up the bulk of heart wall and the middle layer.

Epicardium – The outer layer of cells is known as epicardium and the second layer which is membranous surrounds and protects the heart.

Endocardium -The endocardium lines the inner wall of the heart.

Circulatory System

Diagram of the Human Circulatory System (Infographic)
By Ross Toro, Infographics Artist | March 1, 2013 04:25pm ET
“..The circulatory system consists of three independent systems that work together: the heart (cardiovascular), lungs (pulmonary), and arteries, veins, coronary and portal vessels (systemic). The system is responsible for the flow of blood, nutrients, oxygen and other gases, and as well as hormones to and from cells…”

Infographic: Find out all about the blood, lungs and blood vessels that make up the circulatory system.

Picture of the Arteries
“..The arteries are the blood vessels that deliver oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the tissues of the body. Each artery is a muscular tube lined by smooth tissue and has three layers:

The intima, the inner layer lined by a smooth tissue called endothelium
The media, a layer of muscle that lets arteries handle the high pressures from the heart
The adventitia, connective tissue anchoring arteries to nearby tissues

The largest artery is the aorta, the main high-pressure pipeline connected to the heart’s left ventricle. The aorta branches into a network of smaller arteries that extend throughout the body. The arteries’ smaller branches are called arterioles and capillaries. The pulmonary arteries carry oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs under low pressure, making these arteries unique…”

Blood Vessels – Vascular System – IvyRose Holistic

“…1. Diagrams

The following diagram summarises the sequence of blood flow through the heart, arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, veins, then back to the heart:..”

Diagram / Pictures: Cardiovascular system (Anatomy) | Kenhub
“..Main organs, arteries and veins of the cardiovascular system…”

This diagrams shows the major arteries in the human body. | School …
“See More. This diagram shows the major veins in the human body. The Human BodyThe …. O’jaysPhlebotomy. Structures of the Circulatory System – Artery …”

The Cardiovascular System (Blood Vessels)

Arteries, Veins, and Capillaries – Boundless

Circulatory System Diagram
“..Systemic Circulation: After receiving oxygenated blood from the lungs the arteries of the systemic circulation system take the oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The veins of the systemic circulation system take the then deoxygenated blood from the body back to the heart…”
*diagram of major veins

Increase Blood Circulation

Poor Blood Circulation, Cold Legs and Hands Here is What You Can do


How to Improve Blood Circulation Naturally – YouTube

The 14 Best Foods to Increase Blood Flow and Circulation
“..Although circulatory issues are often treated with medications, eating certain foods can also improve blood flow.

Here are the 14 best foods to optimize blood flow…”

3 Best Exercises For Increasing Blood Flow & Circulation … – YouTube

Medical Issues

*see Medical: How to apply First Aid?

Cardiovascular Diseases

Heart Disease (Cardiovascular Disease, CVD) Medical Author: Benjamin Wedro, MD, FACEP, FAAEM Medical Editor: Charles Patrick Davis, MD, PhD

Types of Cardiovascular disease – YouTube
“..Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a general term that describes a disease of the heart or blood vessels. There are four main types of CVD. They are: 1.coronary heart disease 2.stroke 3.peripheral arterial disease 4.aortic disease Coronary heart disease: Coronary heart disease (CHD) occurs when the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your heart is blocked . Stroke: A stroke is a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is cut off. The main symptoms of stroke can be remembered with the word FAST. Peripheral arterial disease: Peripheral arterial disease, also known as peripheral vascular disease, occurs when there’s a blockage in the arteries to your limbs (usually your legs). Aortic disease: The aorta is the largest blood vessel in the body…”

Cardiovascular Disease Overview

Atherosclerosis: Causes, symptoms, and treatments Last updated Mon 3 July 2017 By Joseph Nordqvist Reviewed by Daniel Murrell, MD
“… is a condition where the arteries become narrowed and hardened due to a build up of plaque around the artery wall…”

Coronary Artery Disease – Coronary Heart Disease
“…Coronary heart disease is a common term for the buildup of plaque in the heart’s arteries that could lead to heart attack. But what about coronary artery disease? Is there a difference?

The short answer is often no — health professionals frequently use the terms interchangeably.

However, coronary heart disease , or CHD, is actually a result of coronary artery disease, or CAD, said Edward A. Fisher, M.D., Ph.D., M.P.H., an American Heart Association volunteer who is the Leon H. Charney Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine and also of the Marc and Ruti Bell Vascular Biology and Disease Program at the NYU School of Medicine…”
Heart Attack Myocardial Infarction
Authored by Dr Colin Tidy, 24 Sep 2017
“..A heart attack (myocardial infarction) is usually caused by a blood clot, which stops the blood flowing to a part of your heart muscle. You should call for an ambulance immediately if you develop severe chest pain…”
*see Medical: CPR-What to do?

Heart failure and high blood pressure
If you have high blood pressure, this means that your heart has to work harder to push blood round your body. To cope with this extra effort, your heart becomes thicker and stiffer, which makes it less able to do its job.

If your heart is not able to pump as well as it should, this is called heart failure. Heart failure can cause extra fluid to build up in the body, and can also cause an irregular heartbeat. It does not mean that your heart is about to stop working, but it is a serious condition…”
*see Medical: Is your blood pressure too “low” or “high”?

Angina pectoris: Chest pain caused by myocardial ischemia
“..Myocardial ischemia is one of the more common causes of chest pain (also termed “chest discomfort”) in adults. Angina pectoris, or angina for short, is the term used when chest discomfort is thought to be attributable to myocardial ischemia. In patients with myocardial ischemia, chest discomfort is often but not always present, although other associated symptoms with ischemia may be present (such as exertional shortness of breath, nausea, diaphoresis, fatigue). This has been termed “silent ischemia ” or “anginal equivalent,” although it may be more accurately termed “discomfortless or painless ischemia…”

What is angina of the heart What are the symptoms of angina pectoris …

This is the first aid measures for angina pectoris? – YouTube

First Aid in Heart Attack – YouTube



Shock: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia

“..Shock is a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body is not getting enough blood flow. Lack of blood flow means that the cells and organs do not get enough oxygen and nutrients to function properly. Many organs can be damaged as a result. Shock requires immediate treatment and can get worse very rapidly. As many 1 in 5 people who suffer shock will die from it.

The main types of shock include:

Cardiogenic shock (due to heart problems)
Hypovolemic shock (caused by too little blood volume)
Anaphylactic shock (caused by allergic reaction)
Septic shock (due to infections)
Neurogenic shock (caused by damage to the nervous system) ..”

Shock Explained Clearly – Cardiogenic, Hypovolemic, and Septic

Septic shock: How to avoid this medical emergency Last reviewed Tue 5 July 2016
“ a serious and potentially fatal condition. It occurs when an overwhelming infection leads to life-threatening low blood pressure.

When blood pressure is low, people do not get blood flow to their vital organs. This causes significant injury and eventually organ failure.

Septic shock is most common in people who are already affected by illnesses that weaken the immune system. Septic shock can be caused by an infection in any part of the body that is left untreated.

The infection will first cause a response from the body known as sepsis. ..”
*see Medical: Is your blood pressure too “low” or “high”?

What Causes Shock?

Bleeding, or hemorrhage, is the name used to describe blood loss. It can refer to blood loss inside the body, called internal bleeding. Or it can refer to blood loss…


Anaphylaxis can occur when you have a severe reaction to certain allergens. Learn what the symptoms are and what to do if this happens.


Dehydration takes place when your body loses more fluid than you drink. The most common cause of water loss from the body is excessive sweating.

Heart Attack

During a heart attack, the blood supply that normally nourishes the heart with oxygen is cut off and the heart muscle begins to die. Learn more…”

Shock Types of shock – YouTube

Obstructive Shock – YouTube

Distributive Shock in the Emergency Department: Sepsis, Anaphylaxis, or Capillary Leak Syndrome?

Distributive shock is a hyperdynamic process resulting from excessive vasodilatation. Impaired blood flow causes inadequate tissue perfusion, which can lead to end-organ damage. Although the most common etiology is septic shock, anaphylactic and other etiologies should be considered…”


Anaphylactic Shock of Bee Stings – YouTube

Hypoperfusion – YouTube

Medical Shock – The Correct Treatment – YouTube

Neurogenic shock | Circulatory System and Disease … – YouTube

*see Medical: What are some important parts of the Nervous System?


Top Home Remedies for Clogged Arteries | Causes … – YouTube

Angina, athersclerosis

Eat: Pomegranate, garlic, ginger, lemon juice, etc..


Avoid: meat, dairy products: milk, cheese, butter, etc..

Foods That Cause Plaque Buildup in the Arteries
“… Certain foods can cause the body to make too much of a waxy substance called cholesterol. Cholesterol can combine with fat, calcium, and other substances in the blood to form plaque. Plaque then slowly builds up and hardens in the arteries, causing them to narrow. This buildup of plaque, a condition called atherosclerosis, can lead to heart disease, heart attack, and stroke. ..”

9 Best Foods to Eat to Avoid Clogged Arteries – YouTube

“..In today’s society, you cannot walk through a grocery store without seeing “light” foods advertised. You may think, well it says that it is light, so it must be good for me, right? Think again. Consuming these products can lead to certain ailments, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, and hormone imbalances. ..”

-Aortic Aneurysms
*see Medical: Vascular-“Abdominal Aorta Aneurysm” Causes, Prevention, & Treatment

How to help prevent abdominal aortic aneurysms – YouTube

Reverse Calcification of Heart Valves and Arteries

Dr Lonnie Herman
Published on Aug 29, 2014
You can reverse the calcification on heart valves, in arteries and in any other tissues like which may be found in breast tissue also. Call 954-370-3100 for your consultation with Dr. Herman.

-Congestive Heart Failure

The cure for congestive heart failure. – YouTube

Congestive Heart Failure (CHF)
“..What are the causes of congestive heart failure?

CHF can stem from any condition that leads to a change in the heart’s pumping power including damage to the heart muscle as a result of a heart attack, or thickening and hardening of the heart muscle as a result of longstanding high blood pressure, diabetes, or improperly functioning heart valves. ..

What is the conventional treatment for congestive heart failure?

…This means controlling blood pressure via lifestyle measures such as diet and exercise, or with medication if diet and exercise don’t help. Drugs may be prescribed to slow the progression of the disease by improving the heart’s ability to pump blood, decreasing stress on the heart and preventing fluid retention (which can lead to pulmonary edema, a condition in which fluid retention in the lungs has become so severe that emergency intervention is required). These medications may include ACE-inhibitors, beta blockers, digoxin, diuretics and, if needed, anticoagulants to thin the blood. Individuals with heart failure should avoid taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, most antiarrhythmic agents unless absolutely necessary (often used to help correct abnormalities in the rhythm and rate of the heartbeat), most calcium antagonists, decongestants (they make the heart work harder) and antacids containing sodium, which can cause fluid retention…”

How To Get Rid of Congestive Heart Failure – YouTube

Dr. Joel Wallach on Congestive Heart Failure;

-Mitral Valve Prolapse

How to Fix a Mitral Valve Prolapse – YouTube

Lack of Blood Flow to Brain

1. Loss of Consciousness: Syncope (Fainting)

Fainting (Syncope): Get the Facts on Causes – YouTube

How to Deal With Fainting Spells – YouTube

First aid – Fainting – YouTube

What Is The First Aid For Fainting? – YouTube

Loss of Consciousness – Simply Finals 2016

2. Stroke

Types of Stroke – American Stroke Association

“..Ischemic (Clots)
ischemic stroke

Ischemic stroke occurs as a result of an obstruction within a blood vessel supplying blood to the brain. It accounts for 87 percent of all stroke cases.

Hemorrhagic (Bleeds)
hemorrhagic stroke

Hemorrhagic stroke occurs when a weakened blood vessel ruptures. Two types of weakened blood vessels usually cause hemorrhagic stroke: aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations(AVMs). But the most common cause of hemorrhagic stroke is uncontrolled hypertension (high blood pressure).

TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack)
tia (transient ischemic attack)

TIA (transient ischemic attack) is caused by a temporary clot. Often called a “mini stroke”, these warning strokes should be taken very seriously…”

Types of Stroke – YouTube

How to Treat Someone Having a Stroke | First Aid Training – YouTube

First Aid – Stroke Training – YouTube

=>Well Known Deaths

->Luke Perry

Stroke Rate Rising Among Younger Adults (Video) Written By John Fernandez Published February 27, 2019
“..The new data is worrisome to the medical community and physician peer groups, which have strongly promoted the treatment and prevention of stroke’s underlying risk factors, such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol and diabetes.

Unfortunately, many younger adults don’t seem to be heeding the warnings associated with strokes, which represent the 5th leading cause of death in the United States…

An ischemic stroke, the most common type, occurs as a result of an obstruction within a blood vessel supplying blood to the brain. It accounts for nearly 90 percent of all stroke cases and can potentially be treated with tPA, the clot-busting drug, if treated promptly. Far fewer strokes are hemorrhagic, caused when a weakened blood vessel ruptures. Delays in treating strokes can lead to death or severe debilitation.

“There are reports that people 35 to 55 are having more strokes and it’s unclear exactly why that is,” says Felipe De Los Rios, M.D., Medical Director, Stroke Program at Baptist Health Neuroscience Center. “But what we do know is that diseases we normally see in older people are happening at younger ages. We see more obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure.”

Studies have confirmed that lifestyle habits of adults in their 20s, 30s and 40s, including smoking, poor nutrition and alcohol consumption, will have a major impact on their health when they reach their 60s and beyond, says Dr. Rios…”

Luke Perry Dead at 52 Never Recovered from ‘Massive’ Stroke
3/4/2019 3:11 PM PST
Luke Perry Has Passed Away By Brandon Katz • 03/04/19 12:53pm
“..Representatives for the actor told TMZ that doctors had sedated Perry in order to allow his brain time to recover from the trauma. At the time, Us Weekly reported that he was “under observation at the hospital.” He was reportedly responsive when EMTs arrive at his home, but his condition quickly worsened…”
Was Luke Perry too young to have a fatal stroke? Not really Ken Alltucker, USA TODAY Published 5:21 p.m. ET March 4, 2019 | Updated 8:03 p.m. ET March 4, 2019
“..Doctors not involved in the “Beverly Hills, 90210” star’s care said that middle-age adults such as Perry can face grave risk from brain swelling after a massive stroke.

“The immediate time after stroke is the most deadly for someone who is young,” said Salman Azhar, director of stroke at Lenox Hill Hospital in New York City. That’s because their brains have not yet shrunk, as they do in older adults.

“There is often times no space in the brain for the swelling to happen. That in and of itself can make these strokes more fatal in the young.”..”


*see How to “naturally boost” your energy?

Heart Rate Response to Exercise – YouTube

Physiological responses to exercise

Cardiac output
‘..: The amount of blood the heart pumps through the circulatory system in a minute. The amount of blood put out by the left ventricle of the heart in one contraction is called the stroke volume. The stroke volume and the heart rate determine the cardiac output. A normal adult has a cardiac output of 4.7 liters (5 quarts) of blood per minute…”
homeostasis [ho″me-o-sta´sis]
“…the tendency of biological systems to maintain relatively constant conditions in the internal environment while continuously interacting with and adjusting to changes originating within or outside the system. See also balance and equilibrium. adj., adj homeostat´ic. The term is considered by some to be misleading in that the word element-stasis implies a static or fixed and unmoving state, whereas homeostasis actually involves continuous motion, adaptation, and change in response to environmental factors.

It is through homeostatic mechanisms that body temperature is kept within normal range, the osmotic pressure of the blood and its hydrogen ion concentration (pH) is kept within strict limits, nutrients are supplied to cells as needed, and waste products are removed before they accumulate and reach toxic levels of concentration. These are but a few examples of the thousands of homeostatic control systems within the body. Some of these systems operate within the cell and others operate within an aggregate of cells (organs) to control the complex interrelationships among the various organs…”

8) Oxygen 2 Cardiovascular Responses to Exercise

Sweat is a release of the increase in heat in body

What Is Acute Myocardial Infarction?
“ the medical name for a heart attack. A heart attack is a life-threatening condition that occurs when blood flow to the heart is abruptly cut off, causing tissue damage. This is usually the result of a blockage in one or more of the coronary arteries. A blockage can develop due to a buildup of plaque, a substance mostly made of fat, cholesterol, and cellular waste products…”
Effect of exercise training and myocardial infarction on force development and contractile kinetics in isolated canine myocardium
“..moderate exercise training elicits a small increase in ventricular mass (i.e., a physiological hypertrophy) that has many beneficial effects on overall cardiac health. It is also well known that, when a myocardial infarction damages part of the heart, the remaining myocardium remodels to compensate for the loss of viable functioning myocardium. The effects of exercise training, myocardial infarction (MI), and their interaction on the contractile performance of the myocardium itself remain largely to be determined. The present study investigated the contractile properties and kinetics of right ventricular myocardium isolated from sedentary and exercise trained (10-12 wk progressively increasing treadmill running, begun 4 wk after MI induction) dogs with and without a left ventricular myocardial infarction. Exercise training increased force development, whereas MI decreased force development that was not improved by exercise training. Contractile kinetics were significantly slower in the trained dogs, whereas this impact of training was less or no longer present after MI. Length-dependent activation, both evaluated on contractile force and kinetics, was similar in all four groups. The control exercise-trained group exhibited a more positive force-frequency relationship compared with the sedentary control group while both sedentary and trained post-MI dogs had a more negative relationship. Last, the impact of the β-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol resulted in a similar increase in force and acceleration of contractile kinetics in all groups. Thus, exercise training increased developed force but slowed contractile kinetics in control (noninfarcted animals), actions that were attenuated or completely absent in post-MI dogs…”

“…: Widening of blood vessels that results from relaxation of the muscular walls of the vessels. What widens in vasodilation is actually
the diameter of the interior (lumen) of the vessel. The opposite of vasodilation is vasoconstriction..”

Exercise and the Cardiovascular System – YouTube

*see Medical: Is your blood pressure too “low” or “high”?

*see Fitness: Physiology of Exercise


Exercise perspective on common cardiac medications
1. Introduction

Exercise training has been recognized to prevent and ameliorate cardiovascular disease. Although exercise can reduce cardiovascular disease, it is also suggested that it can be instrumental in preventing chronic disease such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus. A recent study by Mann and Rosenzweig1 wonderfully highlighted the beneficial effects of exercise including cardiac effects and systemic factors on skeletal muscle, metabolism, and vascular dysfunction (Fig. 1)…

Exercise is beneficial for the heart in a number of ways, although the exact process as to how exercise intervenes in the cardiovascular system is unknown. As advised, walking by stairs is more beneficial than taking the elevator. This review will focus on current heart medication categories commonly used to treat diseases. Particular exercise pathways similar or different from medications work of action will also be discussed…”

Cardiovascular Medications – YouTube


Can an Aortic Aneurysm be healed naturally? – YouTube


A guide to abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) screening for … – YouTube

Ascending Aortic Aneurysm Surgery: When To Have Surgery

Overcoming Aortic Aneurysm – Jason’s Story of Hope

Leading the way in treatments for Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms (AAA)

Published on Feb 1, 2015
Dangerous and often undetected, aortic aneurysms are more common than you might expect.

“About 4-8% of the male population greater than 60 years of age are walking around with this,” says Dr. Russell Becker, who is a vascular surgeon with Lee Memorial Health System.

An aneurysm is an out-pouching or bulging of the wall of a blood vessel. Like a balloon being blown up, the tissue thins and may burst. An aortic aneurysm occurs in the main vessel that leads to heart, located between the sternum and belly button.

Abdominal & Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Treatment: Open Surgery | Q&A

Non-surgical alternative to treating aortic stenosis


Coronary Calcium Score – No Doctor’s Order?
“.. Note that a coronary calcium score IS NOT a test to see if a patient’s symptoms are heart-related. To evaluate chest pain or other potential anginal symptoms, stress testing is the preferred method. A person’s calcium score could be quite high without any obstructive coronary stenosis (and vise versa). It is important to keep this test as a risk assessment only. Patients may have a different perception if not well educated and might have the scan done to see if their “heartburn” is really from their heart. This is quite inappropriate and potentially dangerous. Look at this image below showing a CT of a coronary vessel with extensive calcification, then look at the correlating invasive coronary angiogram showing absolutely no flow-limiting stenosis:..

So, to get a coronary calcium score or not? Is it worth the 0.9 mSv to 2.4 mSv of radiation exposure? If you are a middle-aged person with no previous heart disease diagnosis or risk equivalent (diabetes or peripheral arterial disease), no potential anginal symptoms, and some risk factors for heart disease such as hypertension, tobacco use, dyslipidemia or a family history of ischemic heart disease, then this test is for you … as long as you understand and accept the risk of radiation exposure, which is low but present. Perhaps every 3 years the test can be repeated to assess for any change, however no more frequently than that. It is probably one of the best ways the appropriate person could spend $99, in my opinion!”

How I Reversed My Coronary Calcium Score by 59% in 16 months

» Best Diet For Removing Calcium Deposits & Plaque Buildup From Your Blocked Arteries

How to Clean Arteries and Veins Naturally with these 14 … – YouTube

“..n order to prevent this, here are foods you need to eat to help clean out your arteries and veins.

Garlic It smooth muscle relaxant Adenosine properties to • Get rid of the free radicals in your body, • reduce bad cholesterol levels, • increasing good cholesterol & • promote blood flow.

Oatmeal It contain soluble fiber to • boost energy & good digestion, • reduce cholesterol’s ability to stick to artery walls, • Prevent growth of arteriosclerosis & other heart problems.

Apples contain a substance called • Pectin, is a fiber that helps to low the bad cholesterol. • Flavonoids, which can reduce risk of heart problems by up to 50%. Fish • salmon • mackerel • tuna • trout • herring • sardines Fatty fish is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, is a good fats for our body needs to operate properly & unblock arteries.
The key components of turmeric is curcumin, • can prevent the artery damage that is usually associated with blockage. Spinach Spinach is rich in vitamins A and C to help • prevent cholesterol oxidation & • prevent problems such as arteriosclerosis. Nuts • hazelnuts • almonds • pecans • peanuts
The great agents are best from mono-saturated fat content & omega 3 fatty acids in nuts, that promote healthy arterial function by • prevent artery blockage & • stimulating a cleaning process in veins. Olive oil Extra virgin olive oil is a mono-saturated fat which is less likely to oxidize thus help • prevents cholesterol from sticking to your artery walls & • prevent heart disease.
opene, an anti-oxidant to • prevents bad cholesterol from sticking to artery walls & • daily consume can significantly reduces the risk of plaques build-up inside arteries Pomegranate juice Scientifically proven that pomegranate juice has higher levels of anti-oxidants than other juices blackberry, blueberry & orange juices. • Study proven it work great in treating damaged arteries & arteriosclerosis.
Broccoli It contains vitamin K best for • bone formation & • protects the arteries from damage. • Its rich fibre can lower cholesterol & high blood pressure. Whole grain • Barley • Jowar • Bajra • ragi • ruttu Include whole grains in your diet to • reduce cholesterol & • fibres to push out the blockages. Tea (Chai) Chai, or its tea as black tea contains antioxidant called catechins • to protect your artery wall. • also prevents blood clots. Watermelon Amino acid & nitric oxide which helps • Open up blood vessels to improve blood flow • & reduce high blood pressure”

Tomatoes It’s a great source of lyc.


Top Natural Remedies for Coronary Heart Disease
“..Foods That Heal Heart Disease

Instead of focusing on foods that reduce fat and cholesterol, we would be much better off making the goal to reduce inflammation. Heart disease is really caused by the inflammation of arteries, and yet modern medicine focuses on treating symptoms, not addressing the root cause of the issue….

Begin incorporating one new anti-inflammatory food to your diet each day. Don’t be afraid to try new things and keep it interesting!

Foods that help reduce inflammation and, therefore, the risk of CHD include:

Fiber-rich and antioxidant-rich foods of all kinds
Vegetables (all kinds, including beets, carrots, cruciferous vegetables like Brussels sprouts, broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower and kale, dark leafy greens, artichokes, onions, peas, salad greens, mushrooms, sea vegetables and squashes)
Fruits (all kinds, especially berries and citrus)
Herbs and spices, especially turmeric (curcumin) and raw garlic (also basil, chili peppers, cinnamon, curry powder, ginger, rosemary and thyme)
Traditional teas like green tea, oolong or white tea
Legumes and beans
Healthy fats found in nuts, seeds, avocados, wild-caught fish, coconut oil and extra virgin olive oil
Raw, unpasteurized dairy products, cage-free eggs and pasture-raised poultry
Red wine in moderation


Omega-3’s Taken at this Time of the Day Reduces Heart Attacks & Stroke – Dr. Alan Mandell D.C.
*fish oil or Omega 3 at night (greatest chance of heart attack is 6:30am )

=> Women

Women Urged To Get Heart Checkup – YouTube


Top 10 Foods That Unclog Your Arteries Naturally – YouTube

Best Foods For Blocked Arteries – YouTube

Top 10 Artery Cleansing Foods [Clinically Proven] – YouTube

How to Remove Plaque from arteries
avoid dairy products (e.g. it carries excess protein that remains in your arteries)

The Roto-Rooter to Clogged Arteries – The Miracle Fatty Acid & Herb (Dr. Alan Mandell, D.C.)
*see Health: Tips to “fight” Inflammation

Eat These 10 Foods to Cleanse Your Arteries

“..So what can you do to keep your arteries healthy and free of blockage? Food can be used as a natural remedy to regress blockage and prevent further damage to your arteries. Here are 10 of the best foods you can eat to free your arteries of build-up.
1. Asparagus..”


*see Deep Thought: Why doesn’t God “heal” everybody?


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