1. Axial Skeleton
2. Appendicular Skeleton
The word “scapula” (with the accent on the first syllable) is Latin. The Romans always employed the plural “scapulae”, the shoulder blades. Because the shoulder blade resembles the blade of a trowel (a small shovel), the word “scapula” is thought to have come from the Greek “skaptein” meaning “to dig.”
The term “subscapular” means under (sub) the scapula. The subscapularis muscle originates beneath the scapula. This muscle moves the arm by turning it inward (internal rotation). The subscapularis muscle tendon is part of the rotator cuff…’
1. Structural Classes of Joint
This page lists with short definitions the types of movements at synovial joints.
Joint movements of this type are also known as anatomical movements. For more detailed information about a specific movement click the the name of the joint movement in the tables below (pink links in bold).
The Sagittal plane passes through the body front to back, so dividing it into left and right. Movements in this plane are the up and down movements of flexion and extension
The frontal plane divides the body into front and back. Movements in this plane are sideways movements, called abduction and adduction
This plane divides the body into top and bottom. Movements in this plane are rotational in nature, such as internal and external rotation, pronation and supination
(2) 4 General Groups of movements that occur in the synovial joints throughout thebody: gliding, angular, circumduction, and rotation
(3) 4 Angualar Movements for Synovial Joints: flexion, extensin, abduction, and adduction
Abduction and adduction.
Abduction and adduction are usually side-to-side movements, such as moving the arm laterally when doing jumping jacks.
Pronation and supination.
Describing the rotation of the forearm back and forth requires special terms. Spread your fingers out and look at the palms of your hands and the fingers and then rotate your palms to look at your nails. Now look at your palms again. That’s forearm supination and pronation….
Elevation and depression.
Elevation and depression are up-and-down movements, such as chewing or shrugging your shoulders. When you move the mandible down to open the mouth, that’s mandible depression. Move the mandible back up, that’s mandible elevation…
Protraction and retraction.
By moving your jaw back and forth in a jutting motion, you are protracting and retracting your mandible.
Inversion and eversion.
You invert your foot when you turn it inward to see what is stuck under your shoe. You evert your foot to put the sole of your shoe back on the floor.
…Dorsiflexion and plantar flexion.
You dorsiflex your feet to walk on your heels, and plantar flex them to tiptoe….
For example, by sitting with 30 lb ankle weight on each leg, the ankle weight and the earth’s gravitational pull will cause your shin bone to remodel. Thus, by eating nutritional foods and taking supplements daily, your shin bone mass density begins to thicken and lengthen due to the downward force exerted by the weights & gravity…’
Wolff’s Law – Definition in Physical Therapy
This is How Your Bones Heal
By Brett Sears, PT | Reviewed by a board-certified physician
Updated June 27, 2017 .verywell.com
Wolff’s Law states that bone grows and remodels in response to the forces that are placed upon it. After injury to bone, placing specific stress in specific directions to the bone can help it remodel and become normal healthy bone again. Your physical therapist should understand Wolff’s law to help guide your rehabilitation after a fracture or broken bone.
How Does Wolff’s Law Apply to Physical Therapy
Wolff’s Law applies to physical therapy in the treatment of osteoporosis and after a fracture.
If you have osteoporosis, your bones may be brittle and weak. This can lead to pathologic fracture, most commonly in the spine or hip. Weight-bearing and strength exercises are usually recommended as a non-medicinal treatment for osteoporosis.
If you have suffered a fracture, bone healing occurs while you have been immobilized with a cast or splint. After immobilization, gentle range of motion and stress can help improve the overall strength of your bone. This can help ensure that your bone is able to tolerate the loads and stresses that you may encounter during normal functional activities…
Your PT can help guide you by prescribing the right exercises for you to do that will add a gradual and progressive stress to your injured bone.
For example, after an ankle fracture, your doctor may order that you remain non-weight bearing for a few weeks immediately after the injury. During this time, there may be some benefit of early mobilization for your ankle. Your physical therapist can prescribe safe exercises that you can do that will place gentle stress through your bone while helping you maintain mobility….”
Exercises to build Bone and Muscle Strength
Bone Remodeling (Wolff’s Law), Muscle & Nerve Conditioning, Training for Stronger Harder Strikes
How to Grow Your Bones
Exercise for Your Bone Health niams.nih.gov
“..The Best Bone Building Exercise
The best exercise for your bones is the weight-bearing kind, which forces you to work against gravity. Some examples of weight-bearing exercises include weight training, walking, hiking, jogging, climbing stairs, tennis, and dancing. Examples of exercises that are not weight-bearing include swimming and bicycling. Although these activities help build and maintain strong muscles and have excellent cardiovascular benefits, they are not the best way to exercise your bones…”
Itis Schmitis – Tendinitis, bursitis, periostitis, fasciitis and other painful … sportsdoctor.com
Periostitis is an inflammation of the sufface of the bone. It is most commonly felt along the inside of the leg along the shin bone and is one diagnosis of the condition called shinsplints. The pain is sometimes accompanied by swelling, redness and nodules. If you feel tenderness when touching a specific point on your shin or when tapping along the length of the bone, you may have a stress fracture instead…
Fasciitis is an inflammation of the muscle fasciae, sheets of fibrous tissue that enclose muscle and muscle groups. One of the most common types is plantar fasciitis, an inflammation of the fascia on the bottom of the foot. It can cause a knifelike pain in the bottom of the foot at every step…
How Are Tendonitis and Bursitis Different? By Jonathan Cluett, MD, a board-certified physician Updated October 30, 2017 verywell.com
Two Individual Conditions With Shared Characteristics
“..Comparing Tendinitis and Bursitis
Broadly speaking, tendinitis and bursitis are differentiated by the types of tissue affected:
Tendinitis refers to inflammation of the tendon, the rope-like, fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone. When a muscle flexes or relaxes, the tendon acts like a winch and causes the bone to move. Tendons can be small, like those found in the hands and feet, or large, like the Achilles tendon.
Bursitis is the inflammation of the fluid-filled sac, called the bursa, which acts as a cushion between bones and the tendons or muscles surrounding the bone. The bursa greatly reduces the friction as these structures regularly rub against each other. The major bursae are located adjacent to the tendons of the large joints, such as those in the shoulders, elbows, hips, and knees…”
Ligaments – What Are Ligaments – Functions Of Ligaments – YouTube
Knee Ligament Sprain – YouTube
ACL injury compilation – YouTube
ACL Tear (Sports Injury) – YouTube
ACL Surgery – 3D Reconstruction – YouTube
*see What is an ACL, PCL, and their functions? | Sports Knee Therapy sportskneetherapy.com
Knee Injury emedicinehealth.com
-> Muscle Tendon Injuries, MCL and LCL Injuries, ACL Injuries, and Meniscus Tears emedicinehealth.com
“..The stability of the knee joint is maintained by four ligaments, thick bands of tissue that stabilize the joint. The medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) are on the sides of the knee and prevent the joint from sliding sideways. The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior ..”
Three Types of Ankle Sprains: Degrees of Severity Can Vary By BetterBraces Editor betterbraces.com
“..There are two different types of an ankle sprain.
The inversion ankle sprain is the most common type of sprain and occurs when the foot falls inward and stretches the outer ligaments too far. Pain occurs on the outside of the ankle and not on the inside of the ankle.
The eversion ankle sprain occurs when the foot is twisted outwards and the inner ligament is stretched too far. Pain will occur on the inside, and not the outside, of the ankle.
Different Types Of Ankle Sprain Physiotherapy Treatment at … – YouTube
~ Achilles Tendonitis
Top 3 Exercises for Achilles Tendonitis-Selected by … – YouTube
Achilles Tendon/Heel Pain: How to treat (PhysicalTherapy) – YouTube
~ Plantar Fasciitis
*see Calcaneus (Heel Bone) Fractures orthoinfo.aaos.org
The bones of the feet are commonly divided into three parts: the hindfoot, midfoot, and forefoot. Seven bones — called tarsals — make up the hindfoot and midfoot. The calcaneus (heel bone) is the largest of the tarsal bones in the foot. It lies at the back of the foot (hindfoot) below the three bones that make up the ankle joint. These three bones are the:
Tibia — shinbone
Fibula—smaller bone in the lower leg
Talus—small foot bone that works as a hinge between the tibia and the fibula
Together, the calcaneus and the talus form the subtalar joint. The subtalar joint allows side-to-side movement of the hindfoot and is especially important for balance on uneven surfaces…”
Plantar Fasciitis Diagnosis & Treatment – YouTube
The Instant Cure for Plantar Fasciitis! – YouTube
Cartilage Damage: Causes, Diagnosis, and Treatments Last updated Thu 9 June 2016 By Christian Nordqvist Reviewed by William Morrison, MD medicalnewstoday.com
Cartilage is a connective tissue found in many parts of the body. Although it is a tough and flexible material, it is relatively easy to damage.
This fine, rubbery tissue acts as a cushion between the bones of joints. People with cartilage damage commonly experience joint pain, stiffness, and inflammation (swelling). ..”
The Good Doctor – How to Avoid Cartilage Damage – YouTube
*see Health: How to deal with arthritis as one ages? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
*see Medical: How to apply First Aid? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
Different types of Fractures – A Simple Classification of Fractures
By Dr Arun Pal Singh boneandspine.com
“..For this discussion we would stick to the basic and general classification of the fractures of long bones. We have already discussed closed and open fractures. That is one type of classification according to absence or presence of wounds that communicate with fracture.
Fractures are also classified according to the pattern in which bone breaks. Let us take them one by one..”
What Is The Difference Between An Open Fracture And A Closed …
Fractures, Types And Mechanisms – Everything You Need … – YouTube
“..Educational video describing fracture types and the mechanisms of injury. There are many types of fractures, however, the main types are described as either displaced, non-displaced, open and closed. Displaced and non-displaced fractures refer to the way the bone breaks. A very small crack in the bone is often referred to as a “hairline” fracture. This is an incomplete fracture usually resulting from a minor injury that does not go all the way through the bone. A greenstick fracture is an incomplete fracture in which the bone is bent. This fracture type is most often found in children. A transverse fracture is a simple fracture that is complete. It occurs due to the tension of the bone. Oblique fracture occurs due to a compression fracture. It is slight obliquity of the fracture. Bending fracture pattern It is part transverse and part oblique. It occurs due to bending force. Butterfly fracture pattern It occurs due to bending force and axial loading. Spiral fracture occurs due to torsion force. Comminuted fracture occurs due to high energy force. A fracture can be either closed or open. Fractures than penetrate the skin are open. Fractures that do not penetrate the skin are closed…”
Bone Fracture (Broken Bone) (cont.) emedicinehealth.com
“…When outside forces such as a direct blows or falls are applied to bone it has the potential to fail. Fractures occur when bone cannot withstand those outside forces. Fracture, break, or crack all mean the same thing. One term does not imply a more or less severe injury. The integrity of the bone has been damaged, causing the bone structure to fail, which results in a fracture or broken bone.
Broken bones are painful for a variety of reasons:..
Fractures can occur because of direct blows, twisting injuries, or falls. The type of forces or trauma applied to the bone determine what type of injury that occurs. Some fractures occur without any obvious trauma due to osteoporosis, defined as the loss of bone mass or a congenital bone cyst that has been present since birth, which causes a weak area in the bone…”
*see Health: How to repair and deal with “loss” cartilage? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
What is the most common cause of bone fractures among older adults? sharecare.com
“..Falls are the leading cause for emergency room (ER) visits and overnight hospital stays for adults 65 and older. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), unintentional falls are the most common cause of bone fractures among older adults, which can affect the hips, arms, legs, hands, pelvis and spine. Additionally, falls can result in severe bruising and head trauma, including traumatic brain injuries with long- and short-term consequences. ..”
*see Fitness: “Energy” Tips for Aging-Seniors-Elderly-“Older” Age Adults goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
Bone Fracture – Types, Fracture Repair and Osteomyelitis – YouTube
First Aid for Broken Bones – YouTube
Healing Process of Bone Fracture – YouTube
Better Bones-How to speed fracture healing betterbones.com
“..Physiology of fracture healing
Fracture healing involves complex processes of cell and tissue proliferation and differentiation. Many players are involved, including growth factors, inflammatory cytokines, antioxidants, bone breakdown (osteoclast) and bone-building (osteoblast) cells, hormones, amino acids, and uncounted nutrients.
Fracture healing can be divided into three phases.
The inflammation phase is the first stage of healing. Immediately upon fracture, a blood clot forms, allowing the influx of inflammatory, clean-up cells to the wound area. ..
The second, reparative stage begins about two weeks after the fracture occurs….
The final step of fracture repair is known as the remodeling phase…..
5 nutritional steps to accelerate fracture healing
People who have had a fracture aren’t often told that they can do anything to make their bones heal faster — at most, they’re told to limit the use of the injured bone or limb (not easy to do if the fracture is in your spine!). But there are a number of methods you can employ to reduce your healing time:
1. Provide the body with adequate energy
Fracture healing requires more energy than you might expect. Thus, it’s appropriate to increase your caloric intake to promote healing…
2. Check your protein intake
Bone can be imagined as being somewhat like a sponge made of living protein upon which mineral crystals are embedded…..In addition, protein supplementation increases growth factors like insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), a polypeptide that exerts a positive effect on skeletal integrity, muscle strength, immune response, and bone renewal…
3. Increase anti-inflammatory nutrients
Antioxidants repair oxidative damage. When a bone fracture occurs, a remarkable yield of free radicals is generated by the damaged tissues. In particular, this damage occurs as the tightly bound collagen strands running through the mineral phase of bone are forcefully broken. …. In such cases, antioxidants — including vitamins E and C, lycopene, and alpha-lipoic acid — have been suggested to be beneficial in suppressing the destructive effect of oxidant free radicals on whole body systems and improving fracture healing in animal models and cultured human cell lines.
Inflammation is an essential component of the healing process in bone…Vitamin C, bioflavonoids and flavonols such as quercitin and proanthrocydins, and omega-3 fatty acids naturally soothe the inflammatory process and speed healing…
4. Boost your mineral intake
By weight, bone is roughly 70% minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, silicon, zinc, etc.) and fracture healing requires available minerals. Most of us under-consume minerals on an everyday basis, so drawing minerals to the healing site can often involve a process of “stealing from Peter to pay Paul.” (See our 20 key bone nutrients for details on average mineral intake.)
Specific key minerals for fracture healing include the following:
…. Early research suggested that fractures can heal normally independent of dietary calcium and indeed it has been found that during the first few weeks of healing, calcium is drawn from the skeleton for fracture healing. After that, the diet provides the calcium necessary for fracture repair. Calcium adequacy at the RDA level is important, but unusually high intakes do not appear to speed fracture healing. As calcium absorption is dependent on vitamin D, these nutrients work synergistically. Human studies, in fact, suggest that for best fracture healing both calcium and vitamin D should be obtained in optimum daily levels. Most of us consume plenty of phosphorus and often too much if the diet is high in processed foods and colas. However, the elderly, dieters, and those on low protein diets often do not consume enough phosphorus to meet the needs of new bone formation….
*see Health: Nutrition-Micronutrients Pt. 4~Vitamins=Trace Minerals goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
5. Enhance vitamin intake
…vitamins are the catalysts for many biochemical reactions and are equally important. In fracture healing, we can clearly identify the vital roles of several vitamins including vitamin C, vitamin D, and vitamin K as well as the energy-producing B vitamins, which should all be taken in therapeutic doses:…
Natural Healing | How to Heal Broken Bones Fast and Naturally | Bone Fracture Treatment
The 3 PHASES OF HEALING
EVERY MUSCULAR-SKELETAL INJURY goes through 3 stages of healing. For purposes of clarity, these stages are INFLAMMATION, REPAIR and REMODELING.
STAGE 2: REPAIR
In the second wound healing stage, called repair or proliferation, the wound begins to be rebuilt with new, healthy granulation tissue. For the granulation tissue to be formed, the blood vessels must receive a sufficient supply of nutrients and oxygen. ..
STAGE 3: REMODELING
Remodeling, also known as Maturation, is the last stage of the wound healing process. It occurs after the wound has closed up and can take as long as two years…”
Tips for Healing Broken Bones Naturally
*getting natural sunlight helps build bones..
The Healing Benefits of Sunlight and Vitamin D Wednesday, March 26, 2008 by: Teya Skae naturalnews.com
“.. our bodies need natural sunlight to synthesize adequate amounts of vitamin D in order to keep our bones strong and healthy, as well as support the immune system.
What is Vitamin D?
Vitamin D, in the form of calciferol (vitamin D3) is a fat-soluble vitamin. It is found in food, but also can be made in your body after exposure to ultraviolet rays from the sun. Vitamin D exists in several forms, each with a different function….”
How to Get Natural Carpal Tunnel Relief in 24 Hours draxe.com
“..This is due to how many adults use their hands for many hours typing, reading, driving, writing or doing other types of labor. Surveys show that carpal tunnel symptoms develop in about 4 percent of the general population. This makes it one of the most common neuropathies (nerve related disorders) of the hands. (1) ..”
*see Fitness & Health: Tips for Sedentary Occupations or Lifestyle Overall goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
Carpal Tunnel Exercises using Stress Ball – YouTube
*see Stories of healing? goodnewseverybodycom.wordpress.com
Someone with #carpaltunnel was #healed goodnewseverybodycom
‘.. Someone with #carpaltunnel was #healed ( #pain no longer exists the last couple of nights “when going to bed” ) by #God in #jesusname during a recent #ministryteaching ( #acts3 in the #bookofacts #newtestament #bible was read out loud prior ) led by #paulrapley @paulrapleyministries ) on operating on the #spiritualgifts (#1corinthians13 ) in #morrismn . #praisetheLord 🙌🏼 Got any #healingstories ? https://goodnewseverybodycom.wordpress.com/2009/06/07/stories-of-healing/ God can use you 👉🏼to be a “vessel “ for #healing for that someone (#crippled #lame #blind etc… ) and an answer to #prayer 🙏..”
From Pain to No Pain: God Healed My Wrist notaloneministries.com
“..But then I started to think about the recent doctor appointments and how after each one God began to speak new things into my life. He began to give me a new heart and compassion for the homeless men and women that I had driven past for years and ignored. He lit a fire inside of me to share His love with them which is exactly what I started doing! I then began to picture the faces of the individuals that God had brought me to after each doctor appointment these last few weeks… and I began to cry. I was so thankful that my silly wrists had created opportunities for me to spread the love of Jesus to people I wouldn’t have otherwise met!
Besides, I knew the end result was healing so if enduring this silly wrist pain in the meantime was part of the journey God has taken me on as He leads me into His call and plan for my life it was SO worth it!
As I approached the hospital I could feel the Holy Spirit stirring in me more and more. The closer I got the more I knew I was SUPPOSED to be at that office. Walking in I was smiling at everyone, making eye contact, saying “good morning” – I didn’t want to “miss” anyone in case God had sent me there to minister to them…”
Healing prayer for carpal tunnel syndrome and pain in wrist or hand …
Instantly Healed of Carpal Tunnel Pain – Bethel Church May 21, 2015 bethel.com
“..We received this testimony from an attendee of our 2015 Healing School.
One night after the Healing School, a man was tired from the long day and all he wanted to do was get home. But, he felt prompted to stop at a local grocery store. While inside, he noticed a woman whose hand was shaking. As he was waiting to check out, she came up behind him in line with her hand still waving around. “Are you in pain?” he asked. She said she was in a lot of pain because of carpal tunnel. “I just came from a healing conference! Would you like me to pray for you?” he asked. She couldn’t get her hand out to him fast enough she was in so much pain. After a short prayer, the pain was completely gone! The lady was amazed! She was thankful for the chance encounter. The man explained he’d been sent into the store to meet her and pray for her – it was no chance encounter, it was a divine appointment. She walked away healed and feeling known by God!
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