Human Anatomy Systems
*see Medical: Human Anatomy Overall goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
Exercise Physiology Basics nursinglink.monster.com
“..The changes that occur to the cardiovascular system during exercise all have a common function: they allow the body to meet the increasing needs demanded from an increased workload on the body. Many components of the cardiovascular system work in tandem with one another to achieve this goal. Like a fine tuned machine, the components of the cardiovascular system are orchestrated by local mechanisms, as well as by the neural and endocrine systems, to supply the increase in demand. The role of the nervous and endocrine systems will be discussed in a later topic. To better understand the contribution of every mechanism, we will need to take a quick look at each in greater detail. The following physiologic factors perform a unique contribution to the overall goal of homeostasis. These will include:..”
What Happens to your Heart when you Exercise – The Human Body – A User’s Guide
*see Medical: How the Heart Functions? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
& *see Fitness: Various Cardio Workouts goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
Physiological Responses and Adaptations ptdirect.com
“..characterized by sharpness or severity
(2) :having a sudden onset, sharp rise, and short course
(3) :being, providing, or requiring short-term medical care (as for serious illness or traumatic injury)
an acute patient
b :lasting a short time
“..Definition of chronic
1 a :continuing or occurring again and again for a long time
b :suffering from a chronic disease
the special needs of chronic patients
2 a :always present or encountered; especially :constantly vexing, weakening, or troubling
chronic petty warfare
chronic meddling in one another’s domestic affairs —Amatzia Baram
b :being such habitually
a chronic grumbler
*see Fitness: Kinesiology-Kinematic Exercise Types goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
Sweat Is Cool humankinetics.com
“..Sweating does for humans what panting does for dogs, but sweating does it better. Sweating is an effective way to stay safely cool in hot environments. That simple fact explains why humans are better than most animals at being physically active in the heat for prolonged periods. Animals that do not sweat cannot pant fast enough to keep up with the heat production of exercise. In humans, when body temperature increases slightly above normal resting temperature (98.6 ℉, or 37 ℃), the hypothalamus in the brain senses the increase in temperature and signals the sympathetic nervous system to dilate blood vessels in the skin and activate sweat glands. (See figure 10.3.)..”
Why do we sweat.mp4
The Science of Sweat By Tim Newcomb Dec 7, 2016 popularmechanics.com
From nerves to exercise, this is sweat’s cool factor.
“..When your body starts to heat up, whether it’s because of exercise, work, or outside temperature, your brain reacts by releasing sweat from the more than 2.5 million eccrine glands spread out across nearly all of your body, pouring liquid through pores to lower your body temperature. But when sweat simply drips off you and hits the floor, it can’t lower your body temperature. To reap the cooling effect of sweat, though, that salty liquid must evaporate off the skin and turn into a gas, says William Byrnes, a sweat expert at the University of Colorado…”
Sweat isn’t triggered by heart rate or movement, but by receptors in the hypothalamus area of the brain. Individuals living in hot and humid environments will adapt to the weather, just as people aerobically trained will sweat more and sooner. The body welcomes “adaptions that help us with heat regulation,” Byrnes explains.
Because the stink of sweat doesn’t come from the odorless, colorless liquid the body produces in an effort to cool the skin, but rather from contact with bacteria present on the body, we have to combat it from all angles. With this bacteria concentrated in the armpit, applying a powerful deodorant to that specific area, instead of rubbing it all over, proves the most effective way to combat B.O…”
Exercise – Thermoregulation: HEAT TRANSFER FROM … – YouTube
Thermoregulation During Exercise
SWEAT SPOTS: Exercise clothing TIPS for those who SWEAT a lot!
“Published on Oct 7, 2011
**HEY, SUBSCRIBE & RATE THIS!** Just a few tips on what I have found to work me (being that I am someone who sweats profusely during exercise), in terms of clothing material to purchase (stay away from 100% cotton, however nylon & spandex work great!).
Wicking fabric is a must, just be sure to check the labels of the workout gear you’re thinking of purchasing. Just because it is sold as fitness gear, does not mean that it will provide the wicking effect you need if you tend to sweat a lot!
If you have a brand you recommend, please do share!”
*see Tips for Energy during “Hot” Summer Activities goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
10 Fitness Fabrics, Explained Karla Bruning shape.com
Your workout clothes do more than make you look good: wearing the right material can also increase the efficiency of your sweat sesh
“…Bamboo pulp yields a natural fabric that’s light, breathable, and moisture-wicking—it also protects your skin from ultraviolet rays. “It feels insanely soft, repels odors, regulates your temperature, and is UPF 50+,” says Tasc Performance designer, Sarah Chase. Tasc Performance and other brands blend chemical-free bamboo with organic cotton, wool, and spandex to make workout clothes l..
…A recent Belgian study found that it gives off less post-workout stench than polyester because synthetic fabrics allow stink-causing bacteria to thrive. But don’t head to spin class in a cotton tee just yet. Cotton absorbs moisture, potentially making you feel like a dishrag during a hard-charging workout. Still, for yoga, weight training, or other low-sweat activities, go with clothes made from cotton blends”..
Famously used to make women’s stockings, the synthetic fabric is soft as silk, mildew resistant, and dries quickly. It’s also breathable and wicks sweat from your skin to the fabric’s surface, where it can evaporate.You’ll find nylon in all kinds of sportswear, ..
Polyester’s main drawback: the stink factor. Synthetic material can foster bacteria growth, and it also doesn’t dry quite as quickly as polypropylene or nylon….
But unlike polyester, this synthetic material is totally water-resistant, says Lauren Hallworth, product line manager for Brooks Running apparel. “Even if you’re sweaty after a run and the outside of the shirt is wet, what’s touching you is completely dry,” says Hallworth. “It’s great as a base layer.” Polypropylene forces moisture to pass through its fibers, expelling it to the fabric’s surface where it can evaporate. ..
The Best Cold-Weather Workout Gear By Caitlin Carlson December 2, 2015 womenshealthmag.com
The perfectly crisp fall days are almost behind us. Gear up for outdoor winter workouts with these 10 essentials
Adidas Techfit ClimaWarm+ Tights
The fabric of these tights is woven just tightly enough to block cold air while still allowing sweat to escape. Mesh vents behind the knees are a sign that these budget-friendly tights are on par with premium options…
Moving Comfort Sprint Insulated Vest
Keeping your core warm is key to regulating your body temperature in cold conditions. This quilted vest does just that—without restricting your movement. The side panels are made of a lightweight material so you don’t feel like the Michelin Man…”
10 Winter Running Essentials by Jeff Laboon mensfitness.com
All the running gear to keep you warm and dry on your winter runs—”Baby, it’s cold outside,” won’t stand as an excuse not to go.
The Adidas Sequencials Half-Zip Long Sleeve Tee doesn’t just offer a mock turtleneck to protect your neck and trap body heat from escaping. Made with a spandex-type blend, its material allows for full range of motion while also keeping you cool and dry between your base and jacket. What’s more: The zipper and mesh side panels allow for extra ventilation without sacrificing body heat. Get it in grey or “infrared,” an orangish color that will shine bright on the darkest of runs. ($60, adidas.com)
Though they may not leave much to the imagination, a pair of tights must be in your running wardrobe. Period. Because just like the upper body, you want a compression layer touching the skin that can easily wick away sweat. Under Armour’s ColdGear Action Leggings are a modest set of tights made from nylon, polyester, and elastane, and paired with some synthetic underwear, they’ll keep you cool and dry. Trust us, if there’s one part of the body you want to keep comfortable on a freezing run, it’s your, lower body. Your girlfriend/wife will thank you. ($50, underarmour.com)
Running in the right sock (or wrong sock) can make all the difference in your winter workout. You want a moisture-wicking sock that’s thick and warm enough to prevent frostbitten toes, but that isn’t too bulky to cram into your shoe. The Smartwool PhD Toe Sock Mini controls the temperature in your feet and blocks the bacteria that make them reek. Its individual toes are intended to prevent blisters, and even though they’re partially made of merino wool, these socks won’t itch—promise. They cover the balls of your feet to ensure there isn’t a slit …”
Suggested Online Shopping Sites:
Steep & Cheap.comsteepandcheap.com
Are You Wearing the Right Shoes For Your Workout? by Amber Long on October 27, 2015 acefitness.org
“..If you participate in a specific sport or activity more than two times per week, the American Podiatric Medical Association (APMA) recommends wearing a sport-specific shoe. This means you might need different shoes for different activities. Here are some recommendations on shoes for popular fitness modes…
For those who do not log miles, replace shoes every six months if you work out most days, or every year if you exercise a couple of times per week. You can extend the life of your fitness shoes by using them only when you exercise. Purchase a casual pair of sneakers to jet around town. This will prevent wear and tear from standing or walking and allow you to look forward to lacing up for exercise.”
Proper Fit Explained: You Don’t Have a Shoe Size; You Have a Foot Size 12 November 2011 naturalrunningcenter.com
“..A proper fit accounts for the natural expansion of the foot upon ground contact. Excess waste is eliminated, along with everything that inhibits your foot’s natural motion. So your foot is free to move and work the way nature intended it to; the way of its own barefoot motion. Call it toe wiggle freedom.
Yet, with sizing, most get it wrong
First, abandon the notion that you have a shoe size. Instead you have a foot size. Shoes are made all over the world and apply different shapes and standards. If you measure your foot seated with a traditional measuring device like a Brannock Device and base your size on that you will likely be off by 1-2 sizes when applied to a running or hiking shoe. One shoe size is only 1/3 an inch.
Here’s why most sizes are too small:
When a load is applied to a foot by running or with a pack weight your foot will spread in length by up to half an inch
You need at least an 1/8 inch or more space on heel and toe for any sock.
You want 1/3 to 1/2 an inch in front of your big toe to allow room for loading and splay
Your foot will splay 15 percent in width under load.
Your foot is widest at the toes and unfortunately most shoes are not shaped this way.
Tips on sizing.
At Two Rivers Treads, we never had a customer return shoes because they too were too big.
Do not assume you are the same size as a previous shoe.
Take your time and try several shoes on, preferably at the end of the day. Go run in them. Do not try them on sitting…”
How to Find Your Proper Shoe Size – YouTube
8 Winter Cycling Shoes For Seriously Cold Weather By Katelyn Miller on January 12, 2016 bicycletouringpro.com
“..Northwave Fahrenheit Winter Cycling Shoes
For a road bike shoe that keeps feet warm in temperatures down around freezing the Northwave Fahrenheit is a sleek, reliable option. The GTX stands for Gore-tex, a waterproof lining that protects from wind and moisture. The shoe is designed with a speed lace system with additional hook-and-loop closure that adds even more protection from the elements.
northwave artic black winter cycling shoes..”
Shoe Lengths for U.S. & European Shoe Sizes with Sizing Chart healthyfeetstore.com
*see Fitness: Benefits of Biking? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
GORE-TEX® and WINDSTOPPER®: What’s the difference? inspiration.goreapparel.com
A Study Program for curious minds and serious athletes
“..Here’s a new term to learn: expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE). The GORE-TEX® membrane found in both GORE-TEX® and WINDSTOPPER® is an extremely thin layer of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE). It has over 9 billion pores per square inch–these pores give the GORE-TEX® fabric its amazing characteristics.
What are those characteristics? To sum it up short and sweet: WINDSTOPPER® products are windproof, breathable and WATER RESISTANT, while GORE-TEX® products are windproof, breathable and WATERPROOF. As you can see, the real difference lies in the waterproofness.
As a visual aid, take look at these jackets from our GORE BIKE WEAR® ELEMENT collection to learn more about the characteristics of GORE-TEX® and WINDSTOPPER®:..”
7 Best Waterproof Socks To Keep Your Toes Toasty & Dry — PHOTOS .bustle.com
Dexshell Hytherm Pro Waterproof Socks (Small) walmart.com
Foods that make your sweat smell bodyandsoul.com.au
Humans have two types of sweat glands – eccrine glands and apocrine glands.
Eccrine glands control body temperature and are concentrated on our foreheads, underarms, soles and palms. They release sweat with little odour, mostly composed of water, salt and other trace minerals such as calcium and potassium.
Apocrine glands are found mostly around the armpits, lower abdomen and genitals. Their purpose is to excrete wastes (mostly fats and proteins) from the body. Although this sweat also has little odour itself, bacteria on the skin feed on it and produce malodorous waste products such as androstenes and isovaleric acid. The process takes about 20 minutes.
Studies show that women find fresh male sweat reasonably pleasant, but the chemical compounds that result from its breakdown highly unpleasant…”
5 Foods That Can Increase Your Body Odor By Gina Roberts-GreyMoney & Security WriterAugust 12, 2013 nextavenue.org
Broccoli, red meat, junk food and low-carb diets can increase BO. Here’s how you can avoid putting up a stink…
7 Foods That Fight Odors Jessica Girdwain Sep 16, 2011 womansday.com
Banish bad breath, offensive body odor and stinky feet the natural way
‘..For Offensive Body Odor:
The General Adaptation Syndrome: Applications for Sports Training sports-training-adviser.com
“..In the 1930s, Hans Selye first described the General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) as the predictable way in which the body restores itself to balance, or homeostasis, in response to stress. … Around the same time exercise physiologists began exploring adaptations taking place due to different forms of training stresses…
The General Adaptation Syndrome has three distinct stages:
The Alarm Stage, or alarm reaction stage, is the initial response when stress is first recognized. This fight or flight response is a very quick hormonal response that served to help animals survive in the face of danger since ancient times.
We might respond to narrowly missing a serious car accident in the same way. Our bodies immediately release hormones, including cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline to provide instant energy. Adrenaline immediately raises the blood pressure and heart rate. When the stress is removed, the body returns to normal state of homeostasis.
The Resistance Stage, or adaptation stage, occurs if the stress continues or recurs for a period of time. In this stage, the body makes adjustments in its structures or enzyme levels to give it added protection against this specific type of stress. Rest must occur in order for recovery and rebuilding to take place.
The type of training the athlete performs determines the type of protein synthesized during recovery. This is the reason for “specificity” of the adaptive response to training. A speed training session will mobilize the energy, building projects and immune responses in the cells and tissues involved in producing speed. The stimulation of these reserves during a speed training session will dictate the type of structural changes during recovery to make the cell stronger for the next speed training session.
Mobilization of the immune system strengthens the defense capacity of the body and stimulates the repair process by dismantling and rebuilding damaged cells. The immune system plays a critical role in the outcome of the response to training.
The Exhaustion Stage occurs when long-term stress is not removed. At this point the athlete becomes fatigued and irritable. The body runs out of reserve energy and stress takes its toll on the athlete’s mental, physical, and emotional abilities. When excessive long-term stress persists, as in the case of overtraining, the athlete is unable to function and is forced to take time for recovery….”
general adaptation syndrome model
*see Medical: Endocrine System goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
*see Health: Nutrition-Foods to Know About goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
The Body’s Fuel Sources humankinetics.com
This is an excerpt from Endurance Sports Nutrition, Third Edition by Suzanne Girard Eberle.
The Body’s Fuel Sources
This is an excerpt from Endurance Sports Nutrition, Third Edition by Suzanne Girard Eberle.
The Body’s Fuel Sources
Our ability to run, bicycle, ski, swim, and row hinges on the capacity of the body to extract energy from ingested food. As potential fuel sources, the carbohydrate, fat, and protein in the foods that you eat follow different metabolic paths in the body, but they all ultimately yield water, carbon dioxide, and a chemical energy called adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Think of ATP molecules as high-energy compounds or batteries that store energy. Anytime you need energy—to breathe, to tie your shoes, or to cycle 100 miles (160 km)—your body uses ATP molecules. ATP, in fact, is the only molecule able to provide energy to muscle fibers to power muscle contractions. Creatine phosphate (CP), like ATP, is also stored in small amounts within cells. It’s another high-energy compound that can be rapidly mobilized to help fuel short, explosive efforts. To sustain physical activity, however, cells must constantly replenish both CP and ATP.
Our daily food choices resupply the potential energy, or fuel, that the body requires to continue to function normally. This energy takes three forms: carbohydrate, fat, and protein. (See table 2.1, Estimated Energy Stores in Humans.) The body can store some of these fuels in a form that offers muscles an immediate source of energy. Carbohydrates, such as sugar and starch, for example, are readily broken down into glucose, the body’s principal energy source. Glucose can be used immediately as fuel, or can be sent to the liver and muscles and stored as glycogen. During exercise, muscle glycogen is converted back into glucose, which only the muscle fibers can use as fuel. The liver converts its glycogen back into glucose, too; however, it’s released directly into the bloodstream to maintain your blood sugar (blood glucose) level. During exercise, your muscles pick up some of this glucose and use it in addition to their own private glycogen stores. Blood glucose also serves as the most significant source of energy for the brain, both at rest and during exercise. The body constantly uses and replenishes its glycogen stores. The carbohydrate content of your diet and the type and amount of training that you undertake influence the size of your glycogen stores…”
Nutrition Notes: Fuel Sources for Exercise – YouTube
*see Medical: Endocrine System goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
Anabolic vs Catabolic Metabolism – YouTube
General Training Principles
ACE Integrated Fitness Training (IFT) Model for Functional Movement and Resistance Training: Phases 3 and 4 BY PETE McCALL, M.S. acefitness.org
“..The first two articles in this series provided an overview of the ACE IFT Model and examined the key concepts of Phases 1 and 2: Stability and Mobility, and Movement Training. The second article also introduced a template provided within the ACE IFT Model that progresses individuals in preparation for more traditional load and performance training, which are the focus of Phases 3 and 4. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of Phases 3 and 4, which address the application of external loads to movements to meet client goals related to muscular strength, endurance and hypertrophy, maximal strength and body-composition changes, and, if appropriate, competitive or performance-oriented goals…”
ACE Integrated Fitness Training Model – YouTube
Training Movements, Not Muscles Pete McCall by Pete McCall on November 14, 2013 acefitness.org
“..Focusing on just one body part at a time would be an effective way to exercise if that was how the human body was designed to function. Human movement, however, is not a series of isolated joint actions. If you have ever watched the process of a baby learning how to roll over, crawl and eventually walk, then you have seen everything you need to know about human movement. The human body is designed to be in constant motion with all joints and muscles working together to walk and move in an upright position.
Walking, or the gait cycle, is a series of coordinated movements. The foundational patterns that comprise the gait cycle are:
1. Squatting (when both feet are on the ground) [e.g. sitting down in a chair]
2. Lunging (as one leg is planted and the other leg is swinging) [e.g. picking up something off the floor]
3. Pushing (as one arm swings forward) [ eg. pushing a heavy door]
4. Pulling (as the other arm swings backwards) [eg. opening a car door or picking up a child]
5. Rotating (when the trunk and pelvis counter rotate during leg and arm movement). [e.g. picking up something from left side at the dinner table with right hand and passing it to someone to your right)
Following a movement-based exercise program based on these patterns means that you are using all of your muscles at the same time, which can be more effective for burning calories while also training the body for how it is designed to move…”
5 Essential Primal Movements for Your Workout Program
“..At the most basic level, our primary goal within a workout program should be functionality. Utilizing exercises in your workout that promote human movement will enhance your performance levels in your daily life. Every movement our bodies perform originates from some category of human biomechanics. Those categories are: SQUAT, LUNGE, PUSH, PULL and ROTATION. It is important to understand how to integrate the entire body and properly perform these basic foundational movements. Using these 5 essential primal movements will improve gait patterns, enhance human performance and decrease any likelihood of pain and injuries…”
ACE IFT Model for Cardiorespiratory Training: Phases 1–4 BY TODD GALATI, M.A. acefitness.org
“..The following article introduces a new systematic approach to cardiorespiratory training that can be used to help any client reach his or her unique goals for health, fitness or performance in endurance competitions.
The ACE IFT Model has four cardiorespiratory training phases:
• Phase 1: Aerobic-base training
• Phase 2: Aerobic-efficiency training
• Phase 3: Anaerobic-endurance training
• Phase 4: Anaerobic-power training
Each phase has a primary training focus designed to facilitate specific physiological adaptations to exercise. Not every client starts in phase 1, as each client has a unique entry point into the cardiorespiratory training phases based upon his or her current health, fitness and goals…”
*see Fitness: Various Cardio Workouts goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
*see Medical: How the Heart Functions? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
Cardiovascular Medication and Your Client by Trish Muse, MPT, CSCS on May 01, 2006 ideafit.com
“…A client may have more than one condition, disorder or disease and could be taking more than one medication concurrently. This circumstance, known as polypharmacy, may intensify or alter physiological responses. Therefore, you may need to make further exercise modifications. Be aware that this situation may arise, particularly among older clients.
Calcium Channel Blockers
Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers
Fitness professionals have an ethical responsibility, obligation and commitment to do no harm and to provide safe programming for all exercise enthusiasts. Maintaining a solid education foundation and being able to identify cardiovascular medications are important. Become familiar with the basic characteristics of each drug class as it pertains to fitness, and know the potential side effects. Be able to anticipate these effects, and be ready to intervene with modifications. Always refer to the client’s physician when appropriate. One variable truly cannot be independent of another without the client being at risk. Understanding this fully is imperative if you are to work safely and responsibly with the increasing number of fitness enthusiasts and the many new exercisers just starting their journey to physical activity and wellness.
Cardiovascular Medications and Exercise Modifications
Be aware of these guidelines when working with clients on cardiovascular medications. Always obtain a physician’s clearance when necessary.
Potential Target Heart Rate
Cardiovascular Drug Potential Exercise Modification (THR) Adjustment ..”
How Common Medications May Affect Your Clients’ Exercise Programs By Lance C. Dalleck, Ph.D. acefitness.org
Prevalence of Prescribed Therapeutic Drugs
Current trends show that Americans are living longer, while the number of individuals living with chronic diseases continues to increase. In the past 100 years, life expectancy at birth in the U.S. increased from less than 50 years to more than 76 years. The U.S. Census Bureau has projected that by 2030, the number of adults 65 years of age and older will be approximately 70 million. Approximately 80 percent of individuals aged 65 years or older are living with at least one chronic health problem, and another 50 percent are living with two. Management of these chronic conditions involves numerous strategies including both lifestyle interventions (e.g., increased exercise and healthy eating) and the prescription of therapeutic drugs. Not surprisingly, the percentage of American adults taking medications for common chronic conditions (e.g., high cholesterol and/or hypertension) increases with age (Figure 1)….
1. BETA BLOCKERS
2. ACE INHIBITORS
….Modifications Required in the Exercise Program
Encourage your clients taking diuretics to unfailingly perform a gradual cool-down after all exercise sessions. It’s also a good idea to suggest your clients perform a daily weight check to ensure that the prescribed dosage of diuretic is continuing to have the desired effect (i.e., increased urine excretion-lowered plasma volume-reduced blood pressure). A sudden change in weight of a few pounds can help alert clients that something may be amiss and that they should get in touch with their physician.”
5. ORAL HYPOGLYCEMICS
…Modifications Required in the Exercise Program
The most important program modification for clients taking oral hypoglycemics is frequent monitoring of blood glucose values. Initially, this should include checking levels pre-exercise, at the mid-point of exercise and post-exercise. Once it has been established how much blood glucose values typically drop for a usual exercise session, and provided these changes in glucose levels are within an acceptable range, less-frequent monitoring will be required. It should be noted that it is not your responsibility to check blood glucose values. Rather, the client should bring his or her own glucometer and glucose strips, which are prescribed by a physician or endocrinologist….”
Sports Training Principles sports-training-adviser.com
“..The commonly known training principles (Specificity, Overload, and Recovery) are heavily grounded in exercise physiology–the study of the effects of exercise on the human body. However, other sport sciences also support these principles.
For example, the Specificity Principle concerns how the athlete’s body adapts to the stress placed on it. Specificity also applies to practice conditions and the environment in motor learning literature.
Regardless of the fields in which they are studied, it is most important for coaches to understand how to effectively apply them in practice and competition.
While it is important to know how to use these principles, skill learning, movement mechanics, and other areas aspects of sports performance must be integrated into the programs of athletes at their respective levels of competition. ..”
Training Strategies – Principles of Training
Reversing Reversibility: How to Help Clients Get Back on Track By Daniel J. Green acefitness.org
A SMART Guide to Goal Setting on November 01, 2013 acefitness.org
American Council on Exercise by American Council on Exercise
“..Follow these guidelines to setting SMART goals and you will be surprised at what you can do:
Specific. Your goal should be clear and easy to understand.
A common goal, “get healthy,” is too general. There are so many ways to get healthy. How do you want to do it? Is it losing weight? Start exercising? Stop smoking? Break it down and it will be easier to manage.
Let’s pick weight loss and make a SMART goal out of it together. For example, “I will lose weight.”
Measurable. A goal to “lose weight” is not enough. How will you track your progress and how you will know when you have reached your goal? Making your goal measurable means adding a number.
Attainable. Before you can add a number, you have to know how high or low you want to go. It’s good to ‘shoot for the stars’, but don’t be too extreme. Likewise, a goal that is too easy is also not very motivating. Only you know your limits.
Let’s take our goal above. What percentage is attainable for you? Research suggests that a 5-10% weight loss is attainable for most overweight people.
A measurable, attainable goal could be, “I will lose 7% of my body weight.”
Relevant. Set goals that are important to where you are in your life right now. Don’t set a goal that someone else is pressuring you to attain-that isn’t very motivating.
Examine our goal so far. Does it seem relevant to you? If so, let’s keep going. If you are not concerned about weight loss or this is not a good time in your life to focus on that, choose something that IS motivating to you.
Time-bound. Include an end-point. Knowing that you have a deadline motivates you to get started.
Since healthy weight loss is about 1-2 pounds per week, set your deadline accordingly. For our example we can use 3 months. “I will lose 7% of my body weight in 3 months.”
Working with Special Populations Makeba Edwards by Makeba Edwards on April 04, 2017 acefitness.org
“..As a Fitness Professional, you will encounter clients who require special consideration when designing their programs. Whether it is a health concern, such as cardiovascular disease, or a special need, such as pregnancy, you should identify and address these conditions prior to conducting assessments and designing your clients’ programs. Furthermore, it will often be vital to ensure that your client has been cleared by his or her physician to engage in physical activity…
Taking SOAP Notes by Daniel Ball, MS and Brian Murphy on Apr 01, 2008 ideafit.com
“..How can you as a personal trainer communicate with a team of trainers working with the same client, maintain continuity of care with allied medical professionals and accurately manage and document client progress? Discover a documentation process called SOAP noting (Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan) and learn the basics about modifying it for the fitness industry. ..
Subjective. In the “Subjective” section, include client responses to your questions regarding exercise adherence, changes in functional abilities, health status and follow-up activities….
Objective. In the “Objective” section, note new data collected during the training session. …
Assessment. In the “Assessment” section, document noteworthy changes you see in the client’s performance….
Plan. After you have gathered the subjective, objective and assessment information, briefly outline revisions or adjustments to the exercise program design in the “Plan” section. …
Practical Application of Functional Assessments: Movement Assessments Jessie Newell by Jessie Newell on August 07, 2015 acefitness.org
Look out for possible medical issues..
ACSM Indications For Termination of an Exercise Test exrx.net
Suspicion of a myocardial infarction or acute myocardial infarction (heart attack)
Onset of moderate-to-severe angina (chest pain)
Drop in systolic blood pressure (SBP) below standing resting pressure or drop in SBP with increasing workload accompanied by signs or symptoms
Signs of poor perfusion (circulation or blood flow), including pallor (pale appearance to the skin), cyanosis (bluish discoloration), or cold and clammy skin
Severe or unusual shortness of breath
CNS (central nervous system) symptoms
e.g., ataxia (failure of muscular coordination), vertigo (An illusion of dizzying movement), visual or gait (pattern of walking or running) problems, confusion
Serious arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythms)
e.g.: second / third degree AV block, atrial fibrillation with fast ventricular response, increasing premature ventricular contractions or sustained ventricular tachycardia)
Technical inability to monitor the ECG
Patient’s request (to stop) ..
Hypertensive response (SBP >260 mm Hg; DBP>115 mm Hg)…
“… is the abnormal blue discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes, caused by an increase in the deoxygenated haemoglobin level to above 5 g/dL. Patients with anaemia do not develop cyanosis until the oxygen saturation (SaO2) has fallen to lower levels than for patients with normal haemoglobin levels and patients with polycythaemia develop cyanosis at higher oxygen saturation levels. Cyanosis can be divided into either central or peripheral…”
‘..is pain and/or cramping in the lower leg due to inadequate blood flow to the muscles. The pain usually causes the person to limp. The word “claudication” comes from the Latin “claudicare” meaning to limp. Claudication typically is felt while walking, and subsides with rest. It is commonly referred to as “intermittent” claudication because it comes and goes with exertion and rest. In severe claudication, the pain is also felt at rest…”
Syncope (Fainting) .heart.org
“..is a temporary loss of consciousness usually related to insufficient blood flow to the brain. It’s also called fainting or “passing out.”..”
Applying Risk Classification as a Fitness Professional
Christopher Gagliardi by Christopher Gagliardi on May 10, 2017 acefitness.org
“…Risk classification is determined based on the presence or absence of a known cardiovascular, pulmonary, renal, or metabolic disease or the presence or absence of symptoms of these diseases (see “Signs and Symptoms” below). ..
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Risk Stratification Criteria:
For each positive risk factor, add a +1.
For HDL cholesterol (good cholesterol) there is an opportunity to take away a risk (-1) if the level is high (≥60 mg/dL).
Client Age: Male ≥45, Female ≥ 55
Family History: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), coronary revascularization (bypass surgery), or sudden death for the client’s male first-degree relative who is younger than 55 years old or female first-degree relative who is younger than 65 years old; first-degree relatives include parents, siblings, and offspring
Cigarette smoking: Current cigarette smoker or quit within the previous six months, or exposure to secondhand smoke
Sedentary lifestyle: Does not participate in at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity on at least three days/week for at least three months (remember this by thinking of the 3’s—30 minutes, for 3 days, for 3 months)
Obesity: Client has a BMI ≥30 kg/m2
Hypertension: Blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg or currently on antihypertensive medications; both numbers do not have to be above the defining criteria for a + 1 in this category; if either the systolic reading is ≥ 140 mmHg or the diastolic number is ≥ 90 mmHg, the client would get a +1 in this category
Cholesterol: Total cholesterol should only be used if it is the only value given; if using total, ≥200 mg/dL is considered a risk (+1)
If you are given LDL and HDL cholesterol, use these values only:
LDL (bad cholesterol) ≥130 mg/dL is a risk (+1)
HDL (good cholesterol, you want lots) <40 mg/dL is a risk (+1)
HDL (good cholesterol) ≥60 mg/dL is good, allowing an individual to take a risk away (-1)
PreDiabetes: Fasting glucose ≥100 mg/dL is a risk (+1)
The risks are then totaled and the client is classified in one of the risk categories:.."
Low risk = Asymptomatic and < 2 risk factors
Moderate risk = Asymptomatic ≥ 2 risk factors
High risk = Symptomatic (see signs and symptoms below) or if the client has a known cardiac, pulmonary, renal, or metabolic disease
*see Fitness: Lower Body Workout goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
‘…Bend and Lift Screen
The squatting motion is one of the five primary movement patterns….
Bend and Lift – YouTube
*see Fitness: Various Exercises for the Hip goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
Hurdle Step Screen
This is an example of a single-leg motion, …
Hurdle step – YouTube
Thoracic Spine Mobility Screen
*see Fitness: How to reverse common Abnormal Postures? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
Rotation (another basic movement pattern) in the torso should generally be isolated in the thoracic spine, as the surrounding joints (scapulothoracic joint and lumbar spine) should remain stable. ..
Movement screenThoracic spine mobility screen – YouTube
*see Fitness: Upper Body Workouts-Shoulders goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
Shoulder Push Stabilization Screen
For this assessment, you’re observing the scapulothoracic joint (where the scapulae articulate with the spine) and the spine from the sagittal view to determine the presence of scapular winging or hyperextension in the low back. (Pushing is another basic movement pattern.)..”
ShouLder PuSh StabiLization SCreen – ACE Fitness (pdf) acefitness.org
Movement screen Shoulder Pull stabilization screen – YouTube
*see Fitness: How “Balanced” are you? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
Tools & Calculators acefitness.org
“…ACE Fit offers a number of free tools and calculators to help you determine everything from your body mass index (BMI) to your target heart rate zone, your blood pressure, body fat composition, daily caloric needs and more. Each of those tools will help you find an exercise program that fits your individual needs and goals, whether that be losing weight or increasing your strength with weight training…”
What Is a Realistic BMI for Someone Athletic?
by MICHELLE MATTE Last Updated: Sep 11, 2017 livestrong.com
Kinesiology professor Sue Beckham, PhD of the University of Texas at Arlington, asserts that BMI is not useful in assessing athletic muscular individuals and is not a good indicator of changes in body composition. A 2007 study of male and female college athletes published in “Medicine and Science in Sports and Medicine” concluded that BMI incorrectly classifies athletes with normal body fat as overweight and that separate standards should be established for athletic populations.
BMI versus FFM
Your fat free mass, or FFM, includes your muscles, bones, connective tissue and other not-fat components of your body mass. According to exercise scientist Len Kravitz, PhD of the University of New Mexico, we all need a certain amount of fat to maintain good health, and women need more than men. When you subtract your FFM from your total body mass, you get your fat mass. Body composition is a measurement that compares your fat mass to your total body mass, expressed as percent body fat…”
How to Calculate Body Mass Index
BMI Percentile Calculator for Child and Teen
English Version nccd.cdc.gov
Sequoia Fitness TrimCal 4000 Body Fat Caliper (Black) [Health and Beauty]
TrimCal 4000 amazon.com
Accurate and cheap bodyfat measurement using skinfold caliper
Body Fat Calculator scoobysworkshop.com
How to Perform the Skin Fold Test (Female) – YouTube
Skinfold Test – Female Suprailium facstaff.elon.edu
Iliac Crest (Iliocristale, Suprailiac) Skinfold topendsports.com
“..is one of the common locations used for the assessment of body fat in athletes. There are other sites in this region, such as the supraspinale. I have also come across another skinfold site near here, along the mid-axillary line at the level of the umbilicus (see details below). See the complete list of skinfold sites, and the general procedure for taking skinfold measurements…
This skinfold measurement sites has previously been known by many names, including iliocristale (Parizkova), suprailiac (Durin & Womersley).
The similar suprailium site is slightly anterior (forward) to the iliac crest site, also taken above the crest of the ilium, but at the point where an imaginary line would come down from the anterior axillary border. See also the nearby site supraspinale.
Another skinfold site near here, is to be found along the mid-axillary line at the level of the umbilicus (trunk skinfold site?).
AccuFitness Fat Track Fitness Body Transformation Toolkit, 6.4 Ounce
Fat Track amazon.com
How to: Circumference Measurements
*see Fitness: Various Cardio Workouts goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
1 Rep Max Test
x 1.41 (e.g. 10 reps of benching 130 ; 1.41 x 130 =max should be 183.3lbs
What is the best way to measure and monitor intensity during exercise? Viktoria Brautigam by Viktoria Brautigam on June 01, 2011 .acefitness.org
“..Another way to monitor exercise intensity is by the Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE), or Borg scale. Using the Borg scale, with values from 0 to 20, can help you monitor your cardiovascular intensity. A rating of 7 corresponds to very, very light training intensity. A rating of 12 corresponds to moderate intensity. A rating of 17 corresponds to very hard intensity. A rating of 20 corresponds to maximum all-out intensity. Notice how, as your fitness increases, your exertion level at a previously difficult intensity starts to decrease. For example, running a 10 minute/mile pace used to be a level 16 exertion level for you. Two months after exercising regularly, you notice that the same 10 minute/mile pace is only an exertion level 12. RPE is a useful way of monitoring progress and keeping intensity appropriate. It is best used when cardiovascular training is more generalized and less specific. A person most likely to benefit from using the Borg RPE scale is following a general weight loss program…”
Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) cdc.gov
“..Look at the rating scale below while you are engaging in an activity; it ranges from 6 to 20, where 6 means “no exertion at all” and 20 means “maximal exertion.” Choose the number from below that best describes your level of exertion. This will give you a good idea of the intensity level of your activity, and you can use this information to speed up or slow down your movements to reach your desired range…”
Simple Workout Log
Simple Workout Log Overview | 2016
10 Best Workout Log Apps lifewire.com
There are many workout logging apps, but are there any worth your effort?
Reps & Sets | The complete gym logging app repsandsetsapp.com
Sport Skills assessment
Physiological Assessments: Sports-skills Assessments
Jessie Newel on May 09, 2014 acefitness.org
“..These assessments can be divided into two categories: (1) power and (2) speed, agility, and quickness. ..”
How to Calculate Power Based on Force and Speed
Physics I For Dummies, 2nd Edition Related Book Physics I For Dummies, 2nd Edition By Steven Holzner dummies.com
Physics 1: Force, acceleration, velocity – YouTube
1. Standing Long Jump Test
2. Vertical Jump Test
Fitness test- Vertical jump – YouTube
3. Kneeling Overhead Toss
4.Margaria Kalamen Stair Climb Test
5. 300 Yard Shuttle run Test
President’s Council on Fitness, Sports & Nutrition (PCFSN) hhs.gov
PCFSN engages, educates, and empowers all Americans to adopt a healthy lifestyle that includes regular physical activity and good nutrition. Since 1956, the Council has created and promoted programs and initiatives that motivate people of all ages, backgrounds, and abilities to be active and eat healthy….”
The President’s Council On Physical Fitness And Sports … – YouTube
President’s Council on Fitness, Sports & Nutrition – YouTube
Most Common Assessments
1. Pro Agility Test
Combine Testing: Pro-Agility Shuttle stack.com
“..The Pro-Agility Shuttle is a key test used by coaches and scouts to evaluate football players at the NFL Combine, college pro days and other football combines across the country. It is a great way to assess a player’s quickness and ability to change directions, which are fundamental skills for success on the gridiron.
Pro Agility Shuttle How-To
To set up for the Pro Agility Shuttle, position three cones in a straight line five yards apart. Start at the center cone in a three-point stance, straddling the start/finish line. Timing starts on your first movement. Sprint five yards to the right. Stop and touch the line with your right hand at the cone. Sprint 10 yards to the far cone. Stop and touch line with your left hand at the cone. Sprint five yards through the finish line. This can also be performed starting to the left.
Check out a diagram of the Pro Agility Shuttle to better understand the set-up…”,
Instructions for the Pro Agility Test (5-10-5) – YouTube
Pro Agility II: The 20-Yard Shuttle – YouTube
2. T Test
Agility T-Test topendsports.com
purpose: the T-Test is a test of agility for athletes, and includes forward, lateral, and backward running….
Fitness Test – “T” Test – YouTube
3. 40 Yard Dash
40 Yard Dash Fitness Test – YouTube
Know Your Numbers: Body Mass Index
American Council on Exercise by American Council on Exercise
on November 04, 2013 acefitness.org
*see Medical: Is your blood pressure too “low” or “high”? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
A sphygmomanometer is a device that measures blood pressure. It is composes of an inflatable rubber cuff, which is wrapped around the arm. A measuring device indicates the cuff’s pressure. A bulb inflates the cuff and a valve releases pressure. A stethoscope is used to listen to arterial blood flow sounds. …
Checking your blood pressure with a sphygmomanometer – YouTube
Vital Signs (Body Temperature, Pulse Rate, Respiration Rate, Blood Pressure) hopkinsmedicine.org
“…Vital signs are measurements of the body’s most basic functions. The four main vital signs routinely monitored by medical professionals and health care providers include the following:
Respiration rate (rate of breathing)
Blood pressure (Blood pressure is not considered a vital sign, but is often measured along with the vital signs.)
Vital signs are useful in detecting or monitoring medical problems. Vital signs can be measured in a medical setting, at home, at the site of a medical emergency, or elsewhere…”
Ultimate Fitness Tests
The Test of Fitness
Practical Application of the ACE IFT Model—Phase 1: Stability and Mobility Training Makeba Edwards by Makeba Edward on February 27, 2017 acefitness.org
‘..When using the ACE IFT Model, first address proximal (toward the center of the body) stability via the lumbar spine/core before progressing to the distal (away from the center of the body) extremities or distal joints. Establishing proper core function (i.e., proximal stability) will allow for stable, central muscles that perform their given functions without compromising the actions of the distal joints…”
Phase 2: Movement Training
Practical Application of the ACE IFT Model—Phase 2: Movement Training
Makeba Edwards by Makeba Edwards on July 25, 2014 acefitness.org
“>..5. Understanding the reasons for exercises in Phase 2 requires some understanding of kinematics within the body (specifically as it relates to the lower extremity). Kinematics refers to the body in motion, in relation to the joint angle and pattern of movement, without any consideration given to the forces acting at the joints, or causes of motion…”
Practical Application of the ACE IFT Model—Phases 3 and 4: Load and Performance Training Makeba Edwards by Makeba Edwards on February 01, 2017 acefitness.org
“..The objective in this phase may be to increase muscular endurance, strength, or hypertrophy for the purpose of improving body composition, function, movement, or health by using resistance. ..
How to Build the Perfect Circuit Workout By Charlotte Hilton Andersen shape.com
6 simple steps to create the ultimate fat-torching routine
“…Imagine a turbocharged workout routine that mixes cardio and strength training and has you in and out of the gym in 30 minutes. Plus, it’s infinitely and easily customized to help you reach your goals faster. Sound too good to be true? It’s not! It’s called circuit training…”
Circuit Training – Exercises Ideas – YouTube
Save Time and Get Stronger With Single-Set Training Tom Kelso
Tom Kelso Coach Strength and Conditioningbreakingmuscle.com
“..9 Ways to Get the Most Out of Single-Set Strength Training…
How Can You Get Big & Strong With Only One Set Per Exercise …
Bodybuilding Workout For Beginners: Arms & Chest – YouTube
What Is a Super Set in Bodybuilding? : Great Exercise Tips – YouTube
Bodybuilding Workouts – Compound Sets For Legs – YouTube
Resistance Training Models
Macrocycles, Mesocycles and Microcycles: Understanding the 3 Cycles of Periodization
April 11, 2017 By Tyrone Holmes trainingpeaks.com
“…Periodization is the process of dividing an annual training plan into specific time blocks, where each block has a particular goal and provides your body with different types of stress. This allows you to create some hard training periods and some easier periods to facilitate recovery. Periodization also helps you develop different physiological abilities during various phases of training. For instance, during base training you focus on the development of aerobic and muscular endurance. During the intensity phase, this focus switches to lactate threshold and aerobic capacity (i.e., VO2 max), and as you enter the competition phase, greater emphasis is placed on boosting anaerobic capacity and neuromuscular power…”
Periodization and the Adult Client April Merritt by April Merritt on December 13, 2010 .acefitness.org
“..is is done through the use of micro (small) cycles, combined to form meso (intermediate size) cycles, which combine to form macro (biggest) cycles…
Periodization has two primary styles – linear and undulating.
Linear periodization is what we sometimes consider a more traditional resistance training program with gradually progressive increases. Within each micro cycle the training protocols are consistent, and then after each micro cycle the training variables are adjusted. Linear programs tend to be fairly rigid in their design. ..
Undulating periodization provides different training protocols during the micro cycles, in addition to changing the training variables after each micro cycle. Undulating programs tend to be less rigid in their design. :…”
Macrocycle, Mesocycle, and Microcycle – YouTube
Practical Application of the ACE IFT Model—Phases 3 and 4: Load and Performance Training Makeba Edwards by Makeba Edwards on February 01, 2017 acefitness.org
Phase 3 : Load Training
The Scientific Differences Between Weightlifting and Powerlifting Dresdin Archibald Coach breakingmuscle.com
“…At first glance, the most obvious difference is between the competition lifts. Weightlifting uses the snatch and the clean and jerk, both overhead movements. Powerlifting uses the squat, bench press, and deadlift, none of which is directed vertically overhead. (If only the media and public could grasp this.)..”
What is the Difference Between Powerlifting and Weightlifting? – N&P …
Phase 4: Performance Training
*see Fitness: Various Plyometric Training Exercises goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
30 Essential Pieces of Equipment for the Successful Personal Training Studio by Ryan Halvorson on Jul 01, 2012 ideafit.com
“…What equipment would you include in your dream studio?
You certainly have plenty of choices. The fitness equipment industry sold $4.3 billion worth of gear in 2010—a 4.1% increase from 2009—according to the Sporting Goods Manufacturers Association. While a substantial chunk of that revenue came from high-dollar devices like treadmills and elliptical trainers, a vast variety of specialized pieces of exercise equipment have also made their mark on the fitness industry.
Which ones add the most challenge and variety to customer workouts? ..”
The Life Fitness Insignia Series Selectorized Strength … – YouTube
Selectorized Strength Equipment lifefitness.com
Life Fitness selectorized strength machines are designed with a focus on both durability and sound biomechanics to ensure that they provide reliable performance for facilities and effective results for exercisers who are new to strength equipment as well as workout veterans…”,/i>
What is Selectorized Weight Training?
Published on March 20, 2006 in Exercise Equipment Advice healthstylesexercise.com
How to Use a Cable Pulley Machine, Gym Basics, Fit How To – YouTube
Cable Machines, Cable Weight Lifting Machines For Sale – Gym Direct gymdirect.com.au
Cable Machines-Benefits and Advantages fitnesshealthzone.com
Machines Vs. Free Weights – Which Builds More Muscle? – YouTube
Exercise Equipment : How to Use Free Weights – YouTube
Fitness Town Video Fit-Tip: The Benefits of Kettlebell Training – YouTube
Top 6 Medicine Ball Exercises – YouTube
The benefits of a resistance band – why you must have one … – YouTube
8 Best Bodyweight Exercises Ever (HIT EVERY MUSCLE!) – YouTube
more….Health & Fitness: Trying to lose weight? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
& Medical: How to “stop” an Irregular Heart Beat? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
& Health: How to “fight” Diabetes? & Medical: How the Lungs (respiratory system) Function?
How to handle injuries?
Is R.I.C.E. All Wrong?
by Jim Thornton9 months ago life.spartan.com
“…It’s the most famous acronym in sports medicine, a household term as familiar to athletes as the physicians who treat them: RICE, for rest, ice, compression, and elevation…
As for why keeping injured tissues moving works better than immobilizing them, the exact mechanisms await further research. “We don’t understand everything about this yet,” Reinl concedes, “but we do know that stillness is the enemy. If you remain still, everything shrinks and atrophies—your muscles, bones, ligaments, everything.”…
So if RICE is no longer the answer, what’s a better strategy for expediting your return to the field of play? Reinl, for his part, believes the answer lies in a new acronym: ARITA—active recovery is the answer.
There are exceptions, of course—you may have no choice but to immobilize a limb, say, with a compound fracture. But for most garden-variety sports injuries, Reinl suggests resisting the urge to ice away your pain and plop down on the couch for days. Instead, let your pain level be your guide and keep on moving as much or as little as your mending body allows….”
RICE is Dead | Injury and Daily Recovery Tips – YouTube
Fitness record-keeping: not just a waste of trees
Published: 05-Nov-2014 Updated: 10-Nov-2015 fitness.org.au
“…By way of a general guide, records should at least cover the following:
Initial assessment (most of these should be captured on a Client Information form):
client details (such as name and address of the client and details of GP);
relevant medical history including medications administered and diagnostic results;
previously injured her knee and wishes to regain fitness;
the assessment undertaken and findings, both positive and negative; and
the fitness plan and estimated cost.
the date of each training session;
the client’s response to the last session and update on medical history e.g. any intervening incidents;
information and advice provided to the client, particularly in relation to warnings as to relevant potential adverse outcomes, and the client’s consent to training;
any new assessment undertaken and the findings;
It is important that your clinical records are just that – clinical. Do not record personal or offensive comments about the client – as a rule of thumb, if you would not say it to their face, do not write it down. A personal or offensive comment will, at the very least, be embarrassing to you if the records are required to be produced in response to a complaint and may well adversely affect the outcome of that complaint.
What does it take to be a good personal trainer? – YouTube
How To Spot A Bad Personal Trainer / Coach
Medical: Parts of the Muscular System Medical: What are parts of the Skeletal System?, & Fitness: Physiology of Exercise goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
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