Major Muscle Groups and Associated Exercises
*see Medical: Parts of the Muscular System goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
Obey the Law! The Laws of Motion, That Is. April Merritt // 4/19/2010 acefitness.org
“…Newton’s first law, the law of inertia, states that a body at rest will stay at rest and a body in motion will stay in motion unless acted on by an outside force. Law one also states that a body’s inertia is proportional to its mass (a heavier object is harder to get moving than a lighter object). So how does this relate to the fitness professional? Weight lifting! Starting a bicep curl with a 15 pound weight is going to be harder than starting a bicep curl with a 2 pound weight…
Newton’s second law, the law of acceleration, states that a force acting on a body in a given direction is equal to the body’s mass multiplied by the body’s acceleration in that direction. (Force = mass x acceleration) How can we apply that to fitness? With soccer, the more force you exert during a kick, the faster the acceleration of the ball. This means when the ball leaves your foot, it is going to travel faster and farther. A dainty kick (little force) means less acceleration. An ‘I mean business’ kick (more force) will mean greater acceleration. In this case the mass, the soccer ball, remains the same in both examples…
in terms of weight training. If you ‘cheat’ by initiating a lifting movement with momentum from a body part other than the one you are focusing on, the momentum of the moving weight may be greater than the muscle’s ability to decelerate and stop it. ..
..Finally, Newton’s third law is commonly referred to as the law of reaction – every applied force is accompanied by an equal and opposite reaction force. Say it with me ‘every action has an equal and opposite reaction’. With fitness we talk about this in regards to impact forces when jogging, doing plyometrics, or step class. Step training remains popular even though the magnitude of the ground-reaction forces associated with each step place the student as risk for a variety of overuse injury. Using a ten inch step is going to result in greater impact forces than using a 2 inch step. When we ‘land’ we exert a force on the ground…”
*see Fitness: “Safety” & Best Tips (Properly) When Running, Jogging, and/or Walking Outdoors
What is Multi-planar Movement e4lacademy.com
“..Three primary planes of motion in which the body can move:
•Sagittal = Forwards and Backwards
•Frontal = Side to Side
•Transversal = Rotationally
Exercises and movement in general, can then be classed as multi-planar if they occur through 2 or more planes of motion…”
Multiplanar Exercise by BETHANY KOCHAN Last Updated: Sep 11, 2017 livestrong.com
“Your body does not move in just one direction. You can move forward, back, side to side and even rotate. Sometimes you perform these motions at the same time at different joints of your body. These movements happen in different planes of motion and are called mulitplanar. You can incorporate multiplanar exercises into your workouts as a way to enhance movement, fitness and performance…”
What is Pronation and Supination of the Forearm?, from youtube.com
Muscle Contraction Types
Published on Dec 13, 2013
An animated description of isotonic, isometric, and isokinetic muscle contractions.
Visit http://www.orthofilms.com for more videos and info. “
The Muscular System Explained In 6 Minutes
Kinesiology: The Study of Human Motion hawaiianshirtray.com
Biomechanics is the study of movement involved in strength exercise or in the execution of a sport skill. Biomechanics focuses on the physical factors with movement by applying scientific laws. With these applications, it looks at what takes place during an exercise and the role that each key joint and muscle plays. The scenic laws incorporate such physical factors as speed, mass, acceleration, levers, and force of the particular movement. Biomechanics explains the “why” of a movement and “how” the movement can be improved through science-based modifications.
Together, kinesiology and biomechanics can help you determine what exercises are appropriate, how to create a workout plan, the effectiveness of your execution of the exercise, and how safe they are for the sports that you participate in. Biomechanics is the execution of doing an exercise most effectively, while kinesiology tells which muscles are involved in the particular actions…”
The Three Types of Muscle Contractions
There are three types of muscle contractions: 1) Concentric Contraction, 2) Eccentric Contraction, and 3) Isometric Contraction. Lets take a look at each.
The Three Types of Muscle Contractions
1) Concentric Contraction: In a concentric contraction the muscles shorten to produce movement. Motion takes place by the muscle contracting and overcoming a resistance which sets the resistance in motion. The typical way it is measured is by the amount of weight that can be overcome in one repetition. An example of a concentric movement is doing a bicep curl with a weight. The upward motion is the concentric muscle action.
2) Eccentric Contraction: In an eccentric contraction the muscle lengthens as it contracts. The eccentric contraction plays the important role of controlling and stopping movement and prepares the muscle for an explosive type of contraction. An eccentric contraction can generate up to 50 percent greater tension than the concentric contraction. An example of a concentric movement is doing a bicep curl with a weight. The downward motion is the concentric muscle action.
3) Isometric Contraction: In an isometric contraction there is strength exhibited but no movement of the limb. The muscle does develop tension and some contraction of the fibers and tendons, but there is no movement. Isometric contractions play a large roll in the stabilization in the joints of our body. Two examples of an isometric contraction are: 1) Doing a bicep curl but just holding the weight with your elbow bent at 90 degrees (there is no movement), and 2) Doing a standing overhead press. Your back and oblique muscles tighten up to stabilize your body while performing the exercise. Although the muscles used in isometric contractions and stabilization can become pretty well developed, it it not as effective as a concentric contraction in developing muscle mass and strength.
7 Isometric Exercises for a Full-Body Workout active.com
“…It’s called isometrics. In these exercises, your muscles tense up, but don’t actually move. Say what? Imagine pressing your hands together in a prayer position as hard as you can for 10 seconds. You’ll feel tension in your chest and arms, yet your arms didn’t move at all. There—you just did an isometric exercise. Holding a plank is another example you’re likely familiar with. And if you’ve ever taken a barre class, you know how hard it can be to simply hold still while your muscles are contracted.
In positions like these, the muscle fibers are activated but since there are equal forces against each other, there is no movement. (Compare this to picking up a 20-pound dumbbell to do biceps curls—the force of the weight pushing down is less than the force you are using to lift the weight up.)
With isometrics, you can take a break from jumping on boxes, lifting heavy weights, or doing endless crunches (your lower back will thank you). And the best part? Isometric exercises have been found to help take off inches around your waist, increase overall strength, and even decrease high blood pressure. ..”
This Happens to Your Stomach Fat When You Plank – 6 Good Reasons Why You Should Do Plank Daily
Isotonic & Isometric Contractions
Biomechanics of Resistance Exercise – ppt video online download slideplayer.com
12:06-Pennation Muscle fibers
Shapes of Skeletal Muscle teachpe.com
What are the different shapes of muscle? There are 5 different muscle shapes within the human body:
How Skeletal Muscles Are Named – Boundless boundless.com
“..The anatomical arrangement of skeletal muscle fascicles can be described as parallel, convergent, pennate, or sphincter…”
Prime mover, Synergist, Antagonistic muscles.wmv
Anatomical Kinesiology Flashcards flashcardmachine.com
Kinesiology Test 1 Flashcards | Quizlet quizlet.com
F]Biomechanics of Skeletal Muscle – LWW.com (pdf) downloads.lww.com
“.. a muscle with a large pennation angle will contract more slowly than a similar muscle with a smaller pennation angle…”
Pennate muscle sciencedirect.com
“..Pennate muscles can be further subdivided into unipennate (e.g. flexor pollicis longus), bipennate (e.g. rectus femoris, dorsal interossei), multipennate (e.g. deltoid), and circumpennate or cylindrical (e.g. tibialis anterior)…”
Muscle fiber arrangement
“Pennate and Fusiform muscle fibre arrangements”
Fusiform muscle biology-online.org
“..A muscle that has a shape of spindle, which is being wider in the middle and narrowing towards both ends. ..” high contraction, less force compared to pennate (low contraction, high force)
Muscle Shapes: Function Follows Form (corewalking.com)
The Muscular System: Micro and Macro Anatomy www2.highlands.edu
Three Types of Muscle
Muscle Twitch, Wave Summation & Muscle Tension study.com/
Muscle fiber arrangement, PCSA, ACSA
*pennate good for strength , fusiform good for speed
“..Static Balance: it is the ability to maintain the body in some fixed posture.  Static balance is the ability to maintain postural stability and orientation with centre of mass over the base of support and body at rest. ..”
Kinetic Chain Movement
Recommended balance training programs for older adults humankinetics.com
“…suggests balance training at least 3 days a week for inactive and active older adults (\gte\65 yr). In a position statement on exercise for older adults (Chodzko-Zajko et al. 2009), the ACSM also recommended that older adults engage in balance activities at least two times week. Recently, the ACSM expanded its position statement to include not only balance but additional neuromotor skills – agility, gait, coordination, and proprioception (Garber et al. 2011). Neuromotor exercise training is specifically recommended for older adults who have poor mobility or who are at risk for falling. The ACSM (2014) recommends performing neuromotor exercises involving balance, agility, coordination, and gait at least 2 to 3 days/wk. Although the optimal duration and number of repetitions of these exercises is not known at this time, 20 to 30 min of neuromotor exercise per day is suggested…
What types of physical activities may be used to improve balance?
Given that balance performance is affected by muscle strength, power, and flexibility, resistance training and stretching programs may be useful for maintaining and improving balance. In addition to increasing strength and range of motion, Pilates, yoga, tai chi, dance, walking, and combinations of exercise modes may be suitable activities for improving balance. Balance discs, foam pads and rollers, balance boards, stability balls, and computerized balance training systems are tools that may add variety and challenge to balance training programs…”
Chapter 9 Lecture Part 2 Hip Structure and Kinematics
What is FAI? Learn the truth about femoral acetabular impingement.
The Gait Cycle: A Breakdown of each Component
Muscles in the Anterior Compartment of the Leg – TeachMeAnatomy teachmeanatomy.info
Muscles in the Posterior Compartment of the Leg teachmeanatomy.info
..the remaining three muscles (tibialis posterior, flexor hallucis longus and flexor digitorum longus) act on the ankle and foot….
=>Lateral Leg Muscles: Evertors
Over Pronation & Supination Motion Biomechanics of the Subtalar Joint Explained
Good News Fitness
Shoulder girdle muscles sportsinjuryclinic.net
Shoulder girdle consists of the clavicle (collar bone) and the scapula (shoulder blade) which generally move together as a unit. Only the clavicle connects directly to the rest of the skeleton at the sternum bone. It is really only the scapula which moves from action of the muscles. The muscles of the shoulder girdle are serratus anterior, pectoralis minor, levator scapulae, rhomboids and trapezius….”
Anatomy of the Shoulder (Glenohumeral joint/scapulo-thoracic joint) myvmc.com
“..An introduction to the anatomy of the shoulder
The shoulder girdle is mainly made up of the true shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) and the joint between the shoulder blade and the chest (scapulothoracic joint). When we move our arm around, movement occurs at both of these joints, with most (two thirds) occurring at the shoulder joint. The shoulder is basically like a ball and socket. The “ball” is the head of the humerus and the “socket” is theglenoid part of the shoulder blade (scapula).The anatomy of the shoulder is unique – it has a relatively shallow socket which results in amazing flexibility and range of motion to the shoulder joint which is unparalleled elsewhere in the body. In order to achieve this flexibility but maintain a stable shoulder, there is a complex interplay between the joints, muscles and ligaments. Injury to any one of these structures can therefore result in significant ongoing pain, weakness, or instability…”
Rotation & Lateral Bending of Thoracic Spine – Prone Position
*see Fitness: How to reverse common Abnormal Postures? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
5 Reasons to Incorporate Unilateral Strength TrainingBy Jen Weir, CSCS, CPT, Published Jan. 27, 2016 running.competitor.com
“..Unilateral exercises are an integral part of rehabilitation programs—they offer one of the most effective ways to retrain muscle groups and get your body working the way it was meant to. The thing is you don’t have to be broken to take advantage of this type of training. Aside from its ability to guard against injury and improve your overall running performance, there are five more reasons you should definitely consider incorporating unilateral training into your workout routine…..”
Unilateral vs Bilateral Movements
*see Medical: How to “get rid” of back pain? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
Core Stability: Does It Matter? – Prof. Chaudhari
Posterior Pelvic Tilt (a.k.a. “Butt Wink”) & Inadequate Forward Lean Breakdown
Flat Back Syndrome spinemd.com
Training for the deep muscles of the core dianelee.ca
Location, Function & Dysfunction
Multifidus is a deep muscle located along the back of the spine very close to the midline. The deep fibers are short and span single vertebral segments. This muscle functions together with transversus abdominis & pelvic floor muscles to stabilize the low back and pelvis BEFORE movement of the arms and/or legs occurs. “Intention” or imagery is also used to retrain its function. Low back pain causes a delay or absence in the anticipatory contraction of multifidus. If this muscle contraction delay/absence is not corrected, this dysfunction will remain even after an individual’s pain has subsided increasing the incidence of re-injury. This is a vital part of core training since you cannot strengthen muscle that your nervous system isn’t using. Like transversus abdominis, training comes before strengthening…”
*see Fitness: Morning Routine-Different types of Sit-Ups-Crunches goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
*see Tips for Energy during “Hot” Summer Activities goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
*see Fitness: Physiology of Exercise goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
Musculoskeletal Injuries: Symptoms, Causes & Treatments centralstreetchiropractic.com
“..Musculoskeletal Injuries also known as Musculoskeletal Disorders are soft tissue injuries caused by sudden impact, force, vibration, and unbalanced positions. They can influence the muscles; nerves; ligaments; joints; blood vessels, neck, and lower back.
Types of MSD
There are several musculoskeletal injuries that people suffer from, such as:
Carpal tunnel syndrome
Muscle / Tendon strain
Tension Neck Syndrome
Thoracic Outlet Compression
Radial Tunnel Syndrome
Degenerative Disc Disease
Herniated Disc and many more…”
Sports Injuries niams.nih.gov
Points To Remember About Sports Injuries
There are two kinds of sports injuries. Acute injuries happen suddenly, such as sprained ankles. Chronic injuries happen after you play a sport or exercise over a long period of time.
Sports injuries are first treated with R-I-C-E: Rest, Ice, Compression (pressure on the injury), and Elevation (raise the injured area above the heart).
Doctors will treat more serious injuries with medications, by limiting movement, or by recommending surgery, physical therapy, and rest.
You can prevent many kinds of sports injuries by following safe exercise habits.
Musculoskeletal Injuries – YouTube
Lateral Epicondylitis musculoskeletalsurgerycenter.com
“..is pain at the elbow. The pain occurs over the bone on the outside of the elbow. There are several muscles and tendons that attach on this area of the bone.
This condition is often called tennis elbow, but it is not restricted to people who play tennis. It can also occur in people with jobs that require repetitive motions such as roofers and carpenters…”
Iliotibial Band Syndrome: Location, Location, Location! updated Apr 15, 2017 (first published 2010)
by Paul Ingraham, Vancouver, Canada bio .painscience.com
“..It’s a chronic point of confusion about iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) — where exactly does it hurt? Many professionals incorrectly diagnose hip and thigh pain as ITBS. There is no such thing as non-knee ITBS. By definition,1 ITBS occurs only on the side of the knee. More specifically:..”
Hernia: Causes, Treatment, and Prevention – Healthline healthline.com
“… What is a hernia?
A hernia occurs when an organ pushes through an opening in the muscle or tissue that holds it in place. For example, the intestines may break through a weakened area in the abdominal wall.
Hernias are most common in the abdomen, but they can also appear in the upper thigh, belly button, and groin areas. Most hernias aren’t immediately life-threatening, but they don’t go away on their own. Sometimes they can require surgery to prevent potentially dangerous complications…”
Home Remedies for Hernia – Symptoms, Causes, Treatment & Diet
Manual Therapy & The Personal Trainer’s Scope of Practice drjohnrusin.com
FORCE Lab at Therapeutic Associates Bend Physical Therapy …
What is cross training? – YouTube
CROSSFIT – Pros and Cons (You Decide!)
“…refers to the movement of joint surfaces.
The angular movement of bones in the human body occurs as a result of a combination of rolls, spins, and slides. ..”
Exercise Library | Functional Movement Systems functionalmovement.com
Concept of Gait Cycle Explained. by Sunit Sanjay Ekka 1 year ago physiocapsule.com
What is gait cycle?
Gait is synonymous to human ambulation. Let us start our discussion with an animation of a young girl walking.
Analysis of ambulation/ gait is done through analysing the gait cycle. Gait cycle is subdivided into phases. When we walk, these phases repeat itself in a cycle and this is why it is called as gait cycle…”
Length/Tension Relationship in Muscles – YouTube
Force Couple Relationships
What is a Muscle Force Couple?
Pelvic Orientation and Core Stability – Kinetic U Instructor … – YouTube
What is RECIPROCAL INHIBITION? What does … – YouTube
(opposites: hamstrings quadraceps & biceps triceps)
Stability & Mobility
Practical Application of the ACE IFT Model—Phase 1: Stability and Mobility Training Makeba Edwards by Makeba Edwards on February 27, 2017 acefitness.org
‘..When using the ACE IFT Model, first address proximal (toward the center of the body) stability via the lumbar spine/core before progressing to the distal (away from the center of the body) extremities or distal joints. Establishing proper core function (i.e., proximal stability) will allow for stable, central muscles that perform their given functions without compromising the actions of the distal joints. Clients can progress through the sequence shown in the figure below when an improvement in function is seen in the different segments. ..”
Stability and Mobility April Merritt by April Merritt on January 31, 2011 acefitness.org
“..We start with the lumbar spine…Move up/down to the pelvis and thoracic spine…Move out towards the shoulder joint…Move down towards the arms/fingers and legs/feet…
Lumbar spine needs to be stable, remember how we talk to people about ‘move as a log’ and ‘don’t bend in your low back’ etc.
Pelvis needs to be mobile – There is a lot of attachments and action happening there, we want this joint to move freely
Thoracic spine needs to be mobile – consider that you’ve got shoulder attachments, clavicle, ribs etc. attaching into this area, and think about all the movement that comes from our upper back/shoulder/chest area. This is thoracic mobility; it’s also a big component in developing and maintaining good posture.
Scapulothoracic joint needs to be stable – this is where the scapula attaches to the thorax, it isn’t a joint so much as a spot where the two meet, but if it is stable then it means our scapula don’t wing out and they work properly
Glenohumeral needs to be mobile – this is the connection between your shoulder and your arm. Think about all the things this joint has to do, then think about frozen shoulder syndrome…where people can’t move their arm around because of restrictions in the tissues there (including muscle tightness)
Moving out to the distal extremities there are varying degrees of mobility and stability based on which joint you are dealing with – because it is so varied, we don’t go in depth here.
Begin Training With This 4-Phase Program stack.com
Phase 1: Mobility & Stability
Phase 2: Strength
Phase 3: Power
Phase 4: Rest and Recovery..
*see Fitness: Medical-Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com
The Relationship between Posture, Stability, and Mobility ptonthenet.com
Exercises to Improve Dynamic & Static Balance : Fitness Training Techniques
-Proximal Stability of the Shoulders
Open vs. closed kinetic chain exercises healthline.com
In open kinetic chain exercises, the segment furthest away from the body — known as the distal aspect, usually the hand or foot — is free and not fixed to an object.
In a closed chain exercise, it is fixed, or stationary.
Open chain serratus anterior – YouTube
Closed chain shoulder ROM exercise – YouTube
Closed Chain versus Open Chain?
Difference Between Open Chain & Closed Chain Exercises
*open chain (overcome resistance) & closed chain (fixed )
Lifting Lighter Weights Can Be Just as Effective as Heavy Ones By Gretchen Reynolds July 20, 2016 5:30 am well.blogs.nytimes.com
“..study finds that people who lift relatively light weights can build just as much strength and muscle size as those who grunt through sessions using much heftier weights — if they plan their workouts correctly. …
The results were unequivocal. There were no significant differences between the two groups. All of the men had gained muscle strength and size, and these gains were almost identical, whether they had lifted heavy or light weights. ..
How Lifting Light Weights Can Build Muscle – YouTube
Training Movements, Not Muscles Pete McCall by Pete McCall on November 14, 2013 acefitness.org
“..Walking, or the gait cycle, is a series of coordinated movements. The foundational patterns that comprise the gait cycle are: 1. Squatting (when both feet are on the ground) 2. Lunging (as one leg is planted and the other leg is swinging) 3. Pushing (as one arm swings forward) 4. Pulling (as the other arm swings backwards) 5. Rotating (when the trunk and pelvis counter rotate during leg and arm movement). Following a movement-based exercise program based on these patterns means that you are using all of your muscles at the same time, which can be more effective for burning calories while also training the body for how it is designed to move. A second benefit of this approach is that you can do most of the exercises with little to no equipment, making it a perfect option if you want to exercise at home and avoid expensive gym fees. Let’s face it, sitting on an exercise machine using only one part of the body can be a bit boring, but challenging yourself to learn how to flawlessly execute complicated movement patterns makes exercise much more fun and engaging…”
5 Essential Primal Movements for Your Workout Program – YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VexzP8X2MI4
1-Bend & Lift (e.g. squat)
Functional Training Basics: Bend & Lift – YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=M0EEkQUPIGo
a. Hip Hinge – YouTube
b. lower extremity alignment seated with ball between legs thighs
(1) Exercise #431 – Inner Thigh Squeeze (seated with ball between knee … https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n9cmI4iVFm0
(2) Squeeze in Leg Exercises while Sitting in a Chair – YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FvCLUUlXJH8
c. figure 4 position (pp. 309 ACE Fitness 5th Edition)
(1) Figure-4 Squat – YouTube
(2) Dowel Deep Squat – YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=40IJ3yDu3Qs
2-Single-Leg Movement Patterns
a. Kneeling to Standing Lunge – YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xg-gu0_gSWs
b. Single Leg Lunges – YouTube
c. Lunge Matrix (LM) for Runners – YouTube
Lunge Matrix – YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DqW4dlQX61w
Lunge Matrix – YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9HwWKRVq0F0
3. Pushing Movements
EMS Exercises On The Go: Pushing Movements – YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zaCyQ852yAo
Machine Pushing Movements – YouTube
a 1. Bilateral Presses Standing Bilateral Cable Push – YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yajc4mjMVsM
a 2. Unilateral Presses
Unilateral Cable Press – YouTube
KINE 4305 bilateral and unilateral cable chest press … – YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sS41swGgJH4
Unilateral Vs. Bilateral Exercises
Unilateral vs Bilateral Movements
a. 3. Contralateral Single Arm Press in Split Stance without … – YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GQks9c5_asI
a. 4. Ipsilateral Single Arm Row in Split Stance with Rotation – YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e6Lr88niqXI
b. Thoracic Matrix (pp. 316) Thoracic Spine Matrix – YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k9tVpZb_nec
Thoracic Matrix In-Sync matrix – YouTube
SINGLE ARM ROW IN STRIDE STANDING WITH RESISTANCE BAND https://youtu.be/iwbD830jSjg
Thoracic Spine Type 1 Walkthrough – YouTube
4. Pulling Movements
a Cable Pulling and Breathing Mechanics Explained – YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5o3BEc_Vnvo
b. Seated Cable Rows – Back Exercise – Bodybuilding.com – YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IzoCF_b3cIY
c Single Leg contralateral cable row – YouTube
Standing Unilateral Cable Row – YouTube
5. Rotational Movements
Anatomy Trains – Dynamic Education for Body-Minded Professionals anatomytrains.com
1. Introduction to Anatomy Trains – YouTube
Functional Anatomy—Myofascial Slings – YouTube
Myofascial Slings Introduction – YouTube
Myofascial Sling Training – YouTube
PTA Global: Exercises for Rotation – Spiral Lines – YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g29ORE0Zj1s
2. Two Key Movements: Diagonal or Spiral Patterns
Wood Choppers – Core Workout – Fully Fit by Runner’s … – YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FA3S8CrSOTw
How To Do A Dumbbell Woodchop: Exercise For The Core – YouTube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tH8ZeVgupYY
Wood Chop with Hip Rotation – YouTube
b. Hay Balers
Hay Baler 1-arm Rotational Punch – YouTube
Hay Bailer exercise (Beginner) – YouTube
ACE Integrated Fitness Training (IFT) Model for Functional Movement and Resistance Training: Phases 3 and 4 BY PETE McCALL, M.S. acefitness.org
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