How far can you go?

Human Anatomy Fundamentals: Flexibility and Joint Limitations
by Joumana Medlej6 Mar 2014
“.. Some people who are exceptionally flexible, or double-jointed, or have undergone intensive flexibility training from a young age, and they can move beyond the range shown here. This in no way means it’s OK to ignore flexibility rules, as we all instinctively know what’s “normal” for a body and what’s exceptional. If you draw someone with limbs at an impossible angle, outside of a context that would allow suspension of disbelief (circus, gymnastics, the Exorcist), you risk coming across as a poor artist.

The Three Types of Flexibility

For drawing purposes, we need only be concerned with three kinds: passive, active and dynamic….

Range of Movement For Each Joint

Here are the joints discussed below:..”

Goniometry for the Upper Extremity, Part 1

Upper Limb: Range of Motion – Anatomy | Medical Education Videos

Lower Limb: Range of Motion – Anatomy | Medical Education Videos


*see Fitness: Physiology of Exercise

Practical Application of Functional Assessments: Flexibility Assessments Jessie Newell by Jessie Newell on September 04, 2015

Flexibility and Functional Assessments

*see Fitness: How to reverse common Abnormal Postures?

8. Assessment – Passive Straight Leg Raise (SLR) Test – YouTube

*see Fitness: Various Exercises for the Hip

Thomas Test – YouTube

*see Fitness: Upper Body Workouts-Shoulders

ROM Testing for Shoulder Flexion and Extension – YouTube

Shoulder internal/external rotation test – YouTube

Apley Scratch Test of External Rotation and Internal Rotation (Full …


The Physiology of Flexibility
“..3. Connective Tissue
Deep connective tissue such as fascia and tendons can limit ROM. In particular, two characteristics of connective tissue, elasticityand plasticity are related to ROM. Elasticity is defined as the ability to return to the original resting length after a passive stretch (5). Plasticity can be defined as the tendency to assume a new and greater length after a passive stretch (5)…

5. Proprioceptors
The capacity of the neuromuscular system to inhibit the antagonists (those muscles being stretched) influences flexibility (9).

There are two important proprioceptors involved in the mechanics of stretching and flexibility. The first is the muscle spindles. Located within the muscle fibres they monitor changes in muscle length. The stretch reflex is the bodys involuntary response to an external stimulus that stretches the muscle (5) and causes a reflexive increase in muscular activity. It is the muscle spindles that activate this response.

When stretching, it is best to avoid this activating the muscle spindles and the stretch-reflex response, as it will limit motion.

Static stretching does not elicit the muscle spindles, allowing muscles to relax and achieve a greater stretch.

The other important proprioceptors are the golgi tendon organs (GTO). These are located near to the musculotendinous junctions and are sensitive to increase in muscle tension. When the GTO is stimulated it causes a reflexive relaxation in the muscle. When this relaxation occurs in the same muscle that is being stretched, it is referred to as autogenic inhibition and can facilitate the stretch (8).

Autogenic inhibition can be induced by contracting a muscle immediately before it is passively stretched a technique used in .

Reciprocal inhibition occurs when the GTO is stimulated in the muscle opposite to that being stretched (i.e. so the opposing muscle relaxes) (8). This can be achieved by simultaneously contracting the opposing muscle group to the one being passively stretched…

Types of Stretching and Proprioceptors – YouTube

Warm-ups Before

Fitness: Warm-up Stretches while Standing Up

Warmup & Stretching
“..To stay safe and get the most out of your workout you must always include a pre-workout warm-up before you begin and then finish with a cool down to get your body back into gear.
The difference between warm-ups and stretching

During a workout we can all go from zero to hero and push hard but the safe way to train is to bring the body’s temperature up slowly and loosen up the muscles before we get to do anything serious. That’s what warm-ups are designed to do. Stretching, on the other hand, is done in order to improve overall flexibility. Once muscles have worked they are at their most compliant state and they let us stretch further than we normally would gaining more ground while we are at it…”

How to Warmup Before Stretches by RACHEL NALL Last Updated: Sep 11, 2017

Jogging is not the only activity you can perform to warm up. Instead, substitute the aerobic activity of your choice — such as cycling, playing tennis, jumping rope or dancing — for jogging. Work to achieve the same 40 to 60 percent of your target heart rate while warming up.


Stretching without a warmup increases your risk of sprains and strains.


The Safest Way to Warm Up Before a Workout is Dynamic Stretching – Here’s a Basic Routine

The Best Pre-Workout Stretching Warm Up Routine. Burn 20% more Calories


What Is the Major Difference Between Static & Dynamic Stretching? by Fitzalan Gorman
Static Stretching Basics

When you hold a stretch for an extended period, then you are performing a static stretch. Static stretching neither improves nor enhances muscular performance when done before a workout, according to an article published in the “Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research” in 2005, so save this stretching for a time when it actually does help your body: during your cool-down or an off day.
Dynamic Stretching Basics

Dynamic stretching is an active stretching routine that has you slowly moving through motions to increase your heart rate, raise your body temperature and send extra blood to your muscles. This prepares them for exercise by increasing your range of motion. This is especially true if you are about to do a workout that requires lots of lower-extremity muscular power. A study published in the “Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research” in 2008 showed that dynamic stretching significantly increased peak knee power compared to static stretching.

What Is the Major Difference Between Static & Dynamic Stretching? : Getting in Shape


-Post Workout

12 Post-Workout Static Stretches By Arnav Sakar • For
“..Regular stretching helps improve flexibility, increases range of motion, and reduces the risk of injury caused by lesions of the connective tissue. Plus, stretching is great for stress relief. So after your workout, take a few minutes to rid the lactic acid and stretch. Try these 12 static stretches that will keep your body healthy and performing strong. ..”
Flexibility Exercises | Full Body Static Stretches – Spotebi

“..Stretch your entire body with this set of flexibility exercises. A 10-minute static stretching routine to improve your joint range of motion and stretch your muscles, …”
*includes picture-diagram

15 Min Static Stretching Exercises for Beginners – Cool Down Exercises after Workout – Stretches

“…Unlock rewards and help keep HASfit free by donating now – Visit… for the 15 Min Static Stretching Exercises for Beginners – Cool Down Exercises after Workout – Stretches instructions..”

-Pre-Workout Stretches

Total Body Stretching Warm-Up

Fitness: Morning Routine Sample Exercises (situps/crunches/push-ups/stretches) w/HealthFitnessLifeGuy

Fitness: Morning Routine-Different types of Sit-Ups-Crunches & Fitness: Morning Routine-Different types of Push-Ups

=Track & Field
How Active & Passive Stretching Affect Muscle Tissue

*includes dynamic at the end

Dynamic Stretches

Try This Full-Body Dynamic Warm-Up to Prep for Any Workout
“Around 10 years ago, dynamic warm-ups started gaining popularity in the sports world as an effective method for athletes to prep before an event. Today, dynamic warm-ups are a standard routine for athletes ranging from amateurs to professionals.

In this article, you’ll learn why a dynamic warm-up is so effective, and we’ll cover a specific full body routine you can use before you exercise—whether you’re about to play a sport or hit the weights. Check out the video below for demonstrations of each move!..”
12 Crucial Dynamic Warm-up Exercises to Do Before Your Workout by: Yuri Elkaim
“..Why Is It Important to Warm-up Before Exercise?

Unless you want to increase your risk of injury and reduce your performance, a good warm-up is critical. A good dynamic warm-up increases range of movement and blood and oxygen flow to your muscles, tendons, and ligaments before they’re called upon to do serious workout.

When I worked as the strength coach for the men’s soccer team at the University of Toronto, I had the importance of dynamic warm-up exercises drilled in to our players’ heads. Every practice and game we had a solid 10 to 15-minute dynamic warm-up and it made a huge difference in preventing injuries and increasing their performance…”

*includes diagram -pictures
21 Dynamic Stretching Warm Up Exercises

“.. There is a lot of debate about whether or not you should stretch before your workout. And while I don’t recommend static stretches, dynamic stretches are a great way to warm up and get your body ready for an intense workout. Dynamic stretches loosen everything up, improve your mobility and get your blood pumping. Make sure to use stretches that focus on the muscles you plan to work! 21 Dynamic Stretching Warm Up Exercises 1.Downward Dog to Runner’s Lunge (1:07) 2.Inchworm (1:21) 3.Dynamic Squat Stretch (1:36) 4.Crescent to Hamstring Stretch (1:48) 5.Half Kneeling Hip to Hamstring Stretch (1:56) 6.World’s Greatest Stretch (2:05) 7.Half Kneeling Thoracic Rotation (2:18) 8.Kneeling Thoracic Rotations (2:29) 9.Wringing out the Towel (2:39) 10.Child’s Pose with Reaches (2:53) 11.Side to Side Lunge with Reach (3:01) 12.Standing Calf and Hamstring Stretch (3:12) 13.Pigeon Pose with Circles (3:25) 14.Hamstring and Thoracic Rotation (3:35) 15.Squat Push Up (3:44) 16.Hurdles (3:54) 17.Kneeling Lat and Thoracic Extension Stretch (4:04) 18.Side to Side Lunge with Step (4:16) 19.IT Band Stretch (4:26) 20.Walking Quad Stretch (4:36) 21.Suspension Trainer Chest Stretch (4:50)..”
Dynamic Stretches & Stretching Routine
*with 3D moving model pics

Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF)
*see Medical: Cerebral Palsy types-Spastic Diplegia, etc…

PNF Stretching
‘..Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) was first developed by Margaret Knott PT, and Herman Kabat MD in the 1940’s to treat neurological dysfunctions. This was an attempt to gain better control in a population of neurologically impaired instead of just offering the standard treatment at the time which was range of motion exercises and gait training. Treatment involved reeducation of developmental movements and postures. This approach helped patients become more efficient in their movements and activities of daily living…

What is a PNF pattern?
PNF patterns of movements were developed because all normal coordinated human movements occur in spiral or diagonal motions. Muscular contractions are strongest and most coordinated during these diagonal patterns of movement. These diagonal patterns involve rotation of the extremities and require core stability. Muscular contraction is also enhanced through irradiation and there is optimal facilitation of the stretch reflex in a synergistic muscle group during movements within these patterns of movement.(2)..”

PNF Stretching: A How-To Guide
‘..PNF techniques
1. Hold-relax

One PNF technique that Black says can trigger the reflex is commonly called “hold-relax.” This involves:

Putting a muscle in a stretched position (also called a passive stretch) and holding for a few seconds.
Contracting the muscle without moving (also called isometric), such as pushing gently against the stretch without actually moving. This is when the reflex is triggered and there is a “6- to 10-second window of opportunity for a beyond ‘normal’ stretch,” Black says.
Relaxing the stretch, and then stretching again while exhaling. This second stretch should be deeper than the first.

2. Contract-relax

Another common PNF technique is the contract-relax stretch. It is almost identical to hold-relax, except that instead of contracting the muscle without moving, the muscle is contracted while moving. This is sometimes called isotonic stretching.

For example, in a hamstring stretch, this could mean a trainer provides resistance as an athlete contracts the muscle and pushes the leg down to the floor.
3. Hold-relax-contract

A third technique, hold-relax-contract, is similar to hold-relax, except that after pushing against the stretch, instead of relaxing into a passive stretch, the athlete actively pushes into the stretch.

For example, in a hamstring stretch, this could mean engaging the muscles to raise the leg further, as the trainer pushes in the same direction.

Regardless of technique, PNF stretching can be used on most muscles in the body, according to Black. Stretches can also be modified so you can do them alone or with a partner.

Helpful tips

Black offers several tips to help you figure out whether you’re using PNF stretching correctly.

“Every time you exhale and deepen the stretch, you should see a noticeable change in range of motion, from 10 to 45 degrees,” she says.
Black recommends breathing through stretches and using calming thoughts to avoid tightening up during the stretch.
Finally, when using PNF, “Keep it simple and just remember: contract, relax, breathe, and stretch,” Black says. “The nervous system and reflexes will do the rest.”


What is PNF, Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation? Charlie Weingroff

BEST Flexibility Technique Known: PNF Stretching!

-Resistive Bands
*see Fitness: Various Resistance Training Exercises

Effective Band Stretches
“..Sometimes simplicity is best, especially in training gear. For athletes on the go, resistance bands are perfect tools. They’re light, compact and inexpensive, convenient to toss in your bag and take anywhere. Plus, they are effective for just about any type of training:


Increase your range of motion and boost your recovery process with these simple methods. In the videos, we used EFS Mini bands, but I also use the green stretch bands from “Perform Better.” They both work well.
Band Stretches..”

Stretching With Resistance Bands – YouTube

Ballistic Stretching

Ballistic Stretching
“..This type of stretching exercise involves bouncing into a range when the muscle is not prepared or relaxed such that it can enter that range. This exercise can be dangerous if done without supervision or training by a professional.

Stretching to improve flexibility is a common practice amongst athletes both recreational and competitive. There are many studies that show joint range of motion improves with stretching exercises and many have looked at the different types of stretching. But, stretching doesn’t just affect the muscle, it can affect the tendons as well. ..”

*practicing tennis swings, karate kicks, batting swing (only should done by athletes)

Stretching: 4 Different Types (Static, Dynamic, PNF, Ballistic) and examples

The Most Flexible Man In The World Demonstrates Stretching Techniques

Active Isolated Stretching

Active Isolated Stretching
“The Active Isolated Stretching (AIS) method of muscle lengthening and fascial release is a type of Athletic Stretching Technique that provides effective, dynamic, facilitated stretching of major muscle groups, but more importantly, AIS provides functional and physiological restoration of superficial and deep fascial planes.

Over the past few decades many experts have advocated that stretching should last up to 60 seconds. For years, this prolonged static stretching technique was the gold standard. However, prolonged static stretching actually decreases the blood flow within the tissue creating localized ischemia and lactic acid buildup. This can potentially cause irritation or injury of local muscular, tendinous, lymphatic, as well as neural tissues, similar to the effects and consequences of trauma and overuse syndromes.

The AIS Technique
Deep, Superficial Fascial Release

Performing an Active Isolated Stretch of no longer than two seconds allows the target muscles to optimally lengthen without triggering the protective stretch reflex and subsequent reciprocal antagonistic muscle contraction as the isolated muscle achieves a state of relaxation. These stretches provide maximum benefit and can be accomplished without opposing tension or resulting trauma.

Active Isolated Stretching 1/5

Get rid of Soreness

*see Medical: Parts of the Muscular System

Fitness: Medical-Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness

Good Stretches to Get Rid of Being Sore : LIVESTRONG – Exercising with Jeremy Shore

Upper Body


Posterior Pelvic Tilt Correction Exercises

Back Exercises


16 Simple Stretches for Tight Shoulders
“..”All four [shoulder] joints need to be working appropriately and efficiently in order to have pain-free, functional range of motion,” Wu says. The best approach is to move frequently—forward, backward, and to the sides throughout the day. But if you are feeling stiff by 5:00 p.m., we’ve rounded up 16 easy stretches to try…”

Lower Body
*see more Fitness: Lower Body Workout

The Absolute Best Way to Stretch Every Muscle You Have
By Laura Williams Published On 10/06/2016


Stretch It Out
“Stretching before and after you run will not only increase your performance, it will help with soreness and recovery and prevent injury…”

Examples of what NOT to do with “correction”

Videos Show School Cheerleaders Forced Into Splits – YouTube

Coach explains how to safely stretch after video of cheer squad’s forced splits goes viral
Danamarie McNicholl , KREM 6:42 PM. PDT August 24, 2017
“.. video from Colorado of a high school cheerleader being forced into the splits and held down by her teammates has gone viral.

Back in Washington State, coaches said that is definitely not the way to accomplish the splits.

“What is actually happening there is that she’s resisting so much, even if she tries to relax she’s still resisting a lot,” explained Tucker Frye. “She’s building muscles into the opposite direction which is actually detrimental.”

Tucker Frye, from Spokane Gymnastics, has experience training in gymnastics, cheerleading and parkour.

“Because they were pulling so much their hips start to move around a little bit…you can see it messes with where her joints are aligned,” he explained. “If they got a hair off she could have dislocated her hip.”

RELATED: Videos show Denver high school cheerleaders repeatedly forced into splits, police investigating

For Tucker, it is all about mechanics to prevent injuries. Stretch only until you feel a good stretch, not pain.

“They are all using gravity to do a passive stretch, rather than somebody actively pulling them,” he said.

Splits can take up to two years to perfect, and unsafe techniques like the one used in the video has long-term consequences.

“It could lead to big deductions later on if they are doing gymnastics or competitive cheerleading,” he said. “Everyone has her limit and she was definitely pushed past hers.”..”

*see Fitness: How “Balanced” are you? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.comf

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“Disclaimer: No part of this site is intended to diagnose, treat, or cure any illness. Nothing on this site is to be construed as medical advice; the authors are not doctors. Please discuss your personal health, including any options or ideas you may read on the internet (on this site or others) with your personal, qualified health practitioner before making changes to your diet or adjusting/discontinuing any medication. We are not responsible for any adverse outcomes associated with using or misconstruing advice or information on this site. THANK YOU for stopping at our site! May you find what your looking for and “God speed” to good health and prosperity!”

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