Diagram of the Human Respiratory System (Infographic)
By Ross Toro, Infographics Artist | February 4, 2013 12:57pm ET livescience.com
“The primary organs of the respiratory system are the lungs, which function to take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide as we breathe…

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Diagram of the Human Respiratory System (Infographic)
Find out all about your lungs and how breathing works.
Credit: Ross Toro, Livescience contributor

The primary organs of the respiratory system are the lungs, which function to take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide as we breathe.

The gas exchange process is performed by the lungs and respiratory system. Air, a mix of oxygen and other gases, is inhaled.

In the throat, the trachea, or windpipe, filters the air. The trachea branches into two bronchi, tubes that lead to the lungs.

Once in the lungs, oxygen is moved into the bloodstream. Blood carries the oxygen through the body to where it is needed.

Red blood cells collect carbon dioxide from the body’s cells and transports it back to the lungs.

An exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place in the alveoli, small structures within the lungs. The carbon dioxide, a waste gas, is exhaled and the cycle begins again with the next breath….”

Respiratory System – How The Respiratory System Works

Whats Up Dude
“Published on Jul 22, 2016

In this video I discuss the basics of the Respiratory System, including how the respiratory system works, I go through the breathing process, and show how breathing works.


Inspiration | definition of inspiration by Medical dictionary medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com
“”… The inhalation of air into the lungs…””
Expiration | definition of expiration by Medical dictionary medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com
“..1 also called exhalation. breathing out, normally a passive process, depending on the elastic qualities of lung tissue and the thorax. Compare inspiration. ..”

Cardio Relationship

*see Medical: How the Heart Functions? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

respiration [res″pĭ-ra´shun] medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com

1. the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the body cells, including inhalation and exhalation, diffusion of oxygen from the pulmonary alveoli to the blood and of carbon dioxide from the blood to the alveoli, followed by the transport of oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the body cells. See also ventilation (def. 2) and see Plates.
2. the metabolic processes by which living cells break down carbohydrates, amino acids, and fats to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP); called also cell respiration.
The Respiratory Sequence. The sequence of the respiration process begins as air enters the corridors of the nose or mouth, where it is warmed and moistened. The air then passes through the pharynx, larynx, and trachea and into the bronchi.

The bronchi branch in the lungs into smaller and smaller bronchioles, ending in clusters of tiny air sacs called alveoli; there are 750 million alveoli in the lungs. The blood flows through the lungs in the pulmonary circulation. Through the thin membrane of the network of capillaries around the alveoli, the air and the blood exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide molecules migrate from the erythrocytes in the capillaries through the porous membrane into the air in the alveoli, while the oxygen molecules cross from the air into the red blood cells…”

Oxygen Transport

Oxygen Transport from Lungs to Cells

The Physiology of Cardiac Output

Respiratory Responses to exercise video

terms: ventilation tidal volume cardiac output (e.g. liters /minute)

Medical Issues

Respiratory assessment 13 August, 2007 nursingtimes.net
Normal/ideal values

The rate of respiration will vary with age and gender. A respiratory rate of 12-18 breaths per minute in a healthy adult is considered normal (Blows, 2001).

Tachypnoea: the rate is regular but over 20 breaths per minute.

Bradypnoea: the rate is regular but less than 12 breaths per minute.

Apnoea: there is an absence of respiration for several seconds – this can lead to respiratory arrest.

Dyspnoea: difficulty in breathing, the patient gasps for air.

Cheyne-Stokes: respiration the breathing is shallow, very slow and laboured with periods of apnoea. This type of breathing is often seen in the dying patient.

Hyperventilation: patients may breathe rapidly due to a physical or psychological cause, for example if they are in pain or panicking. Hyperventilation reduces the carbon dioxide levels in the blood, causing tingling and numbness in the hands; this may cause further distress. In adults, more than 20 breaths a minute is considered moderate, more than 30 breaths is severe (Mallett and Dougherty, 2004).

Normal Respiratory Frequency, Volume, Chart, … normalbreathing.com
“…Dr. Buteyko, based on his studies of thousands of healthy and sick people, suggested different norms for breathing (e.g., Buteyko, 1991). What are his norms? For example, his normal respiration rate is only 8 breaths/min. Here are his numbers for normal breathing:
– normal minute ventilation: 4 l/min;
– normal tidal volume (air volume breathed in during a single breath): 500 ml;
– normal breathing rate or frequency: 8 breaths per minute;
– inspiration: about 1.5 seconds;
– exhalation: 2 seconds;
– automatic pause (or period of no breathing after ..”

Respiratory system diseases khanacademy.org

The Diseases of the Respiratory System – YouTube


How to Recognize Symptoms of Bronchitis or Pneumonia myphysiciansnow.com
‘.. can develop after any upper respiratory infection such as a cold. Think of the times you’ve told yourself, “I have a chest cold.” This means your condition is getting worse – your cold has moved into your airways. You may be developing bronchitis, which is an infection of the airways leading to your lungs.

You might also notice symptoms such as a “productive” cough, which means that as you cough you bring up phlegm. This might be clear, green or yellow, or it could be streaked with blood. What if you’re feeling feverish and experiencing chills? You might also feel fatigued, as if physical effort wears you out. Your chest is uncomfortable and you may feel tightness and some chest pain. If you notice that it takes several weeks for your cough to go away, you could have chronic bronchitis. With acute bronchitis your symptoms won’t last as long, but you feel much worse…”


Lung Institute | Emphysema and Pneumonia lunginstitute.com

What is Emphysema?

Emphysema is a progressive lung disease that makes it difficult for sufferers to breathe. It is characterized by a restriction of airflow in and out of the lungs, thus causing difficulty breathing. As a result, people with emphysema need supplemental oxygen in order to participate in daily activities. Living with emphysema increases your susceptibility to life-threatening complications such as cardiovascular conditions and pneumonia…


Respiratory Infections Trigger Asthma | AAFA.org

Respiratory Infections

Respiratory infections include the common cold, the flu, pneumonia and other infections. These common illnesses can affect your lungs when you have asthma. They can cause inflammation (swelling) and narrowing of your airways. These changes could trigger asthma symptoms (an asthma episode or an asthma attack)…”

Exercise & Fitness : How to Exercise With Asthma – YouTube

Exercises for Chest Conditions eg. Pneumonia, asthma – YouTube


-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

What is COPD? copdfoundation.org
“…is an umbrella term used to describe progressive lung diseases including emphysema, chronic bronchitis, refractory (non-reversible) asthma, and some forms of bronchiectasis. This disease is characterized by increasing breathlessness.

Many people mistake their increased breathlessness and coughing as a normal part of aging. In the early stages of the disease, you may not notice the symptoms. COPD can develop for years without noticeable shortness of breath. You begin to see the symptoms in the more developed stages of the disease. That’s why it is important that you talk to your doctor as soon as you notice any of these symptoms. Ask your doctor about taking a spirometry test. ..”

Sit and Be Fit – COPD Breathing Exercises – Mary Ann Wilson, RN …


*see Fitness: Various Cardio Workouts goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

Exercise and The Cardiovascular System – GCSE Physical Education (PE) Revision

Physiology-Acute Response to Aerobic Exercise
*see How to “naturally boost” your energy? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

VO2 Max Testing and Ventilatory Threshold: Endurance Testing for Runners
by Jason Fitzgerald
Get updates of new posts here strengthrunning.com
“..Ultimately, VO2 Max is not a good predictor of race performance. Steve Magness, an accomplished runner, coach, and exercise physiologist, explains the “Fallacy of VO2 Max” in a great (but long) post. The conclusions that I draw from this article is that VO2 Max does not change in trained athletes and it doesn’t correlate with performance. So why try to improve it?

A more useful metric is lactate threshold – or the point at which lactate starts to increase dramatically in the blood. The LT can be improved upon in training through long runs, tempos, and an overall high volume program.

Unfortunately, I didn’t get my lactate threshold tested. But my ventilatory threshold was measured which is very similar. The VT is the point when respiration increases significantly due to the accumulation and exhalation of metabolic by-products…”

Oxygen Consumption During Exercise

Medical Definition of Hyperventilation medicinenet.com
“..Overbreathing. Hyperventilation causes dizziness, lightheadedness, a sense of unsteadiness, and tingling around the mouth and fingertips. Hyperventilation can be severe enough to mimic the early warning symptoms of a heart attack, and is therefore a common cause of emergency room visits in the US. Hyperventilation is common and normal after aerobic exercise. Hyperventilation can be caused by serious diseases of metabolism and anxiety. Relief for hyperventilation caused by anxiety can be achieved by breathing in and out of a paper bag to increase the level of carbon dioxide in the blood…”

9) Oxygen 3 Respiratory Responses to Exercise

Aerobic Training

“hitting the wall” (max carb burn)

3-zone Cardiorespiratory Training using the ACE IFT Model

Aerobic Capacity and VO2 max

Calculating Alveolar Minute Ventilation – YouTube

Lactate Threshold

What are Metabolites? news-medical.net
“… the intermediate products of metabolic reactions catalyzed by various enzymes that naturally occur within cells. This term is usually used to describe small molecules, although broader application is often practiced.

Primary metabolites are synthesized by the cell because they are indispensable for their growth. Significant representatives are amino acids, alcohols, vitamins (B2 and B12), polyols, organic acids, as well as nucleotides (e.g. inosine-5′-monophosphate and guanosine-5′-monophosphate).

Secondary metabolites are compounds produced by an organism that are not required for primary metabolic processes, although they can have important ecologic and other functions. They include drugs, fragrances, flavor, dye, pigments, pesticides and food additives with applications in agriculture, industry and pharmaceuticals…”

glucuronic acid medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com

“..a uronic acid formed by oxidation of C-6 of glucose to a carboxy group; it occurs in proteoglycans (mucopolysaccharides), and is important in the conjugation of xenobiotics; it is conjugated to many poisons and drugs by the liver, forming glucuronides, which markedly decreases their toxicity and enhances their excretion by the liver, intestine, and kidney…”

*see Health & Fitness: Body, Mind, & Soul (Spirit) Exercises goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

Oxygen De Production

Simulate High Altitude from your living room. No equipment needed. Just hold your breath. Learn how.

Common Medical Conditions

*see Medical: How to apply First Aid? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

Lung Diseases Overview webmd.com
The Top 8 Respiratory Illnesses and Diseases by UnityPoint at Home – October 16, 2014 unitypoint.org
“..Respiratory illness is a common problem in the United States. Millions of people suffer from genetic or environmentally developed respiratory conditions. Most often, smoking or infections are to blame. Learn more about the top respiratory conditions just in time for Respiratory Care Week, October 19 – 25, 2014…”

Types of Lung Diseases and Causes – Health Sutra – YouTube

What is Dyspnea? By Dr Ananya Mandal, MD news-medical.net
‘.. sudden and severe shortness of breath, or difficulty in breathing. It is one of the most common reasons for visits to the accident and emergency department of the hospital…”

What is DYSPNEA? What does DYSPNEA mean … – YouTube

Dyspnea + New Rules for Folks at Home – YouTube


What Is The Cause Of Choking? – YouTube

Children: Choking Prevention and First Aid – YouTube

First Aid Treatment For Choking Adults – YouTube

-Asthma Attack

How to recognise and deal with an Asthma attack – YouTube

Asthma Treatment – YouTube

How To Treat Asthma Attacks Without An Inhaler. – YouTube

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