Diagram of the Human Respiratory System (Infographic)
By Ross Toro, Infographics Artist | February 4, 2013 12:57pm ET livescience.com
“The primary organs of the respiratory system are the lungs, which function to take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide as we breathe…

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Diagram of the Human Respiratory System (Infographic)
Find out all about your lungs and how breathing works.
Credit: Ross Toro, Livescience contributor

The primary organs of the respiratory system are the lungs, which function to take in oxygen and expel carbon dioxide as we breathe.

The gas exchange process is performed by the lungs and respiratory system. Air, a mix of oxygen and other gases, is inhaled.

In the throat, the trachea, or windpipe, filters the air. The trachea branches into two bronchi, tubes that lead to the lungs.

Once in the lungs, oxygen is moved into the bloodstream. Blood carries the oxygen through the body to where it is needed.

Red blood cells collect carbon dioxide from the body’s cells and transports it back to the lungs.

An exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place in the alveoli, small structures within the lungs. The carbon dioxide, a waste gas, is exhaled and the cycle begins again with the next breath….”

Respiratory System – How The Respiratory System Works


Whats Up Dude
“Published on Jul 22, 2016

In this video I discuss the basics of the Respiratory System, including how the respiratory system works, I go through the breathing process, and show how breathing works.

..”

Inspiration | definition of inspiration by Medical dictionary medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com
“”… The inhalation of air into the lungs…””
Expiration | definition of expiration by Medical dictionary medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com
“..1 also called exhalation. breathing out, normally a passive process, depending on the elastic qualities of lung tissue and the thorax. Compare inspiration. ..”

Cardio Relationship

*see Medical: How the Heart Functions? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

respiration [res″pĭ-ra´shun] medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com

1. the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the atmosphere and the body cells, including inhalation and exhalation, diffusion of oxygen from the pulmonary alveoli to the blood and of carbon dioxide from the blood to the alveoli, followed by the transport of oxygen to and carbon dioxide from the body cells. See also ventilation (def. 2) and see Plates.
2. the metabolic processes by which living cells break down carbohydrates, amino acids, and fats to produce energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP); called also cell respiration.
The Respiratory Sequence. The sequence of the respiration process begins as air enters the corridors of the nose or mouth, where it is warmed and moistened. The air then passes through the pharynx, larynx, and trachea and into the bronchi.

The bronchi branch in the lungs into smaller and smaller bronchioles, ending in clusters of tiny air sacs called alveoli; there are 750 million alveoli in the lungs. The blood flows through the lungs in the pulmonary circulation. Through the thin membrane of the network of capillaries around the alveoli, the air and the blood exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. The carbon dioxide molecules migrate from the erythrocytes in the capillaries through the porous membrane into the air in the alveoli, while the oxygen molecules cross from the air into the red blood cells…”

Oxygen Transport

Oxygen Transport from Lungs to Cells

The Physiology of Cardiac Output

Respiratory Responses to exercise video

terms: ventilation tidal volume cardiac output (e.g. liters /minute)

Medical Issues

Respiratory assessment 13 August, 2007 nursingtimes.net
“…
Normal/ideal values

The rate of respiration will vary with age and gender. A respiratory rate of 12-18 breaths per minute in a healthy adult is considered normal (Blows, 2001).

Tachypnoea: the rate is regular but over 20 breaths per minute.

Bradypnoea: the rate is regular but less than 12 breaths per minute.

Apnoea: there is an absence of respiration for several seconds – this can lead to respiratory arrest.

Dyspnoea: difficulty in breathing, the patient gasps for air.

Cheyne-Stokes: respiration the breathing is shallow, very slow and laboured with periods of apnoea. This type of breathing is often seen in the dying patient.

Hyperventilation: patients may breathe rapidly due to a physical or psychological cause, for example if they are in pain or panicking. Hyperventilation reduces the carbon dioxide levels in the blood, causing tingling and numbness in the hands; this may cause further distress. In adults, more than 20 breaths a minute is considered moderate, more than 30 breaths is severe (Mallett and Dougherty, 2004).
..”

Normal Respiratory Frequency, Volume, Chart, … normalbreathing.com
“…Dr. Buteyko, based on his studies of thousands of healthy and sick people, suggested different norms for breathing (e.g., Buteyko, 1991). What are his norms? For example, his normal respiration rate is only 8 breaths/min. Here are his numbers for normal breathing:
– normal minute ventilation: 4 l/min;
– normal tidal volume (air volume breathed in during a single breath): 500 ml;
– normal breathing rate or frequency: 8 breaths per minute;
– inspiration: about 1.5 seconds;
– exhalation: 2 seconds;
– automatic pause (or period of no breathing after ..”

Respiratory system diseases khanacademy.org

The Diseases of the Respiratory System – YouTube

-Bronchitis,

How to Recognize Symptoms of Bronchitis or Pneumonia myphysiciansnow.com
‘.. can develop after any upper respiratory infection such as a cold. Think of the times you’ve told yourself, “I have a chest cold.” This means your condition is getting worse – your cold has moved into your airways. You may be developing bronchitis, which is an infection of the airways leading to your lungs.

You might also notice symptoms such as a “productive” cough, which means that as you cough you bring up phlegm. This might be clear, green or yellow, or it could be streaked with blood. What if you’re feeling feverish and experiencing chills? You might also feel fatigued, as if physical effort wears you out. Your chest is uncomfortable and you may feel tightness and some chest pain. If you notice that it takes several weeks for your cough to go away, you could have chronic bronchitis. With acute bronchitis your symptoms won’t last as long, but you feel much worse…”

-Emphysema

Lung Institute | Emphysema and Pneumonia lunginstitute.com

What is Emphysema?


Emphysema is a progressive lung disease that makes it difficult for sufferers to breathe. It is characterized by a restriction of airflow in and out of the lungs, thus causing difficulty breathing. As a result, people with emphysema need supplemental oxygen in order to participate in daily activities. Living with emphysema increases your susceptibility to life-threatening complications such as cardiovascular conditions and pneumonia…

-Asthma

Respiratory Infections Trigger Asthma | AAFA.org

“..
Respiratory Infections

Respiratory infections include the common cold, the flu, pneumonia and other infections. These common illnesses can affect your lungs when you have asthma. They can cause inflammation (swelling) and narrowing of your airways. These changes could trigger asthma symptoms (an asthma episode or an asthma attack)…”

Exercise & Fitness : How to Exercise With Asthma – YouTube

Exercises for Chest Conditions eg. Pneumonia, asthma – YouTube

12 TIPS| HOW TO WORKOUT WITH ASTHMA! – YouTube

-First Aid Tips
*see Medical: How to apply First Aid? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

How to Survive an Asthma Attack if You’re Caught Without Your Inhaler healthxchange.sg
“…Asthma attack: 6 things to do if you do not have an inhaler with you.

Sit upright. Stop whatever you are doing and sit upright. Bending over or lying down can constrict your breathing even more.
Take long, deep breaths. This helps to slow down your breathing and prevent hyperventilation. Breathe in through your nose and breathe out through your mouth.
Stay calm. Staying calm may prevent further tightening of your chest muscles and make your breathing easier.
Get away from the trigger. The asthma attack could be triggered by dust, cigarette smoke or the smell of chemicals (e.g., ammonia, chlorine gas, sulphur dioxide). Get away from the trigger as soon as possible and go to an air-conditioned environment or any place with clean air.
Take a hot caffeinated beverage. Hot caffeinated drinks like coffee can help to open up the airways slightly, providing some relief for an hour or two.
Seek emergency medical help. If the wheezing, coughing and breathing difficulty do not subside after a period of rest, seek immediate medical attention…”

How to Treat an Asthma Attack – First Aid Training – St John … – YouTube

-Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)

What is COPD? copdfoundation.org
“…is an umbrella term used to describe progressive lung diseases including emphysema, chronic bronchitis, refractory (non-reversible) asthma, and some forms of bronchiectasis. This disease is characterized by increasing breathlessness.

Many people mistake their increased breathlessness and coughing as a normal part of aging. In the early stages of the disease, you may not notice the symptoms. COPD can develop for years without noticeable shortness of breath. You begin to see the symptoms in the more developed stages of the disease. That’s why it is important that you talk to your doctor as soon as you notice any of these symptoms. Ask your doctor about taking a spirometry test. ..”

Sit and Be Fit – COPD Breathing Exercises – Mary Ann Wilson, RN …

The BEST EXERCISE for COPD & ASTHMA – YouTube

Exercises
*see Fitness: Various Cardio Workouts goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

Exercise and The Cardiovascular System – GCSE Physical Education (PE) Revision

Physiology-Acute Response to Aerobic Exercise
*see How to “naturally boost” your energy? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

VO2 Max Testing and Ventilatory Threshold: Endurance Testing for Runners
by Jason Fitzgerald
Get updates of new posts here strengthrunning.com
“..Ultimately, VO2 Max is not a good predictor of race performance. Steve Magness, an accomplished runner, coach, and exercise physiologist, explains the “Fallacy of VO2 Max” in a great (but long) post. The conclusions that I draw from this article is that VO2 Max does not change in trained athletes and it doesn’t correlate with performance. So why try to improve it?

A more useful metric is lactate threshold – or the point at which lactate starts to increase dramatically in the blood. The LT can be improved upon in training through long runs, tempos, and an overall high volume program.

Unfortunately, I didn’t get my lactate threshold tested. But my ventilatory threshold was measured which is very similar. The VT is the point when respiration increases significantly due to the accumulation and exhalation of metabolic by-products…”

Oxygen Consumption During Exercise

Terms:
Medical Definition of Hyperventilation medicinenet.com
“..Overbreathing. Hyperventilation causes dizziness, lightheadedness, a sense of unsteadiness, and tingling around the mouth and fingertips. Hyperventilation can be severe enough to mimic the early warning symptoms of a heart attack, and is therefore a common cause of emergency room visits in the US. Hyperventilation is common and normal after aerobic exercise. Hyperventilation can be caused by serious diseases of metabolism and anxiety. Relief for hyperventilation caused by anxiety can be achieved by breathing in and out of a paper bag to increase the level of carbon dioxide in the blood…”

9) Oxygen 3 Respiratory Responses to Exercise

Aerobic Training

“hitting the wall” (max carb burn)

3-zone Cardiorespiratory Training using the ACE IFT Model

Aerobic Capacity and VO2 max

Calculating Alveolar Minute Ventilation – YouTube

Lactate Threshold

What are Metabolites? news-medical.net
“… the intermediate products of metabolic reactions catalyzed by various enzymes that naturally occur within cells. This term is usually used to describe small molecules, although broader application is often practiced.

Primary metabolites are synthesized by the cell because they are indispensable for their growth. Significant representatives are amino acids, alcohols, vitamins (B2 and B12), polyols, organic acids, as well as nucleotides (e.g. inosine-5′-monophosphate and guanosine-5′-monophosphate).

Secondary metabolites are compounds produced by an organism that are not required for primary metabolic processes, although they can have important ecologic and other functions. They include drugs, fragrances, flavor, dye, pigments, pesticides and food additives with applications in agriculture, industry and pharmaceuticals…”

glucuronic acid medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com

“..a uronic acid formed by oxidation of C-6 of glucose to a carboxy group; it occurs in proteoglycans (mucopolysaccharides), and is important in the conjugation of xenobiotics; it is conjugated to many poisons and drugs by the liver, forming glucuronides, which markedly decreases their toxicity and enhances their excretion by the liver, intestine, and kidney…”

*see Health & Fitness: Body, Mind, & Soul (Spirit) Exercises goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

Oxygen De Production

Simulate High Altitude from your living room. No equipment needed. Just hold your breath. Learn how.

Common Medical Conditions

*see Medical: How to apply First Aid? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

Lung Diseases Overview webmd.com
The Top 8 Respiratory Illnesses and Diseases by UnityPoint at Home – October 16, 2014 unitypoint.org
“..Respiratory illness is a common problem in the United States. Millions of people suffer from genetic or environmentally developed respiratory conditions. Most often, smoking or infections are to blame. Learn more about the top respiratory conditions just in time for Respiratory Care Week, October 19 – 25, 2014…”

Types of Lung Diseases and Causes – Health Sutra – YouTube

What is Dyspnea? By Dr Ananya Mandal, MD news-medical.net
‘.. sudden and severe shortness of breath, or difficulty in breathing. It is one of the most common reasons for visits to the accident and emergency department of the hospital…”

What is DYSPNEA? What does DYSPNEA mean … – YouTube

Dyspnea + New Rules for Folks at Home – YouTube

-Choking

What Is The Cause Of Choking? – YouTube

Children: Choking Prevention and First Aid – YouTube

First Aid Treatment For Choking Adults – YouTube

-Asthma Attack

How to recognise and deal with an Asthma attack – YouTube

Asthma Treatment – YouTube

How To Treat Asthma Attacks Without An Inhaler. – YouTube

Pneumonia

6 chest infection treatments (natural home remedies)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u9S_ngSfSzQ

Medicspot
668 subscribe

97,254 views
•Aug 9, 2019
What home remedies can you take for a chest infection?

This video shares helpful chest infection treatments such as:

– a hot lemon and honey drink
– get plenty of rest
– drink lots of water
– take painkillers
– elevate your chest with extra pillows
– use your inhaler (if asthmatic)..”

The 12 best natural remedies for a cough, according to doctors health24.com

“…Natural remedies 101

Hopefully, these 12 natural cough remedies make your cough less of a nuisance and make it easier for your to rest up and feel better.

1) Orange juice

The key to managing any cough is to make sure you are drinking lots of fluids, says Dr May Loo, an integrative medicine specialist. “Lungs need to be well hydrated in order to minimise formation of mucus,” she explains. Not only is orange juice a tasty way to hydrate but it contains a lot of vitamin C. High doses of vitamin C were found to help reduce symptoms, including coughing, in patients with pneumonia in a meta-analysis published in Nutrients.

2) Thyme

“Thyme functions as both a culinary herb and a medicine,” says Dr Michael S. Fenster, interventional cardiologist, author and professional chef. The leaves and flowers contain thymol and carvacrol, which act as antispasmodics, expectorants, and contain antibacterial and antiviral compounds—all of which can help improve coughs, he explains. Add the herb to your meals or enjoy it in a soothing tea.

3) Boswellia

This herb, more commonly known as frankincense, has been used for centuries to treat coughs, particularly those that come from inflammation of the lungs or other areas, Dr. Fenster says. Its potent anti-inflammatory compounds can help both in soothing a cough and fighting the oral pathogens that can cause them, he explains. Dissolving boswellia in hot water and inhaling the steam helped reduce coughing from asthma and bronchitis, according to a study published in the Journal of Traditional and Complementary Medicine.

READ MORE: 5 Recipes And Natural Remedies To Zap Your Cold In Its Tracks

4) Ginger

“Eating pungent spices, including ginger, cinnamon and anise, can help strengthen your respiratory system,” Dr. Loo says. These spices can be brewed into a delicious herbal tea and the warm water and steam have the added benefit of helping to open up your lungs, she says. Purified ginger put in a nebuliser helped relax people’s airways and reduce coughing, particularly “dry” coughs related to asthma, according to a study published in the American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology.

5) Chilli peppers

Spicy foods are a natural way to strengthen your respiratory system, Dr. Loo says. But some spicy foods, particularly ones containing capsaicin, like chilli peppers, can significantly reduce the congestion and coughing that come from constant post-nasal drip from allergies or rhinitis, according to a study published in The Annals of Asthma, Allergy, and Immunology. Patients who used a nasal spray containing capsaicin saw improvement in under one minute that lasted for up to an hour, they found.

6) Marshmallow root

Marshmallow root has been used for centuries to help deal with cold symptoms, including coughs, and it can actually help, according to a meta-analysis published in International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science in Invention. The marshmallow herb contains a compound called mucilage, which coats the throat and soothes irritation. The researchers recommend taking it in capsule form or drinking marshmallow root tea.

READ MORE: Here’s How To Tell If You’re Ready To Exercise Again After A Cold Or The Flu

7) Almond milk

The idea that eating or drinking dairy products causes increased mucus and coughing is a myth, nor does it worsen a cough from an existing cold, according to research published in The American Review of Respiratory Disease. But many people associate dairy with congestion because milk has a similar texture and viscosity to mucus which can make it feel like it’s sticking in your throat, according to the Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy. If you have a dry cough and are craving something creamy to coat your throat and ease the scratchiness, but want a thinner texture, almond or coconut milk is a good replacement, Dr. Loo says.

8) Honey

One of Dr. Uypitching’s favourite home cough remedies is a big spoonful of honey. Not only is it tasty but it’s been shown to be just as effective in suppressing coughs, particularly those caused by upper respiratory tract infections, as some over-the-counter cough medicines. Patients given a tablespoon of honey before bedtime got as much, or more, relief than they did when given dextromethorphan, a common ingredient in cough medicines, according to a study published in The Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine.

9) Salt water gargle

Coughing isn’t just from issues in your lungs. In fact, sore, irritated, and inflamed throats are a very common cause of coughs, Dr. Uypitching says. A good way to help calm your throat, and your cough, is to make a warm solution of water and salt and gargle it for 30 seconds, she says.

READ MORE: Does Zinc Actually Do Anything To Help Kick A Cold?

10) Chicken soup

Chicken soup is a time-honoured cold remedy in many cultures and for good reason, Dr. Uypitching says. Not only does it combine several other proven cough remedies—warm water, steam, herbs, salt, fluids—but it may have cough-fighting properties of its own. Chicken soup significantly lowered signs of infection from colds and flus, in a study published in Chest.
11) Neti pot

A Neti pot is a small kettle used to flush out the sinuses. You fill it with a warm salt water solution and then pour it gently into one nostril, allowing it to travel through your sinus cavities and out your other nostril. While it may sound weird, it’s actually an effective remedy for coughs caused by sinusitis or sinus congestion, Dr. Uypitching says. Just make sure you’re using purified water so you don’t introduce other germs into your sinuses.
12) Steam shower

The research on steam, by itself, as a cough remedy is surprisingly mixed, with some studies showing that it helps while others show no benefit. But regardless of whether or not it produces statistically significant results, many coughing patients find a hot shower very comforting and soothing and it certainly won’t hurt to try, Dr. Uypitching says. One way to make steam more effective is to combine it with other things, like herbs or menthol, she says.

This article was originally published on http://www.womenshealthsa.co.za..”

Pneumonia – Natural Ayurvedic Home Remedies
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OwCZXoBhBe8

*see Medical: How to deal with coughing, sore throats, etc…? goodnewshealthandfitness.wordpress.com

Vitamin D & the Upper Respiratory Tract

486,067 views
•Jul 17, 2019
Valley ENT
3.96K subscribers
Ryan Rehl, M.D.

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